Biochemistry Metabolism/Catalysts

Biochemistry Metabolism/Catalysts

Introduction:

More and more researchers are discovering that many diseases are caused by biochemical deficiencies or defects. That is, instead of indicating that a disease is caused by a nutritional deficiency, researchers recognize that an underlying cause may be a single molecular structure within a cell that fails to turn a cellular process on or off. This is particularly true regarding metabolism. For this task, you will consider the biochemical implications in a metabolic disorder involving a normal component of food—fructose.

You should compile your work for this task in a single document (e.g., Microsoft Word, Google Document) that includes diagrams, text explanations, and references. If a requirement asks for an explanation, you should provide a written response in a narrative style (i.e., complete sentences rather than bullet points).

Note: Multimedia presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) will not be accepted due to potential originality concerns.

Note: Please save submission documents as *.doc, *.docx, *.rtf, or *.pdf files. If you are using Google Documents, you must save the file in *.pdf format and upload the *.pdf file.

Requirements:

A.  Demonstrate your understanding of the biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) by doing the following:

1.  Describe two important features that make all enzymes catalysts.

2.  Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams, with clear labels, that demonstrates the entire enzymatic cycle described by the lock and key model OR the induced fit model.

3.  Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams, with clear labels, that illustrates the activation energy of a reaction in the presence and absence of an enzyme.

4.  Explain the reactions catalyzed by enzymes in the first two steps of fructose metabolism in the liver, including each of the following:

●  the substrates acted on

●  the enzyme catalysts

●  the products generated

5.  Discuss how a deficiency in aldolase B is responsible for HFI by doing the following:

a.  Explain how the amount of the substrate of aldolase B is impacted by the deficiency.

b.  Explain the role of the substrate in producing one condition of HFI (e.g., hypoglycemia, liver failure).

 

B.  Explore how mitochondrial disease can occur at multiple levels in different mitochondrial processes by doing the following:

1.  Explain what would hypothetically happen to the amount of ATP available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle were to occur and remain within a single cell (e.g., a muscle cell).

a.  Identify specific numbers of ATP generated and used in the different parts of the cycle, in conjunction with your response from part B1.

2.  Create an original dynamic diagram that shows how the citric acid cycle (CAC) is central to aerobic metabolism.

 

Note: A dynamic diagram is a clearly labeled diagram that uses arrows to indicate movement and interactions.

 

3.  Explain where in the CAC a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that would decrease the overall ATP production of the mitochondria, including each of the following:

●  whether the entire cycle will continue to function

●  what will happen to the cycle products

●  why ATP production decreases

 

Note: This is a hypothetical defect, so the explanation should not include descriptions of any known disease.

 

4.  Explain how a proton gradient is formed and used to make ATP during aerobic metabolism.

 

Note: The inclusion of a discussion of the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, including the role of oxygen, aids in the explanation of this process.

 

C.  When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.

Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the Rubric Terms web link included in the Evaluation Procedures section.

Note: When using sources to support ideas and elements in an assessment, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text of the assessment

Chemistry Assignment

You have a solution that contains 0.1 M Pb2+, 0.1 M Hg2+ and 0.1 M Fe3+. You would like to separate these ions by precipitation. For quality purposes, the precipitation of each ion must be complete to >99.9% and there must not be more than 0.1% (by weight) of one of the other ions in the precipitate, i.e., the relative error must be <0.1%. In other words, at the end of the experiment, you want to have three different piles, one that contains >99.9 of the lead, one that contains >99.9 of the mercury, and one that contains >99.9 of the strontium. Explain your answer: nature of precipitate, pH, concentrations etc. Use the textbook for any constants you need. Be quantitative in your answer.

Endocrine Disruptor Resources

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances in the environment that interfere with hormone production and function resulting in adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological and immune effects. Prior to completing this discussion, read the following information (links given in the resources):

  • “Effects of Human Exposure to Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals Examined in Landmark UN Report from the WHO.”
  • “Studies: Endocrine Disruptors, Cocaine Common in Minnesota Waters from WisconsinWatch.org.”

Next, select an EDC to research and then answer the following questions:

  • What EDC did you research? Provide a brief summary of the EDC.
  • What products contain this EDC?
  • How would the EDC affect normal hormone functions in the human body?
  • What are the possible health implications of regular exposure to this chemical?
  • Has this chemical been adequately tested? If not, should this potentially harmful chemical stay on the market while researchers study its safety?

Make sure to include APA citations of your sources.

hormones in food

The U.S. Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2015) regulates the use of hormone use in our food supply and states, “No steroid hormones are approved for growth purposes in dairy cattle, veal calves, pigs, or poultry. All of the steroid hormone growth-promoting drugs are available for over-the-counter purchase in the U.S. and are generally given by the livestock producer at specific stages of the animals’ growth.”
Research the controversy with the use of hormones in dairy and beef cattle and answer the following questions: Do you think it is safe to consume food products from cattle that have been treated with hormones? Are there any benefits and/or consequences to the use of hormones in beef cattle? Should we use more or less hormones within our food supply? Will you be more consciousness and/or concerned with your dairy and beef cattle food purchases after your research? Please elaborate on your opinions with your research.
 
NO NEED FOR APA FORMAT>  JUST NEED A QUICK RESPONSE TO THE QUESTIONS ABOVE

Pest Control

900- to 1,050-word paper evaluating methods to control the pest.

 Introduction – Laying out what the paper will cover.

  • Description of the household pest
  • Resources such as food, people, pets, and wood that attract the pest to the household
  • Chemical methods to control the pest: Include information on brands, active ingredients, and safety precautions.
  • Chemical-free methods to control the pest
  • The benefits and risks of chemical versus chemical-free methods
  • Methods used to prevent future infestations
  • Analysis of adequacy/efficacy of the control method
  • Conclusion – Summarize information contained in the paper
  • References – At least 3 of academic quality all in APA format..

Format  consistent with APA guidelines. Use  Introduction, Level 1 Section Headings, Level 2 Section Headings, a conclusion and reference page. Your introduction should tell the reader what is to follow in the paper. Level 1 Headings give you the information. Each bullet point should have its own section heading. Your conclusion should summarize the contents of the paper. References (at least 3 academic quality) should be in correct APA format.

Insecticides

Provide a brief answer to the following questions. Does not need to be formatted as these are not for a paper, simple discussion type questions. Entire response ( total word count for combined answers) need only total 200-300 words.

What is an insecticide? How do insecticides kill insects? What are the disadvantages and advantages of these chemicals?

Pick a particular insecticide. Do you read and use the information on the label when handling and using insecticides? What does the label for this insecticide say?

Do you support or oppose the use of insecticides? Explain