Case Study;Safety Plan…

Case Study;Safety Plan…
Consider the following scenario…
You are the safety and occupational health professional for your city’s health department. You received a call from a major food-distribution warehouse about some employees who are complaining of dizziness and feeling sick. The scene is a very large warehouse; a significant portion is refrigerated. The illnesses are being reported from a refrigerated section (about 40 degrees F), where workers are blister packing food products on a production line. The warehouse has 20 loading docks, two railroad car lines that end directly inside the warehouse (in close proximity to the production area), a dozen or so gas powered forklifts, and no sensors or environmental monitors of any kind except those associated with the refrigeration systems.The warehouse manager is cooperative, but he points out that he is in the middle of contract negotiations with the union. He is also very proud of the fact that they have special seals on the loading dock doors and throughout the warehouse to keep the cold in and the heat out.You cannot identify any discernible odors other than the exhaust from the forklifts when they move by you. There are four women waiting for you in the break room complaining of dizziness and lightheadedness. They are all comparing and complaining about their symptoms. There are 14 employees who work in this area of the warehouse: 12 women and 2 men.
###Instructions:####
Based on the given scenario, develop a plan of action that includes how you would conduct the investigation, how you would identify possible sources of the problem, and your opinion on the likely source…..
Discuss the standards applicable to possible sources. Include several recommendations you would make to the manager to help solve the problem based on your research into documented best practices for similar situations……
Note:
You may make assumptions about the scenario in order to propose solutions
(be certain to state your assumptions clearly)……..
.
All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations……….
1). Carbon monoxide exposure;
2). insufficient ventilation;
3). check whether the ventilation is balanced; check where the air intake is coming from;
4), if the ventilation make up air is coming from the production area see if there is a way to reroute;
5). industrial hygiene study; review chemical inventory of chemicals used in area looking specifically for exposures;
6). hang personal monitoring devices to see levels of exposure;
7). compare the levels of exposures to the OSHA PELs/TLVs;
8). based what your exposures are then you can develop how to control – engineering, PPE, administrative;
9). check the Carbon Monoxide levels of the forklifts (major contributor);
10). change forklifts from gas powered to electric or propane (need to keep tuned up because they do emit CO;
11). freon may be emitted from a faulty refrigeration so check;
12). go to NIOSH and look for studies on refrigeration gases;
13). go to the CDC website and do a search on the different chemicals and studies;
14).send the personnel complaining to an industrial physician but brief him before sending;
15). ask the physician if they may have personal problems that could cause the symptoms;
16). relocate the workers to see if their symptoms resolve; monitor the replacement workers health;
17). consult with your insurance carrier, as they may have an Industrial Hygienist on retainer or staff;
18). speak with your maintenance department to elicit their help in identifying building issues, as what maintenance they have been doing on the Refrigeration and forklifts;
19). look at the industry and businesses surrounding the plant to screen what chemicals they may be emitting …
Prioritize the actions above by amount of cost then time ..

Social Insurance Organization

Social Insurance Organization
SIO’S OVERVIEW
Social Insurance Organization (SIO) is the official authority responsible for providing social insurance services to all individuals covered by Pension Civil Law and Social Insurance Law in the Kingdom of Bahrain. SIO was established in accordance with Law No. 3 of 2008 to replace both Pension Fund Commission and General Organization for Social Insurance. SIO provides social insurance coverage for individuals against risks of aging, disability, death, work-related injuries, and unemployment in both public and private sectors.
SIO’S Vision
Excellence in service quality and sustainability of insurance benefits.
SIO’S Mission
Ensure tranquility and social stability and provide high quality insurance services for all.
SIO’S responsibility
•    Apply the following laws:
Law No. (13) for year 1975 on the regulation of pension payments for public sector employees.
The Social Insurance Law issued by Legislative Decree No. (24) for year 1976 and Law No. (78) for year 2006 on Insurance against unemployment.
Law No. (32) for year 2009 on the establishment of the pension fund and regulation of pension payments for members of the Shura Council, the Parliament, and Municipal Councils.
•    Contribute to international cooperation and exchange through membership in international insurance organizations.
SIO’S responsibility
•    Confidence.
•    Accountability.
•    Quality.
•    Assurance and social stability.
•    Creativity.
•    Integration.

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice
figure out your research question and write your background research/literature review. I have given the final paper requirements for you to go off of since this paper is requiring you to know about the final paper in order to complete this paper.
Will need the final paper to be written by same writer 2 weeks later. Will upload all the lecture notes to help guide.
Final Paper Assignment:
Using weeks 1-5, design a realistic study to assess the relationship between age, race/ethnicity, and crime. Include in your paper, a definition of the dependent and independent variable and how you would operationalize them. Then, indicate what methodology your research would employ, describing what types of data, sampling and measurements you would use as well as the justifications for these selections. What are the strengths and weaknesses of your design and how does it build upon the empirical literature to date? Finally, what do you expect to find?

Marketing WK 1

Marketing WK 1
Order Description
use the following reference as primary…
Kerin, R., & Peterson, R. (2013). Strategic marketing problems: Cases and comments (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
**** Here is the link for this reference****
https://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/7225/7398620/MGT400_Ch01.pdf
Using the CSU Online Library and the Internet, research a company of your choice to compile a SWOT analysis. Create a visual chart using Exhibit 1.1 on page 6 (Sample SWOT Analysis Framework and Representative Examples) in your textbook as a format guideline for submission. The SWOT analysis needs to include all four elements including the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. A minimum of five selected internal factors (finance and management must be two of the five) and five selected external factors as demonstrated in Exhibit 1.1.
Evaluate the chart to determine current and future overall strategies based upon the organization’s business, mission, and goals.
Your paper submission should be a minimum of two pages in length. References should include your textbook plus a minimum of one additional credible reference.

Requirements for the Essay/Research Paper

Requirements for the Essay/Research Paper
POLS 420 (Urban Politics)
Assignment 1 — What is the definition of an Urban City/County? What are the top 5 challenges facing urban cities in America? What are the solutions being discussed to address these challenges?
Note: You can write the paper as a research paper or an essay, the only main thing is to answer those questions from online sources and also cite it. You can also use his required reading and recommended reading as sources.
Required Reading – Governing Magazine, US Conference of Mayors website, National League of Cities website, Urban Institute website
Recommended Reading – Books and articles of Joel Kotkin, Richard Florida and Thomas Friedman.

assingment 3

assingment 3
Order Description
As a way of experiencing the Humanities beyond your classroom, computer, and textbook, you are asked to do a certain type of “cultural activity” that fits well with our course and then report on your experience. Your instructor will require you to propose an activity and get instructor approval before you do it and report on it (students should look for any instructions in that respect). Every effort should be made to ensure that this is a hands-on experience (not a virtual one), that this activity fits the HUM 111 class well, and that the activity is of sufficient quality for this university course. The two (2) key types of activities are a museum visit or a performance. Note: This must not be a report on the same activity (and certainly not the same report) as done for another class, like HUM 112. For instance, one might go to the same museum as done for HUM 112, but this HUM 111 report will focus on entirely different works and displays.
1.Visit a museum or gallery exhibition or attend a theater or musical performance before the end of Week 10. The activity (museum or performance) should have content that fits our course well. Have fun doing this.
2.Write a two to three (2-3) page report (500-750 words) that describes your experience.
?Clearly identify the event location, date attended, the attendees, and your initial reaction upon arriving at the event.
?Provide specific information and a description of at least two (2) pieces (e.g., art, exhibits, music, etc.).
?Provide a summary of the event and describe your overall reaction after attending the event.
?Use at least the class text as a reference (additional sources are fine, not necessary unless required by your content). Your report should include connections you make between things observed in your activity and things learned in the course and text.
Note: Submit your cultural activity choice to the instructor for approval before the end of Week 5 (earlier is even better). Look for guidance from the instructor for how or where to make your proposal. You may also seek advice from your instructor (provide your town/state or zip code) for a good activity in your general area.
Visiting a Museum
•It makes sense to approach a museum the way a seasoned traveler approaches visiting a city for the first time. Find out what there is available to see. In the museum, find out what sort of exhibitions are currently housed in the museum and start with the exhibits that interest you.
•If there is a travelling exhibition, it’s always a good idea to see it while you have the chance. Then, if you have time, you can look at other things in the museum.
•Every effort should be made ahead of time to identify a museum that has items and works one can easily connect to our HUM 111 class and book. Since HUM 111 covers from ancient times to the 1500s AD, it makes more sense to focus on items from that time frame. In general, museums with artistic cultural artifacts and fine arts work better than history museums.
•Any questions about whether a museum-visit activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for the activity. Any alternative activity outside the normal ones listed here, such as for those limited by disability or distance, will be determined by the instructor. Generally, we do not expect students to travel over an hour to get to an approved activity.
•Take notes as you go through the museum and accept any handouts or pamphlets that the museum staff gives you. While you should not quote anything from the printed material when you do your report, the handouts may help to refresh your memory later.
•The quality of your experience is not measured by the amount of time you spend in the galleries or the number of works of art that you actually see. The most rewarding experiences can come from finding two (2) or three (3) pieces of art or exhibits which intrigue you and then considering those works in leisurely contemplation. Most museums even have benches where you can sit and study a particular piece.
•If you are having a difficult time deciding which pieces to write about, ask yourself these questions: (1) If the museum you are visiting suddenly caught fire, which two (2) pieces of art or exhibits would you most want to see saved from the fire? (2) Why would you choose those two (2) particular pieces?
Attending a Performance
•Check your local colleges to see if there are any free or low-cost performances or student recitals. Student performances are generally of almost the same quality as professional performances, but typically cost much less. However, performances of high school level or lower will not meet this requirement.
•A performance that is relevant to a HUM 111 course is more difficult to find than a performance that would be relevant to HUM 112 (which covers from 1600 to the present). However, our course does cover Shakespeare and Greek tragedy and drama, so any performances of those will work. Note: One can sometimes find music performances of music from the Renaissance or Reformation period, or even earlier.
•Any questions about whether a performance activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for an activity. Any alternative activity outside the normal ones listed here, such as for those limited by disability or distance, will be determined by the instructor. Generally, we do not expect students to travel over an hour to get to an approved activity.
•Unlike visiting a museum, where you can wear almost anything, people attending performances are often expected to “dress up” a bit.
•Take a pen or pencil with you and accept the program you are offered by the usher; you will probably want to take notes on it during or after the performance.
•Turn off your cell phone before entering the auditorium. Do not use your phone to record the music or to take pictures or videos. To play it safe, turn the phone off.
•Most long musical performances have at least one (1) intermission. If the lights start blinking, it is a sign that the performance is about to begin.
•Look for very specific things (such as a particular piece of music or the way certain instruments sounded at a specific time) which tend to stand out as either enjoyable or not enjoyable. Be sure to take notes of the things which you find enjoyable as well as the things which are not enjoyable.
If a student is unable to attend a cultural event in person due to circumstances beyond the student’s control, then the instructor will recommend an alternate event / activity for the student to “attend” online. The “virtual” event / activity is usually only for students who, due to their physical location, cannot possibly attend an event / activity in person; typically, these students are stationed overseas or have no means of transportation. Experience shows most museums and activities are modest in cost and manageable for students, and you will often see students from other universities there on similar course projects. If you are facing financial hardship, keep in mind that many museums have a free day each week and performance discounts are often available for students and veterans, among others. Feel free to ask your instructor to help with finding low-cost options. If you believe that you have a legitimate reason for attending a “virtual” activity, you must contact the instructor no later than Week 5 for your request to be considered.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
•Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. (Note: Students can find APA style materials located in the course shell for reference).
•Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
•Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.
•Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions
•Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
•Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics

Essay

Essay
Order Description
Download and read “Neighborhood contexts of attitudes towards crime and reentry,” by Andrea Leverentz. The name of the journal is Punishment and Society, January 2011, v.13(1): pg 64.
After reading the article please give me brief summary of the article and address these questions, what was the nature of participant observation in this research? Was it an effective way to address the author’s research question? What would you have done differently and why?

The Role of the Management/Leadership and Organizational Culture in the Success of Samsung

The Role of the Management/Leadership and Organizational Culture in the Success of Samsung
Order Description
transition of organization and in leadership of SAMSUNG company.
This project is designed to give students experience writing and reviewing papers. Paper topics are assigned and coded so that the review draft and final paper cannot be identified by other students (please do not reveal you identity throughout the process). Steps: ( see next page) 1. Each student will be assigned a leader within an organization that is in transition and a code to be used throughout this writing and peer-review project. 2. Submit a hardcopy of the abstract (300 words maximum) and a title for review and approval by the instructor per the course schedule. 3. Write the paper: it should (1) briefly describe the organization in terms of applicable models and theories related to culture and leadership; (2) a describe the organization’s mission and vision relative; (3) consider whether or not the organization is on track to achieve its mission and vision ; and (4) make recommendations to those leaders responsible long-range planning in the organization. 4. Submit three hard-copies of the DRAFT to Dr. Stober per the course schedule. Each copy should be identified using your assigned number (NO NAMES or other identifiers — these copies are for “blind review”). These copies will be distributed to other students in advance of the class meeting where we review papers as a group. 5. Participate in the peer review activity per the course schedule. A detailed rubric to review the papers will be prepared and discussed in class per the course schedule. Papers will be judged according to the following criteria: (1) significance and relevance, (2) clarity, (3) relationship to literature, (4) use of theory, (5) critical qualities, (6) clarity of the conclusions, and (7) quality of the communication.

GOVT120ResponsePaper2

GOVT120ResponsePaper2
Paper details:
read the article form the link http://www.npr.org/2013/03/07/173649586/challenge-to-michigans-gay-marriage-ban-grows-from-adoption-case
and then follow the example format that i sent to you to response the question

nursing4t

nursing4t
Order Description
Readings
American Nurses Association. (2015). Nursing informatics: Scope & standards of practice (2nd ed.). Silver Springs, MD: Author.
“The Future of Nursing Informatics”
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2012). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 14, “Improving the Human-Technology Interface”
This chapter describes the human-technology interface and explores some of the problems that result from its usage. The author also reflects on methods for improving the interface.
Chapter 19, ”Telenursing and Remote Access Telehealth”
This chapter explores the usage of telehealth in nursing practice. The authors examine the role of telehealth, along with potential issues that may arise in its usage.
Brewer, E. P. (2011). Successful techniques for using human patient simulation in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(3), 311–317.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article identifies studies that have used human simulation as an effective instructional tool in nursing education. The article describes different strategies for incorporating human simulation into nursing education, and it also offers insight on improvements that could be made to current practices.
Guarascio-Howard, L. (2011). Examination of wireless technology to improve nurse communication, response time to bed alarms, and patient safety. Herd, 4(2), 109–120.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
The author explains the results of a study on the outcomes of using wireless communication devices to improve patient safety by allowing nurses to communicate more quickly and easily with other nurses. The results indicate that this technology can increase the value of team nursing, improve response time, and increase patient safety, although there are some drawbacks and challenges associated with the devices.
Simpson, R. L. (2012). Technology enables value-based nursing care. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 36(1), 85–87.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article describes how technology can be used to address problems in the U.S. health care system, such as lack of consistency and lack of effective treatment. The article explains the use of value-based care initiatives and outlines how nurses can use these initiatives to improve outcomes in treatment and research.
Vinson, M. H., McCallum, R., Thornlow, D. K., & Champagne, M. T. (2011). Design, implementation, and evaluation of population-specific telehealth nursing services. Nursing Economic$, 29(5), 265–272, 277.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
================================================================================================================
To prepare:
Review the various technology tools described in this week’s Learning Resources.
Identify a recently adopted information, education, or communication technology tool in your specialty area. Reflect on how it is used and how its use impacts the quality of care.
Consider how your identified technology tool might impact nursing practice if it were more widely used. What are some barriers preventing increased usage? How could wider implementation be facilitated?
================================================================================================================
Post a description of a current or new information, education, or communication technology tool that is being used in your specialty area and assess its impact on the quality of care. Highlight the effect that increased use of this technology would have on nursing practice and discuss the barriers that are slowing or hindering its adoption. Summarize how adoption of the technology tool could be facilitated.

nursing4t

nursing4t
Order Description
Readings
American Nurses Association. (2015). Nursing informatics: Scope & standards of practice (2nd ed.). Silver Springs, MD: Author.
“The Future of Nursing Informatics”
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2012). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 14, “Improving the Human-Technology Interface”
This chapter describes the human-technology interface and explores some of the problems that result from its usage. The author also reflects on methods for improving the interface.
Chapter 19, ”Telenursing and Remote Access Telehealth”
This chapter explores the usage of telehealth in nursing practice. The authors examine the role of telehealth, along with potential issues that may arise in its usage.
Brewer, E. P. (2011). Successful techniques for using human patient simulation in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(3), 311–317.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article identifies studies that have used human simulation as an effective instructional tool in nursing education. The article describes different strategies for incorporating human simulation into nursing education, and it also offers insight on improvements that could be made to current practices.
Guarascio-Howard, L. (2011). Examination of wireless technology to improve nurse communication, response time to bed alarms, and patient safety. Herd, 4(2), 109–120.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
The author explains the results of a study on the outcomes of using wireless communication devices to improve patient safety by allowing nurses to communicate more quickly and easily with other nurses. The results indicate that this technology can increase the value of team nursing, improve response time, and increase patient safety, although there are some drawbacks and challenges associated with the devices.
Simpson, R. L. (2012). Technology enables value-based nursing care. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 36(1), 85–87.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article describes how technology can be used to address problems in the U.S. health care system, such as lack of consistency and lack of effective treatment. The article explains the use of value-based care initiatives and outlines how nurses can use these initiatives to improve outcomes in treatment and research.
Vinson, M. H., McCallum, R., Thornlow, D. K., & Champagne, M. T. (2011). Design, implementation, and evaluation of population-specific telehealth nursing services. Nursing Economic$, 29(5), 265–272, 277.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
================================================================================================================
To prepare:
Review the various technology tools described in this week’s Learning Resources.
Identify a recently adopted information, education, or communication technology tool in your specialty area. Reflect on how it is used and how its use impacts the quality of care.
Consider how your identified technology tool might impact nursing practice if it were more widely used. What are some barriers preventing increased usage? How could wider implementation be facilitated?
================================================================================================================
Post a description of a current or new information, education, or communication technology tool that is being used in your specialty area and assess its impact on the quality of care. Highlight the effect that increased use of this technology would have on nursing practice and discuss the barriers that are slowing or hindering its adoption. Summarize how adoption of the technology tool could be facilitated.

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES DISTINCTION In addition to the Merit Criteria the student must : 1 Select and use appropriate equations for the calculation of stresses and strains. Calculate the change in dimensions resulting from the applied stresses and strains. Determine deflection due to shear strain. All calculations to use appropriate methods, values and units. 2 Calculate the yield stress, given the yield strain. Determine the applied force. All calculations to use appropriate methods, values and units. Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units. 3 Select the appropriate equation to calculate the bulk modulus of the material Determine the correct value for the bulk modulus, and express in appropriate units. Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units. 4 Select the appropriate equation to calculate the poisons ratio value given G and E Determine the correct value for poisons ratio. Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units. 5 Use appropriate methods Correct values for shear Correct values for for determining shear force, bending moment and deflection. force and bending moment. deflections, graph plotted with appropriate axes, values and units. 6 Select and use appropriate equation to calculate the maximum allowable pressure. Select appropriate equations for the calculation of the pressure, given hop strain value. Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units. 1. FIG 1 (All dimensions in mm) The component shown in Fig 1 is made from a material with the following properties and is subjected to a compressive force of 5kN. Material Properties : Young’s Modulus of Elasticity – 200 GNm-2 Modulus of Rigidity – 90 GNm-2 Poisons ratio – 0.32 Calculate : (a) The stress in : (i) the circular section (ii) the square section (b) The strain in : (i) The circular section (ii) The square section (c) The change in length of the component (d) The change in diameter of the circular section (e) The change in the 40mm dimension on the square section (f) If the same component were subjected to a shear force of 7 kN as shown in FIG 2, calculate the shear strain in : (i) The circular section (ii) The square section FIG 2 2. When the 5mm diameter bar shown in FIG 3 is subjected to a tensile force F, yield occurs when the bar has extended by 4µm. Calculate : (a) The yield stress of the material (b) The force required to produce yield. Young’s Modulus for the bar material is 150 GNm-2 Fig 3 3. A material is formed into a solid sphere and has a diameter of 100mm when at a pressure of 2MPa. If the diameter of the sphere reduces by 0.1mm when the pressure is increased to 6MPa, determine the bulk modulus of the material. 4. A material has a modulus of rigidity of 100 GNm-2 and a Young’s Modulus of 250 GNm-2. Calculate the expected value of poisons ratio for the material. 5. The simply supported beam shown in FIG 4 is 5m long with a Young’s Modulus of 210 GNm-2. The cross section of the beam is as shown in FIG 5. FIG 4 FIG 5 (a) Draw the shear force diagram for the beam (b) Determine the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment. (c) Plot a graph of deflection along the length of the beam (calculate the deflection at 1m intervals). 6. A cylindrical vessel 2m internal diameter and 4m long has a wall thickness of 6mm. Strain gauges are installed on the vessel to measure hoop strain (see FIG 6). FIG 6 E = 290 GNm-2 Yield Stress = 500 MPa (i) What is the maximum allowable pressure if a factor of safety of 4 is to be used? (ii) What pressure would a strain of 40 µe indicate?

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES
DISTINCTION
In addition to the Merit Criteria the student must :
1
Select and use appropriate equations for the calculation of stresses and strains.
Calculate the change in dimensions resulting from the applied stresses and strains.
Determine deflection due to shear strain. All calculations to use appropriate methods, values and units.
2
Calculate the yield stress, given the yield strain.
Determine the applied force.
All calculations to use appropriate methods, values and units.
Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units.
3
Select the appropriate equation to calculate the bulk modulus of the material
Determine the correct value for the bulk modulus, and express in appropriate units.
Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units.
4
Select the appropriate equation to calculate the poisons ratio value given G and E
Determine the correct value for poisons ratio.
Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units.
5
Use appropriate methods
Correct values for shear
Correct values for
for determining shear force, bending moment and deflection.
force and bending moment.
deflections, graph plotted with appropriate axes, values and units.
6
Select and use appropriate equation to calculate the maximum allowable pressure.
Select appropriate equations for the calculation of the pressure, given hop strain value.
Solutions are rationally set out, clearly showing formulas used, transposition, values, answers and units.
1.
FIG 1 (All dimensions in mm)
The component shown in Fig 1 is made from a material with the following properties and is subjected to a compressive force of 5kN.
Material Properties :
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity – 200 GNm-2
Modulus of Rigidity – 90 GNm-2
Poisons ratio – 0.32
Calculate :
(a) The stress in :
(i) the circular section
(ii) the square section
(b) The strain in :
(i) The circular section
(ii) The square section
(c) The change in length of the component
(d) The change in diameter of the circular section
(e) The change in the 40mm dimension on the square section
(f) If the same component were subjected to a shear force of 7 kN as shown in
FIG 2, calculate the shear strain in :
(i) The circular section
(ii) The square section
FIG 2
2. When the 5mm diameter bar shown in FIG 3 is subjected to a tensile force F,
yield occurs when the bar has extended by 4µm.
Calculate :
(a) The yield stress of the material
(b) The force required to produce yield.
Young’s Modulus for the bar material is 150 GNm-2
Fig 3
3. A material is formed into a solid sphere and has a diameter of 100mm when at a
pressure of 2MPa. If the diameter of the sphere reduces by 0.1mm when the
pressure is increased to 6MPa, determine the bulk modulus of the material.
4. A material has a modulus of rigidity of 100 GNm-2 and a Young’s Modulus of 250
GNm-2. Calculate the expected value of poisons ratio for the material.
5. The simply supported beam shown in FIG 4 is 5m long with a Young’s Modulus
of 210 GNm-2. The cross section of the beam is as shown in FIG 5.
FIG 4
FIG 5
(a) Draw the shear force diagram for the beam
(b) Determine the position and magnitude of the maximum bending moment.
(c) Plot a graph of deflection along the length of the beam (calculate the deflection
at 1m intervals).
6. A cylindrical vessel 2m internal diameter and 4m long has a wall thickness of 6mm. Strain gauges are installed on the vessel to measure hoop strain (see FIG 6).
FIG 6
E = 290 GNm-2
Yield Stress = 500 MPa
(i) What is the maximum allowable pressure if a factor of safety of 4 is to be used?
(ii) What pressure would a strain of 40 µe indicate?

ISSA Certification Case Study

ISSA Certification Case Study
Project description
Age53
GenderFemale
Resting Heart Rate90 bpm
Height5’5″
Weight165 pounds
Body Fat Percentage35%
Jaime is a working mother of three teenagers. She has not been consistently active for many years. She was recently diagnosed with high blood pressure, likely caused by her high-stress corporate job and physical inactivity. She also has an affinity for processed and sugary foods. Jaime was recently told by her doctor that she needs to start exercising, eating better, and just simply taking better care of herself or else she on her way to additional health problems. Jaime will be attending her oldest daughter’s high school graduation in three months and wants to use the event as a goal date in which to make significant progress in her health.
Client Calculations
Using the information above, calculate the client’s BMR and DCR
Calculate the client’s Target Heart Rate using the Karvonen formula (you will determine the appropriate target heart rate for this client given the information gathered in the initial assessment and evaluation)
Include the following in your case study submission:
A description of your professional responsibilities as discussed in the stages of the drawing-in process (Unit 12)
Discussion of any fitness tests, methods of evaluation, and data collection used to assess and evaluate the client’s needs.
Explanation for your recommendations and any specific conditions presented by your client that are found in the evaluation. (Be sure to reference course concepts when discussing rationale for your recommendations.)
A detailed 12-week comprehensive and periodized training program including specific exercises, sets, repetitions, suggested rest times, etc. Use an integrated approach in your program recommendations. USE CHARTS TO ILLUSTRATE THE TRAINING PROGRAMS.
Specific and detailed nutritional strategies with explanation as to how they will assist the client in meeting energy needs throughout the training program and achieving intended goal(s).
Keep in mind that a client should be able to take your program and put it into practice without having to contact you to clarify what you intended by your recommendations, or to explain parts of your program.
Include an explanation for WHY you listed and recommended what you did. Reference the concepts and theories covered in the course. Be sure to address why the program and exercises recommended are appropriate for the specific client given client history, current abilities, and intended goal(s). For example: if you are developing a program for a beginner client without any resistance training experience, explain how your program addresses the lack of experience, initial need for foundational development, process by which you would safely progress the client, etc. Tying your program to course concepts is a critical component of your case study.

Avaition weather discussion 4, 5 and 6

Avaition weather discussion 4, 5 and 6
Project description
Answer the following questions with your own words:
4) Explain how the stability of the atmosphere is evaluated/determined and discuss in detail the differences between a stable air mass and an unstable air mass.
5) Provide a detailed explanation on why we need to understand circulation. What effect does circulation have on the atmosphere and how does it help us determine or anticipate flight conditions/paths.
6) Describe in detail the life cycle of a single-cell, airmass thunderstorm

Explain, in an essay of several well-developed paragraphs: Why you wish to complete your degree through the Baruch College School of Professional Studies.

Explain, in an essay of several well-developed paragraphs: Why you wish to complete your degree through the Baruch College School of Professional Studies.
Project description
Explain, in an essay of several well-developed paragraphs: Why you wish to complete your degree through the Baruch College School of Professional Studies.
We are interested in your background, aspirations, and current experiences as well as your familiarity with working or communicating online. This is not an exam but an opportunity to make a case for why you are right for this program and it is right for you.
We ask you for a personal statement so that we can base admission decisions on input from you, not just grades or numbers from your transcripts and student records. Your response to the essay must be at least 250 words in order to be considered complete.

homework 1 in Calculus 2

homework 1 in Calculus 2
Project description
Write an outline for sections 6.2-6.4. Work on the solutions to Section 6.1: exercises 21 and 36, Section 6.2: exercises 54 and 89, Section 6.3: exercises 44 and 64, and Section 6.4: exercises 26 and 74.
Submit a report in the comment box of this homework detailing your progress and status toward completion. The end of the report should contain a brief summary stating whether the outlines and exercises were given sufficient effort (whether the correct answer was derived or not).
NOTE: I do not need to see your work – I only want you to report on your homework activity (for each problem, whether it was found to be difficult, obvious, easy/hard, whether you at first had troubles but eventually found the/a solution, etc.) I would like you to document (i.e., report on) your homework experience. You can grade your own work via the solutions I provide. I award 3 pts for your reported work on the outlined sections (3pts per section outline) and 3pts for each exercise problem reported.
Name Math 1920-R5X
Date
Outline for Section 7.1, “Inverse Functions”
I. Inverse Functions
A. Representation of functions
1. Table
2. Graph
3. Mathematical expression
B. Definition: A function has an inverse over its domain if it is one-to-one, or equally written, 1:1.
C. Definition: A function is 1:1 if it never takes on the same value twice, i.e., it passes the horizontal line test provided we have a graph of the function.
D. Domain/Range of the inverse function: If the domain/range of the function is given by D and R, respectively, then the domain/range of its inverse, written here as Dinv/Rinv is simply Dinv=R and Rinv=D. See page 415 of the text.
E. Mathematical representation of the inverse function: how to find it. If possible, write down y=f(x), and solve for x in terms of y. For consistent notation, it is possible to exchange x and y when finished so that you again have something that looks like See the steps outlined on page 416. ).(1xfy-=
F. Graph of an inverse function is found by reflecting the graph of f about the line y=x.
II. The Calculus of Inverse Functions
A. If f is a 1:1, continuous function defined on an interval, then its inverse function is also continuous. This is a theorem found on page 417 and is used as a condition needed for the existence of the derivative of an inverse function. )(1xfy-=
B. Theorem about differentiability of the inverse function: the function f must have the properties, 1) f is 1:1, 2) f is differentiable. Having checked for this, and giving its inverse the following notation; , then at some point a, )()(1xfxg-=)|)((1|)(‘axaxxgfxgdxd=== (see page 418 of the text, Theorem 7. Here is an example why it is important that the function be 1:1….Let . Note that the function is not 1:1 on this interval. But we will pretend not to notice this. Find 8<<-8=x) f ( x2 , x
21|)(-=-xxfdxd. By the theorem, we have xxf2)(‘= and xxfxg==-)()(1. So, we have that 221|21))((‘1|)()2()(211-====-=-=–agxxxagfxfdxdfdxd and this does not exist (we cannot take the square root of a negative number.

Nursing Curriculum Development

Nursing Curriculum Development
Order Description
Read Giddens and Brady, 2007, “Rescuing Nursing Education from Content Saturation: The Case for a Concept-Based Curriculum,” from Journal of Nursing Education, volume 46, issue 2, pages 65–69.Read Uchiyama and Radin, 2009, “Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education: A Vehicle for Collaboration,” fromInnovative Higher Education, volume 33, issue 4, pages 271–280.
Use the Internet to complete the following:
Read the NLN 2003 position statement, Innovation in Nursing Education: A Call to Reform
Once curriculum has been designed, the process is still not finished. Based on your unit readings and independent research, discuss the incorporation of ongoing curriculum evaluation. In particular, your assignment should include the following:
An explanation of the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation. Why is it important? For whom is it important?Substantially explains and evaluates how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation.
Provides substantial examples of both short and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and explains and analyzes why both types are important to curriculum development.
Describes and analyzes how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development.
Your paper should be 3–4 pages in length, not including the title page and the reference page, and follow proper APA style and formatting References no older than 10 years.
Currently 3 writers are viewing this order

Discussion 1 and 2

http://perfectcustompapers.com/wp-admin/
Discussion 1 and 2
Order Description
Each discussion should be answered separately! Each discussion answer should be at least 250 words in length! This is two separate discussions please ensure that each discussion is answered SEPARATELY! I prefer Page 1 will be used to answer discussion 1 and Page 2 will be used to answer discussion 2.
Discussion 1. Alliances
What were the “alliances” that emerged among major groups of people in the Atlantic World? How would you explain them?
Discussion 2. Cultural Background
How did the major groups of Atlantic peoples draw on their cultural background in their response to other groups?
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Individual Assignment 2 Order Description Now that you have worked on your vision of your desired leadership style (charismatic leader) and have done self-assessment looking at your strengths and development areas, What is a picture of you as a leader? How do you want to be seen as a leader? Weaknesses/ developmental areas: Interpersonal Sensitivity, Self-regulation Strengths: Social skill, Communication, Empathy, Motivation, Innovation Find a photograph (Cannot be a photo of a human being) from nature, abstract, landscape etc that depicts you as the leader you want to be seen as. Develop a three slide PP presentation as if you were showing this to the class and explaining how this photo depicts you,… as you want to be seen as a leader. Put notes at the bottom of your slide scripting what you would be saying as if you presented this to the class. Explain how the photo represents and relates to your leadership style and skills and Developmental areas. Use APA style for the Citations for Two references. Include the Sources of Photos. References can be on Leadership, quotes or other creative sources.

Individual Assignment 2
Order Description
Now that you have worked on your vision of your desired leadership style (charismatic leader) and have done self-assessment looking at your strengths and development areas, What is a picture of you as a leader?
How do you want to be seen as a leader?
Weaknesses/ developmental areas: Interpersonal Sensitivity, Self-regulation
Strengths: Social skill, Communication, Empathy, Motivation, Innovation
Find a photograph (Cannot be a photo of a human being) from nature, abstract, landscape etc that depicts you as the leader you want to be seen as.
Develop a three slide PP presentation as if you were showing this to the class and explaining how this photo depicts you,… as you want to be seen as a leader.
Put notes at the bottom of your slide scripting what you would be saying as if you presented this to the class.
Explain how the photo represents and relates to your leadership style and skills and Developmental areas.
Use APA style for the Citations for Two references.
Include the Sources of Photos. References can be on Leadership, quotes or other creative sources.

housing recovery (disaster recovery)

housing recovery (disaster recovery)
Order Description
please respond to the question in reaction paper.
The required book: disaster recovery By Brenda Phillips
*If you where the chief elected official of a community what would you do to fulfill your obligations in housing recovery?

NOTICE OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT – KEDRON STATE HIGH SCHOOL

NOTICE OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT – KEDRON STATE HIGH SCHOOL
Check Date:   Week beginning June 1
Date Set:        Week beginning May 25
Conditions: Script, draft and task sheet to be submitted to teacher on due date. Monologues may be submitted digitally on USB or CD. Students are responsible for the filming of their monologues. Some audio-visual equipment will be available in school time. Students who are unable to film their monologue by the due date or whose digital copy is corrupt or missing will be required to deliver their monologue live to the class.
Please save files in: MP4, wmv, FLV or AVI format.
The monologue should be filmed in one unedited shot. Post-production editing should not be applied to the file.
Length:
3-4 minutes
Access to resources:
Open access to resources; simple costuming and props allowed
Feedback:
One formal draft with written feedback
BACKGROUND:
A study of a play reveals much more than simply words on a page. In this unit you have analysed the characters, concepts and themes in Romeo and Juliet. You will now use the knowledge of these to create a monologue from the perspective of one of the characters.
TASK:
Create and perform a dramatic monologue from the perspective of a character in Romeo and Juliet. It should:
•    be consistent with the character’s perspective in the play;
•    explore the character’s motivation for making certain decisions or acting in a particular manner;
•    and/or discuss the relationships with other characters
ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS:
Students as dramatic performer to entertain an informed audience
GUIDELINES:
Opening:
•    A hook that sets off the monologue – it sets the context for what the character is talking about and engages the audience.
•    Establishment of who the character is
•    The time and place in which the monologue is taking place
•    Who the character is speaking to – is it an interior monologue (speaking to themselves) or exterior monologue (speaking to another character – note that the other character does not speak, nor do you allow ‘spaces’ for that character to speak).
Exploration/development leading to climax includes structural points such as:
•    Elaboration and clarification of the issue/event
•    Weighing up choices and considering what others might think about these choices
•    Reflecting on events/actions that have already taken place and commenting on them
•    Planning out how a situation will be resolved
Closure:
•    Coming to a decision about what actions the character will take
•    Deciding that it is too big a dilemma but being reassured that the matter has been fully explored
•    A curtain line: a final sentence which clearly signals to the audience the end of the monologue.
Remember, the monologue is not simply a recount of events. It is imperative that you explore the character’s motivations and by doing so create subtle and complex representations of the events, characters and concepts in the play. The monologue should reflect the underpinning ideas, attitudes and values expressed in the play.
Language Features:
You will need to make language choices that reflect the character’s perspective but you do not have to use Shakespearean language or use iambic pentameter (the rhyme scheme used by Shakespeare).
You should use a range of aesthetic features such as: evocative language and figurative devices to explore the character’s perspective and situation.
You should make reference to and include aspects of the play’s language in your monologue. Being able to create original language that is adapted from  that used in the play and applying it to your character monologue will show an excellent understanding of the text.
Dimension    A    Key questions
1. Understanding and responding to contexts
Exploitation of a range of genre patterns and conventions to achieve specific purposes
Can I clearly identify all of the appropriate structural elements that are listed in the guidelines?
Discerning selection, organisation and synthesis of relevant and substantive subject matter to support opinions and perspectives
Have I clearly responded to what the task is asking of me by including relevant subject matter?
Is it clear who my character is and what the issue or problem is that they are attempting to overcome?
Manipulation and control of roles of the speaker/signer and relationships with audiences    Does what I say suit how this character would act in this context?
Is it clear who my character is speaking to/about?
Have I expressed myself in a way that reflects the character’s mood, status and perspective?
2. Understanding and controlling textual features    A discerning combination of a range of grammatically accurate language structures for specific effects
Have I included a variety of sentence structures to create a response in my audience?
Discerning use of mode- appropriate cohesive devices to develop and emphasise ideas and connect parts of texts
Do the ideas within my monologue flow in a logical order?
Have I sign posted different ideas and thoughts clearly?
Discerning use of a wide range of apt vocabulary for specific purposes    Have I included specific vocabulary to suit this character in this situation?
Discerning use of mode-appropriate features to achieve specific effects:
Spoken features:
Pronunciation, phrasing and pausing, audibility and clarity, volume, pace, silence
Non-verbal features:
Facial expressions, gestures, proximity, stance, movement    Have I made written notes on my script to include the following:
–    Pronunciation
–    Phrasing
–    Pausing
–    Volume
–    Pace
–    Silence
–    Facial expressions
–    Gestures
–    Proximity
–    Stance  and
–    Movement
Have I rehearsed the monologue in front of others to check the audibility and clarity of what I am saying?
Have I played back my video file to ensure it is audible and is visible?
3.  Creating  and  evaluating meaning    Discerning manipulation of the ways ideas, attitudes and values underpin texts and influence audiences
Does my monologue include ideas which are expressed in the text and clearly position my audience?
Does my character’s monologue reveal values and attitudes that are reflected in the original text?
Subtle and complex creation of perspectives and representations of concepts, identities, times and places
Does my monologue have a clear creation of character perspective and setting?
Have I made subtle and well thought-out references to the original text?
Have I subtly incorporated the concepts explored in the play?
Discerning use of aesthetic features to achieve specific purposes in texts.     Have I used language that makes my audience feel a certain way about my character’s situation? Have I included figurative language?
Have I organised suitable setting, props and costumes to position my audience?
The student work has the following characteristics:
Dimension    A    B    C    D    E
Understanding and responding to contexts    Exploitation of a range of genre patterns and conventions to achieve specific purposes.
Discerning selection, organisation and synthesis of relevant and substantive subject matter to support opinions and perspectives.
Manipulation and control of roles of the speaker/signer and relationships with audiences.    Effective control of a range of genre patterns and conventions to achieve specific purposes.
Effective selection, organisation and synthesis of relevant subject matter to support opinions and perspectives.
Establishment and control of roles of the speaker/signer and relationships with audiences.    Use of genre patterns and conventions to achieve purposes.
Selection, sequencing and organisation of  relevant subject matter to support opinions and perspectives.
Establishment and maintenance of roles of the speaker/signer and relationships with audiences.    Use of aspects of genre patterns and conventions to achieve some purposes.
Selection and organisation of subject matter to support opinions or perspectives.
Establishment of some roles of the speaker/signer and relationships with audiences.    Use of aspects of genre patterns and conventions.
Selection of some subject matter to state an opinion.
Use of roles of the speaker/signer.
Comment:
Understanding and controlling textual features    A discerning combination of a range of grammatically accurate language structures for specific effects.
Discerning use of spoken cohesive devices to develop and emphasise ideas and connect parts of texts.
Discerning use of a wide range of apt vocabulary for specific purposes.
Discerning use of verbal and non-verbal features to achieve specific effects:
•    pronunciation,
•    phrasing and pausing
•     audibility and clarity
•     volume
•    pace
•    silence
•    facial expressions
•    gestures
•    stance    Control of a range of grammatically accurate language structures to achieve effects.
Effective use of spoken cohesive devices to develop and maintain ideas and connect parts of texts.
Effective use of a range of apt vocabulary for specific purposes.
Effective use of verbal and non-verbal features to achieve effects:
•    pronunciation,
•    phrasing and pausing
•     audibility and clarity
•     volume
•    pace
•    silence
•    facial expressions,
•    gestures
•    stance    Use of a range of mostly grammatically accurate language structures to achieve purposes.
Use of spoken cohesive devices to link ideas and connect parts of texts.
Use of suitable vocabulary for purposes.
Suitable use of verbal and non-verbal  features to achieve purposes:
•    pronunciation,
•    phrasing and pausing
•     audibility and clarity
•     volume
•    pace
•    silence
•    facial expressions
•    gestures
•    stance    Inconsistency in the use of grammar and language structures to meet a purpose.
Use of some spoken cohesive devices to connect parts of texts
Use of vocabulary that varies in suitability for a purpose
Use of verbal and non-verbal features that vary in suitability:
•    pronunciation
•    phrasing and pausing
•     audibility and clarity
•     volume
•    pace
•    silence
•    facial expressions
•    gestures
•    stance    Grammar and  language structures that impede meaning
Some connections between parts of texts
Use of vocabulary that distracts  from purpose
Features that distract from meaning:
•    pronunciation
•    phrasing and pausing
•     audibility and clarity
•     volume
•    pace
•    silence
•    facial expressions
•    gestures
•    stance
Comment:
Creating and evaluating meaning:
CREATING
Discerning manipulation of  the ways ideas, attitudes and values underpin texts and influence audiences
Subtle and complex creation of  perspectives and representations of concepts, identities, times and places
Discerning use of aesthetic features to achieve specific purposes in texts    Effective manipulation of  the ways ideas, attitudes and values underpin texts and influence audiences
Effective creation of  perspectives and representations of concepts, identities, times and places
Effective use of aesthetic features to achieve specific purposes in texts    Appropriate use of  the ways ideas, attitudes and values underpin texts and influence audiences
Creation of  perspectives and representations of concepts, identities, times and places
Use of aesthetic features to achieve purposes in texts    Use of  ideas, attitudes and values that underpin texts
Creation of  some perspectives and representations of concepts, identities, times and places
Use of aesthetic features to achieve some purposes in texts    Use of  ideas in texts
Creation of  some concepts, identities, times and places
Use of some aesthetic features in texts
Comment:

Evaluation Framework

Evaluation Framework
Order Description
This is another assignment, however its not going to be submit it by the same person. it will be the same as the previous assignment. although make sure there are no copy and past and no plagiarism to the previous one.
This assignment is not a Book report, but it needs to be presented in a report form ( Table content, Heading..etc).
This report strictly needs to follow the order below:
1. plagiarism, or copy and paste is not acceptable in the report.
3. you must use the Book and the other file to write about ideas, and references into the report. the references list i have attached them. so please use them.
have suggested?)
Please note: Reference must be made to your readings. Please ensure that all the pages of your report are numbered, you include a table of contents and any appendices that you include are correctly numbered.
This assignment must be word processed, with 1.5 spacing in at least 12 font, using standard margins.
The Harvard system of referencing must be used in assignments (see http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvard-referencing.pdf for further details).
Outline:
You need to use Owen’s book for this assignment, as you guide and find supportive material for the assignment 2
First, and the most important bit is choosing an evaluand.
Just remember, an evaluand can be a program, Policy or product. I have chosen a program as an  evaluand below
The program is Happy teeth program- please look at the link below if you want to choose another evaluand that you are confident to write about it
http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/key-resources/programs-projects?pid=415
Once you have the evaluand then …… you need to use the key headings that are in Figure 4.1 negotiating evaluation: dimensions of an evaluation plan  page 73 – 74 as your lay out
Here is Own’s book : https://www.scribd.com/doc/47446390/Program-Evaluation-Form-and-Approach2
Cannot stress the critical bit is choosing the evaluand.
It can be easier to find a program evaluation report for your chosen evaluand and uses this evaluation report as a guide. Just type into a google search the program topic evaluation report
e.g oral health program evaluation report or physical activity  program evaluation report and you will find evaluation reports. then you can look at these evaluation report’s methodology and methods to assist and guide you with Owen’s heading on page 73 – 74
To assist you further, so you know what to put under the heading  that are on page 73 and 74 for your chosen evaluand – go to page 68 and each heading is explained in detail with some questions and statements. This will help you write short summaries under each assignment heading for your chosen evaluand.

Racism in Football (Soccer)

Racism in Football (Soccer)
Order Description
Research Rubrics (used for course LOs assessment)
4 points are allocated to organization and structure (students need to follow the structure hereunder and abide by the 3500 words rule)
4 points for references (1 for references list and 3 for in-text citation – every two pages missing references (where appropriate) in the text body will result in -1)
Students will miss 2 marks for every point (from the points hereunder) missing (or mentioned incorrectly) in their project document.
1. Introduction
Use previous research to justify your choice of your ‘broad problem area’
2. Literature Review (should include a number of subsections)
-Use previous research to justify the choice of problem statement(s) (or research questions)
-Use previous research to justify the choice of each hypothesis
Note: this section should include references next to each sentence that is taken from previous research and must clearly state the problem statement(s) and hypotheses.
3. Research Methodology (should include a number of subsections)
-Must identify the variables used in the study and their type
-Must list the measures used to measure each variable (including information on the validity and reliability of the measuring instruments; references are required here).
-Must mention what primary and secondary data will be collected (from where and from whom).
-Provide information on the sample to be used in this study (define the population, the sampling design, estimated sample size etc.)
-Must mention how the data will be collected (interviews, self-administered questionnaire …)
-Must include the questionnaire/guide that will be used in collecting the data.
-Must indicate which statistical test will be used in the analysis of the data and must justify the usage of the statistical test.
4. Conclusion
-Should include a comprehensive summary of all previous subsections
References (the research proposal must end with a references section that provides the references mentioned in sections 1, 2, 3 and 4). You need to follow a uniform format for referencing throughout the document (a minimum of 15 academic references is required)
The report must be 15 pages long, all pages must have a number, and the document should be formatted in a uniform and clear manner.
choose only academic and reliable sources as well as current ones rather then old.

Education – Literacy

Education – Literacy
Order Description
Format: Written comparative analysis (essay)
This written comparative analysis is designed to assess the following course objectives, as listed in course specifications:
Objective 3. Understand socio-cultural contexts for language and literacies learning.
Objective 4. Identify various approaches to language and literacies learning.
Objective 5. Analyse teacher talk and understand the implications for effective literacy teaching.
Objective 6. Demonstrate competence in and appropriate use of language and literacy, including spelling, grammar, punctuation and APA referencing.
Assignment details:
1. Examine two transcripts of talk (provided on the EDX1170 Study Desk) involving an adult (teacher/parent) and children/a child. Both are instructional settings but one is set in the home environment and is a conversation between a parent and child, while the other is in a classroom and is a conversation between a teacher and students. Please note that the home context is a naturalistic setting and is not a case of home schooling.
2. Working from your learning and the supportive resources provided in the lead up to this assignment, including your knowledge of the role of talk in literate, cultural and social practices from Module 6, analyse the characteristics of the talk in the two situations to compare the effectiveness of literacy pedagogy. Your comparative analysis should discuss the evident differences between the social worlds of home and school, the roles of adults in both settings and the role of children in both settings. Some questions to consider, though not exhaustive, are: How is learning conducted at home and in school? What are the differences and similarities? Finally, your essay should demonstrate insights about why students in classrooms participate in particular ways and what changes may be necessary to classroom pedagogy because of this. 3. Further guidance in mastering the genre of comparative analysis and the tools and approach to transcript analysis will be provided in lectures, tutorials and resources on the Study Desk.
4. You should have at least five references located through your own research for this essay in addition to those provided to complete the assignment.
Notes and supporting documentation:
1. Ensure that you use and refer to the dialogue in the transcripts to support your stance.
2. Ensure your references are listed at the end of the essay and are in APA style.

teleological frameworks and the three deontological frameworks.

teleological frameworks and the three deontological frameworks.
List and discuss in depth the three teleological frameworks and the three deontological frameworks. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Of these six frameworks, with which one do you most associate?

Write a typed essay interpreting the role of violence in the world of Beowulf, king of the Geats

Write a typed essay interpreting the role of violence in the world of Beowulf, king of the Geats
Write a typed essay interpreting the role of violence in the world of Beowulf, king of the Geats.  To what extent is violence controlled or limited?  To what extent is it either randomly applied or highly targeted?  What role does it play in both the survival and the maintenance of a civilization?
Content of the Essay
1) Begin the body of your essay with a brief introduction to the selections in our text from Beowulf  Draw upon notes from your introduction, citing your editor(s) as the author.
2) Use short quotations worked into the text of your own analytical sentences to provide support for the paragraphs. You may also bring into the discussion any relevant outside information as long as you cite the source within your paragraphs.
3) Each topic sentence should be a claim that adds support to your thesis.
Stylistic Standards
Avoid using “I,” “you,” and any references to “the reader.”Use present tense and active voice verbs when referring to the author’s contributions (like this: “Connelly notes,” “Connelly claims,” “Connelly suggests”).
below is a link to the the text to be used
http://hs.auburn.cnyric.org/teachers/michael_sullivan/ap/s0095617f?textonly=

womens studies

womens studies
How do various societies construct gender identities, sexual practices and gendered bodies?
Write for a general, public audience.  Imagine your reader as a smart person who knows nothing about the subject.  Better yet, imagine your reader as a potential employer, a lawyer or a company executive who will hire you on the basis of your self-expression. Do not refer to the class.  Write as formally as possible. This means no contractions, and careful grammar and correct punctuation.
Introduction: This acts as a road map for your essay.  It should not be too broad and sweeping.  You would not want a map of the Bronx to include Asia and Australia.  It should set up the topic and argument clearly and simply (but not informally).
Body:  This develops and provides evidence for your argument.  Each sentence should refer to what comes before and after it in a logical flow.  Be specific.  Tell the reader who, what, where, when.

Taxation laws throughout the world and their immediate relation to democracy

Taxation laws throughout the world and their immediate relation to democracy
The relationship between society and taxation laws, how tax evasion is a possible threat to democracy and how taxation is perceived differently in various regions of the world e.g : Scandinavia where people have to pay very high taxes but in return receive great benefits by the state or some of the oil rich arabian countries where no taxation is required (UAE) or the United States where you are obliged to pay a taxes all your life wether you are a resident in the US or not.
Greate an in depth analysis on how people on corporate level as well as the society as a whole perceive the relationship between taxation and democracy and how they cope with it.

Political Culture Theory

Political Culture Theory
After watching the video below, please write about the question.
Islam: What the West Needs to Know
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=olkjSL6fTHU&list=PL4773248F2A6B6DC9
Question: Why does Barber believe that the realist paradigm fails to provide U.S. guidance for U.S. foreign policy in the 21st century?

Class System Theory

Class System Theory
watch this video, write about the question below.
Blood and Oil

Question: Discuss Wallerstein’s contention (p. 223:5.4) that “the capitalist world-economy cannot survive” and as a historical social system is “in the process of being superseded.” Do you agree? Why or why not?

Postmodernism/Feminism

Postmodernism/Feminism
watch a video for this paper,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JxcaR07yAH8  <- short trailer
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181786/    <-review
Question: From the Khattak article, how does a “women-centered perspective” on the U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan differ from that of a male-centered perspective? Is this distinction useful in formulating IR theory?

Situational Leadership

Situational Leadership
Watch the movie Twelve O’Clock high 1949 and write a paper about the leadership styles while answering the following…
So we see some of the key characters in the movie as being Keith Davenport, General Savage, Harvey Stovall, and a few others. Lets start by looking at how the “hard luck group” got to be a “hard luck” group, and what some of the underlying lessons might be?
How did General Savage approach “re-engineering” the group?
What is the “importance” of Sergeant (Private) Mchilenney (not sure how you spell his name) to the overall story line and objective of the film?
Importantly, what was the “problem” or “issue” of the film? (Mission of the “organization” so to speak)

Algebra Review

Algebra Review
(1) Imagine you are tutoring a classmate in the four algebraic processes. Define each process and provide an example of each.
(2) FOIL is used to multiply binomials and factor trinomials. Provide an example of using the FOIL (first, outer, inner, last) method to multiply binomials and factor trinomials. Explain the relationship between simplifying expressions with parentheses and factoring.

Ratio Analysis

Ratio Analysis
Write a memo to the organization’s senior management and board of directors explaining the financial strengths and weaknesses based upon your analysis. The liquidity, profitability, and capital structure will be assessed and communicated to the leaders of the organization. Your memo should be no more than 250 words in length and should be written in plain English for a lay audience.

International migration theories

International migration theories
Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1. International migration theories include both micro and macro approaches. Use the
experiences of Scottish Highlanders and/or those of Black American Queen Bush settlers
to comment on the 1I_1_eri_ts_ and shortcomings of both types of approaches. Overall, which
approach (or set of approaches) do you find more convincing?
2. Sarah Carter’s and Thomas King’s critical commentaries on Europear1/aboriginal
relations challenge “official stories” of those relations, and offer alternative ones. How
do Carter and/or King challenge these stories, and how effectively do they make their
case?

management of a patient withan allergic rhinitis

management of a patient withan allergic rhinitis
Prepare a case study critically analysing the management of a patient with allergic rhinitis discussion of patients care and the issues involved should include reference to the rationale for your interventions using relevant literature research and evidence based guidelines history taking, skin prick testing, treatment given

"PHL 264 Business and Professional Ethics…"

“PHL 264 Business and Professional Ethics…”
Consider the population in which the solution is intended, the staff that will participate, and the key contributors that must provide approval and/or support for your project to be implemented. These stakeholders are considered your audience.
Develop an implementation plan (1,500-2,000 words). The elements that should be included in your plan are listed below:
1. Method of obtaining necessary approval(s) and securing support from your organization’s leadership and fellow staff.
2. Description of current problem, issue, or deficit requiring a change. Hint: If you are proposing a change in current policy, process, or procedure(s) when delivering patient care, describe first the current policy, process, or procedure as a baseline for comparison.
3. Detailed explanation of proposed solution (new policy, process, procedure, or education to address the problem/deficit).
4. Rationale for selecting proposed solution.
5. Evidence from your review of literature in Module 2 to support your proposed solution and reason for change.
6. Description of implementation logistics (When and how will the change be integrated into the current organizational structure, culture, and workflow? Who will be responsible for initiating the change, educating staff, and overseeing the implementation process?)
7. Resources required for implementation: Staff; Educational Materials (pamphlets, handouts, posters, and PowerPoint presentations); Assessment Tools (questionnaires, surveys, pre- and post-tests to assess knowledge of participants at baseline and after intervention); Technology (technology or software needs); Funds (cost of educating staff, printing or producing educational materials, gathering and analyzing data before, during, and following implementation), and staff to initiate, oversee, and evaluate change.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center

Health Profile

Health Profile
produce a typed summary of one of the different approaches to health promotion that health care professionals may use to support patients. The information will be provided with the relevant book chapter. You will need to read this chapter and also look for additional supportive material from other text books and academic resources available on the Internet. You should also include a reference list using the Harvard style (see separate guidance on referencing)
Read Chapter 5 – Models and approaches to health promotion, (as above) of
NAIDOO, J. & WILLS, J. (2009) Foundations for Health Promotion. 3rd Ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier.
summarise the chapter, identify key points and with supportive additional material correctly cited; type your using Arial 12 font.

Venezuela country risk analysis

Venezuela country risk analysis
A Ltd is a US-based multinational corporation (MNC) oil company. A Ltd is considering acquisition of a smaller oil company which is based in Venezuela. Page 8 of 12
Australian Government Higher Education (CRICOS)
Task
Write an essay analysing country risk for Venezuela. Finally, write your conclusion/advice about acquiring a Venezuela-based oil company.
Do not write any theoretical information/definitions from the text book chapter/s (for example: what is country risk and why it is
important to manage it). You are required to apply the theoretical knowledge to the real world situation ofVenezuela and write a report
using the relevant data and information.

human behavior in organization

human behavior in organization
Men and women become sidetracked for many of the same reasons.  Women,, however, are typically forced into a narrower range of acceptable behavior than their male colleagues, making it more difficult to meet standards for senior leadership positions.  Discuss the personal factors that might lead to female derailment from the leadership track

nuclear waste in minnesota

nuclear waste in minnesota
1.    Select several (at least five) credible sources on your topic
2.    Read the sources carefully to notice phrases/ideas/words that are repeated across different sources
3.    Read sources carefully to identify similarities and differences in the information and arguments presented
4.    Based on your careful readings, select three specific aspects (categories) of the topic worth exploring further
5.    Once you’ve selected these aspects (categories), create a grid of authors’ names and categories
6.    Fill the grid in with details from source material (decide what to quote/paraphrase/summarize)
1.    Translate the grid material into individual paragraphs. Each paragraph should discuss one particular aspect/category and should synthesize at least two different sources.
2.    Make a claim that synthesizes the sources and describes it briefly
3.    Give illustration to support your individual claims. Use quotes, paraphrases, or summary from the source material
4. Analyze and fully explain what the synthesized sources tells us about the aspect/category

strategic in the hospitality industry

strategic in the hospitality industry
“Write a report which explains how UK, hospitality companies can plan to achieve long term business growth through customer acquisition and retention strategies. With reference to specific companies or types of companies, demonstrate how successful strategic and operational marketing can maximise the lifetime value of customers. Also consider the possible constraints that may limit these opportunities.

Girls with a Pearl Earring

Girls with a Pearl Earring
Watch a movie named “Girl with a Pearl Earring” to do this paper.
Write an essay of 600-900 words (approx.  two (2) to three (3) double-spaced page in Times New Roman 12) in which you argue the extent to which Berger’s ideas on pp. 83-85 and 99-104 of Ways of Seeing are true, partially  true or not true based upon your analysis of Vermeer’s painting (which is archived in the “In-class Exercises” folder on our Blackboard site) and the 2003 film Girl with a Pearl Earring (I will try to have  a copy of the film on reserve for you as soon as possible, but you would be well advised to obtain a copy through Netflix (if you don’t have a Netflix account, sign up for a free month’s trial but make sure to cancel it if you don’t want to pay for it thereafter) or through your local DVD rental franchise. The Brooklyn Public Library also has a few copies of the film).
Your essay must include an appropriate title (i.e. one that indicates the theme of your essay, the works you will be discussing and their respective authors); an introduction with thesis; body paragraphs with one topic sentence apiece in support of your thesis (remember, you should explore no more than one idea in support of your thesis in each body paragraph); and a conclusion.

Marketing

Marketing
Choose ONE of the following three questions and answer according to the requirements of the question. You will need to provide support and justification for your answers. You are EXPECTED to refer to the theories you have learnt during the semester. You will be marked according to your ability to apply theories to the ads you have chosen.
Question 1:
Choose FIVEads for one product category of your choice (for example, ice cream) that targets FIVE different target markets. For each of the ad, write a description of what you think the demographic and psychographic characteristics of the targeted market are. Explain using Marketing theories. (25 marks)
Question 2:
Provide FIVE ads (print) of brands that have garnered success with advertising campaigns. For EACH of the brands, discuss and justify why you think the advertising campaign received success. Did the brand engage consumers and how? Discuss using Marketing theories (e.g. AIDA). (25 marks)
Question 3:
Explain the difference between a “pull” promotional strategy and a “push” promotional strategy. Find two ads to showcase “pull” promotional strategy and find two ads to show “push” promotional strategy. For each ad, discuss if the ad has been effective for the product. Explain and justify your answers using Marketing theories.

Zappos'; CASE: GS-65

Zappos’; CASE: GS-65
Our decision was always to focus on service because we got instant feedback whenever we
upgraded delivery. Customers were wowed by the experience, and then they told a bunch of
people. And word of mouth works a lot faster on the Internet than it does person-to-person
because you can just e-mail out a bunch of your fliends and say, ’hey I just had this amazing
experience.’ That was one of the reasons that we wanted to keep upgrading shipping.
-Alfred Lin, Chairman, COo, and CFO of Zapposl
In late 2008, less than 10 years after its founding, Zappos anticipated reaching annual gross sales
of $1 billion. When its founder first proposed the idea of selling shoes online, the concept was
greeted with intense skepticism. Despite the challenges, the company had achieved dramatic
success. It was the world’s largest online retailer of shoes, was profitable, growing rapidly, and
had an outstanding reputation for customer service. Its employees were passionately, engaged in
their work. While shoes still provided the vast majority of revenues, Zappos had expanded its
product offerings based on feedback from customers and the enthusiasm of employees. There
was still a huge untapped customer base-only 3 percent of the U.S. population were Zappos
customers-suggesting that the company was not close to saturating its opportunities in the U.S.,
let alone other international regions.
However, the collapse of the financial markets, and the prospect of a prolonged recession,
created new challenges. Zappos had never been lavishly funded-it had always been intensely
conscious of cash. Unlike most retailers, it was continuing to grow, but early signs were that the
rate of growth was slowing. As the company’s leadership looked forward, it considered ways
that Zappos could sustain the high quality experience that it was known for-to deliver “wow” to
its customers, suppliers, and other affiliates. The company’s supply chain management had
evolved as Zappos had grown, and was one of its sources of excellence. Yet, perhaps there were
opportunities for continued improvement.
1 Quotations are from interviews with the author, unless otherwise specified.
David Hoyt prepared this case under the supervision of Michael Marks, Lecturer in Operations, Information, and
Technology, and Professor Hau Lee as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of an administrative situation.
Copyright © 201] by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. All rights reserved. To order
copies or request permission to reproduce materials, e-mail the Case Writing Ofice at: cwo@gsb.stanford edu or
write: Case Writing Office, Stanford Graduate School of Business, 518 Memorial Way, Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305-5015. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a
spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise – without the permission of the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
Case study questions;
1. What are Zappos’ core competencies and sources of competitive advantages? How sustainable are they? What role does corporate culture plays in this question.
2. How important in the next day air shipment to the customer experience? Is it worth the cost? How might you change it in the cost-concious environment facing the company in the late 2008?
3. How wouldnyou expand the business? Would you add more products, more geographies,or by selling private lebels? As you expand the business, how can the company become more profitable,particulary in light of the cost associated with the forcus on service.
4. How would you expect the environment of a more cost- concious consumer to affect Zappos, business? What can Zappos do in such an environment to maintain sales growth?

Describe the concept of a business orientation.

Describe the concept of a business orientation.
Critically assess whether there is in fact a single best business orientation that all firms should always adopt? Please justify your answer with examples.

Energy

Energy
You may find the source useful in your investigation:
http://www.switchenergyproject.com/topics/wind#/energy-overview-wind
Answer the following questions relative to the alternative energy sources selected from the above list.
•    Maximum points are awarded for thorough and thoughtful answers.
•    List any sources used in your investigation.
•    Responses MUST be submitted via Blackboard using Safe Assign.
Questions:
1.    What causes or creates wind?
2.    How available is this resource?  Using the Wind Resource Maps accessible from the  site, http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/windmaps/ , answer the following questions:
a.    Identify the land-based locations in the US best suited as utility-scale wind resources (80-meter).  Record the range of wind speeds.
b.    Investigate the community scale (50-meter data) wind power classification for locations near Boise.  Record the wind resource potential rating and wind speed
3.    Is it affordable?  Include a discussion of infrastructure required to make it mainstream.
4.    Is it reliable?  Could it be used as a base-load source?  If not, explain why.
5.    Is it considered clean?  Compare emissions to those generated by coal or natural gas powered plants.
6.    Energy storage – what methods have been investigated particularly with regard to wind energy

System Development – Tools and Techniques

System Development – Tools and Techniques
Information Systems continue to fail for a variety of reasons. Using Case studies refer to reasons for failure and identify tools and techniques that have been introduced to help prevent failures and improve the development of Information Systems. Support your answer with relevant, referenced examples.
Assignment 1:
You are required to perform a series of tasks over the next few weeks as formative assessment for assignment 1. Your answers should show evidence of extensive research in the available literature, and you should use the IEEE referencing system, supplying full details of all references used.

The Big Data Challenges

The Big Data Challenges
Case Study 1: Big Data is a term used to describe the voluminous amount of structured and semi-structured data generated by companies. The term is used when referring to petabytes (PB), exabytes (EB), and zettabytes (ZB) of data. Companies face challenges when it comes to capturing, storing, searching, and analyzing Big Data. The Volvo Car Corporation faced this problem because of the massive amount of data it was streaming from its vehicles. Study the Volvo Car Corporation case study titled, “Converting data into business value at Volvo”, located here. Write a two (2) page paper in which you:
1.Judge how Volvo Car Corporation integrated the cloud infrastructure into its networks.
2.Explain how Volvo Car Corporation transforms data into knowledge.
3.Identify the real-time information systems implemented and evaluate the impact of these implementations.
4.Argue how the Big Data strategy gives Volvo Car Corporation a competitive advantage.
5.Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/CIS/500/1124/Week3-1124/CIS500CaseStudy1-Volvo.pdf
How to write a case study:
http://www.gttp.org/docs/HowToWriteAGoodCase.pdf

Gender Based Discrimination

Gender Based Discrimination
Assignment:
•    Your topic is a current problem in the world.  After narrowing down your topic to a specific concern with the problem, your paper would then present two opposing viewpoints, then a compromise between the two viewpoints that would potentially solve the problem.
•    You may if you wish use the same issue that you explored in the first paper.  However, remember that this is a separate paper and different assignment.  Follow instructions for this paper closely.  If you do use the same topic as the first paper, you will be able to condense and revise the first paper to fit only section IV of this paper.  You will still have to conduct new research for the paper and write a considerable amount to cover the rest of the paper.
•    The major thesis for this paper will be the compromise solution that you develop between the two opposing viewpoints which will come near the end of your paper. However, before you get to this compromise, you must present the claim that each opposing side makes.  These will be like mini versions of the thesis in the first paper that we wrote in the class.
•    The paper should have one cohesive voice and tone throughout despite looking at opposing viewpoints.  You should not show bias toward any particular side of the argument. To use the Rogerian arrangement, you must be able to present both sides objectively.  You are not trying to win the argument or convert people to agree with your views; you are trying to get two sides, those who agree with you and those who agree with your opponent, to compromise. You must avoid attacking language that would sound morally superior to your opponent.
•    You should not choose a topic that is so controversial that you will not be able to be objective about it, i.e. religion, abortion, right to life, etc. You want your topic to be one where there is a problem and a variety of solutions, possibly controversial.  You should write your paper looking at two viewpoints (yours and your opponent’s) and try to find a solution you can both agree on.

Course: NURS 6261: Coaching 2 – Advanced Coaching (3 Credits)

Course: NURS 6261: Coaching 2 – Advanced Coaching (3 Credits)
Week’s lesson
Attached Files:
Immunity to Change Map.pdf (146.831 KB)
Immunity to Change.pptx (8.533 MB)
Week 3
Immunity to change
•    Develop   an Immunity Map .     Narrated PowerPoint on Immunity to change
http://www.extension.harvard.edu/hub/blog/extension-blog/goal-setting-tips-overcoming-your-immunity-change
Watch Robert Kegan on Immunity to change:

Assignment:  Immunity to Change MAP
Please read assignment carefully. You can choose client for coaching (wellness coaching)  to develp an immunity to change map. Please read above file for reference. You must use Editable PDF form (below).
Immunity to Change Worksheet (20 points):  Select a practice client or use yourself to develop an immunity to change map.  Use the Editable PDF form.  Be sure to craft
Key focus    Detail/example    Points
*Client Background    pertinent information
Issue to be addressed/patients agenda    3
Commitment    Example: To lose   100 lbs….    2
Doing/not doing towards that commitment    Example: Binge   on sugar
Eat past full
…..    2
Hidden or competing commitments    Afraid people will stare at me once I lose weight. I’ll   have to “show up”
3
Big Assumptions    “It is not possible for me to ever be thin”.    5
*Lessons learned analysis    AHA moments
Insights that came to the client from the exercise.   Discuss how well or not the patient was engaged/ coaching learning.    5
*These two section are not included on the worksheet and must be crafted in a word document separately.

ALLH12006 Evidence-Based Practice for Allied Health

ALLH12006 Evidence-Based Practice for Allied Health
Aim
In this assessment you will present a synthesised and critical evaluation of three original research articles in an attempt to answer a clinical question. In doing this you will also need to present and explain your clinical question, describe how you performed an information search, and justify how and why you narrowed your search down to three articles.
Alignment
This assessments aligns with course outcomes 1, 2, 3, and 4
Task
You are permitted, indeed encouraged, to complete this assessment as a follow-up to what you did in Assessment 1. In other words, you can base this assessment around the same clinical question and search strategy. However, you are expected to have refined your PICO question and search as necessary following feedback received in Assessment 1. When this assessment is being marked, it will be marked as a standalone piece, and the marker will not refer back to your submission for Assessment 1.
However, you may base this assessment on a completely different PICO question to that which you used in Assessment 1 if you wish to do so. If you are continuing your topic area from Assessment 1, you need to be wary about your wording to avoid self-plagiarism, i.e. you cannot simply cut and paste wording from Assessment 1 into this assessment.
This assessment task essentially breaks down into three sections
Section 1 Background and Clinical question
This section is essentially your introduction which should provide the reader with sufficient background to understand the clinical significance of your proposed PICO question.
You should ensure that you define and describe any key terms and concepts and provide examples as necessary. You should also be sure to emphasise the real-life clinical need for addressing your question in the context of current allied health care. It should be clear that the question is relevant to current
practice and is not simply a question for the sake of asking a question for a piece of academic assessment (i.e. one for where there is already a well-established answer easily accessible in the literature).
If it helps, you may imagine that you are attempting to answer the question as a clinician in a real-life service delivery scenario, e.g. you may imagine that you are a clinician working in a rural rehabilitation centre, or whatever, if this helps you to build a better-rounded introduction section.
It is up to you whether you present your PICO question first followed by your background that justifies the question, or whether you present your introduction first which then leads to your PICO question. Either way can work well. You do not need to present your PICO question in tabulated form as was required in Assessment 1 – just the written question itself is sufficient.
This section would be expected to be in the region of 200 -300 words.
Section 2 Search strategy
You should include a paragraph describing your search strategy that has informed the following evaluative discussion in Section 3. You should do this concisely by mentioning the databases/sources you have searched to find information, any particular text and index terms you have used and any particular limits you have used on your search (e.g. date range, language of articles etc.). You should then describe the process for reviewing the results of your search in order to come down to your final selection of three. You are expected to present a process whereby you have systematically selected literature that presents as high a level of evidence as possible in relation to your type of question, and not simply selected the first three articles you come across that appear relevant to your question.
To get an idea of how to do this concisely, you may wish to refer to some published systematic reviews to see how they describe their search methodology.
You should conclude this section by identifying the articles that you have selected and will thus form the basis of your critical evaluation. In doing this you are not required to provide full bibliographic information (as you will do this in the reference list). You may do this as you would normally incorporate in-text citations, e.g.
“Following the review process, three articles were identified as being relevant to address the clinical question and as being of relatively high levels of evidence. These articles were Smith (2010), Jones (2011), and Adams (2012).
Ideally your final three articles will represent original research (inclusive of systematic reviews) and should not be Clinical Practice Guidelines. If you must use Clinical Practice Guidelines as one of you three articles (e.g. due to lack of original research addressing your question), you need to explain why you are using it and you must demonstrate that you have appraised the
quality of these Guidelines. Regardless of what your final three articles are, you are more than welcome to refer to Clinical Practice Guidelines in your background section and when you consider the clinical significance of the results of the three articles (see Section 3).
This section would be expected to be in the region of 200 -250 words.
Section 3 Evaluative review of evidence
This is by far the largest and most important section of this assessment piece as this is where you demonstrate your ability to synthesise information with the aim of answering your clinical question.
Firstly, you should aim to give brief summaries of each of the individual articles that you have selected. You should aim to include information about their research questions/focus, their research methodology, the participants, the main results and conclusions. In doing this, you should be as concise as possible.
Following the brief summaries of the individual articles you should then begin to present your synthesised evaluation that attempts to discuss how these three articles help address your clinical question. In doing so you may consider
? The level of evidence provided by each article in the context of the your overall information search (e.g. is the literature available on the topic of interest conducive to selecting high levels of evidence, or is the highest evidence available ‘only’ single case study research, etc.?)
? The quality of the evidence provided by the three articles selected. This is where you will need to demonstrate you ability to critically appraise the articles individually and come to a conclusion regarding
o Was the research well-focused?
o Were the methods appropriate?
o Could the results be trusted?
? The nature of the results provided by the three articles and how these results contribute to answering your clinical question
o Are the results in agreement?
o Is there inconsistency? What may lead to this inconsistency?
? The clinical significance of the results provided by the three articles
o Even if the results are positive, are they clinically significant?
o Do the results suggest a change in clinical practice? Or even a continuation of current practice?
o If a change of practice is indicated, are there any potential barriers to implementing these changes? Or what other issues may need to be considered for successful implementation to take place?
? An overall conclusion that summarises the previous discussion and answers your clinical question.
o There is no expectation that in order to do well, you need to answer your question positively (e.g. ‘the evidence presented highlights that treatment x is amazingly effective’)
o If the research you have reviewed raises further questions that warrant consideration, you may highlight these
o If the answer to your question is dependent on factors you had not previously considered, or if there are certain caveats, you can highlight these (e.g. the effectiveness may depend on the type of stroke someone has had therefore this may be worthy of implementing into inclusion/exclusion criteria in subsequent reviews of literature).
You will most likely not have sufficient words available to address all of the above points to a good level of detail. Therefore it is up to you to be concise, and judicious in terms of what you decide to discuss.
Other pointers
If you are unsure of what I mean by ‘synthesised’, I mean that you should demonstrate that you are bringing together information across all three articles and not simply defaulting to a structure such as ‘article one says … Meanwhile article two says … whereas article three says …’. A more critical writing approach may be something more like
‘positive results to support the use of … in people with … was observed in Smith (2012) and Jones (2011) although the results of Adams (2013) did not show any additional beneficial effects compared to people receiving normal care. Therefore, given that all three articles present good quality evidence, overall there appears sufficient evidence to conclude that … is worthy of implementation as a treatment method although its effectiveness may be dependent on … as discussed by Adams (2013)’
Within this section, you may also find it useful to describe the process of critical appraisal, e.g. by identifying the critical appraisal tools that you have used to review each of the individual articles. If you do this, it would work well at the beginning of the section.
While this section will be focused on discussing the three articles you have selected, you may also refer to other sources of information where relevant. For example, it may help to refer to authoritative information when interpreting the clinical significance of the results of the study. Similarly, it may help to refer to current clinical practice guidelines or other organizational documentation when interpreting whether a change to current practice is indicated.
Across this piece of assessment, you should be aiming to demonstrate how you have attempted to incorporate perspectives from each of the four domains of evidence-based practice. While ‘Research evidence’ is the strong
focus, you should consider this in relation to Clinical experience, Client-related factors, and also Service delivery factors as well. This should be integrated into your discussion rather than explicitly represented (e.g. you should not need headings for each of the four EBP domains with subsequent discussion).
This section would be expected to be in the region of 700-850 words.
Basic structure of piece
? Cover page
? Section 1 Background and clinical question
? Section 2 Search strategy
? Section 3 Evaluative review of evidence
? Reference list (this should contain full (APA) bibliographic information for the three articles that form the basis of your review and any additional sources you have cited. It is expected that you will need to cite more than just the three primary articles you are appraising.
You are encouraged to use headings and sub-headings to aid the structure of your writing. You may use the headings above or reasonable alternatives.
Word limit
The word limit for this assessment piece is 1,250 words maximum. There is no +10% leeway on this. A 1,250 word maximum means that this is the absolute maximum. You should state your word count on your cover page. If you do exceed to word limit, the marker will not read any word over the 1,250th word.
Words included in word count
Words not included in word count
The body of your text
Heading and sub-headings
Word in tables and figures
Cover page
Reference list
You should not need to include appendices with this assessment. While you are expected to have used some formal method to critically appraise of the three articles that make up your evaluation, you are not required to include completed critical appraisal tools.
You will only be penalized if you exceed the maximum word limit for the assessment as a whole (1,250). However, if you exceed the suggested word limits for an individual section, this may impact on your ability to effectively complete other sections. Similarly, you will not be penalized for going significantly under the 1,250 word limit, although this may also impact on your ability to effectively complete the assessment piece.
Style and formatting
Cover pages should be plain and non-distracting (i.e. no colours or fancy borders) and should present all necessary information as per usual.
You do not need to include a contents page.
All in-text citations and reference lists should be consistent with current APA styles of formatting and style.
You should use a standard font (e.g. Times New Roman, Arial) and this should be 12pt. You may use single, 1.5 or double line spacing. Page margins should be no smaller than 2.5cm all around.
If including tables, these should be introduced in the text and/or have a title so that the reader understands the purpose of the table.
You should save your final submission as a Microsoft Word document, not pdf, and you should give this a filename according to the following formula:
Your surname, Your first name, Course code, Assessment 3.docx (or .doc)
E.g.
Plant, Chris, ALLH12006, Assessment 3.docx
Student name:
Marker name:
Date marked:
HD-D
C
P
F
Mark Background and clinical question 15 – 11.5 11 – 9.5 9 – 7.5 7 – 0
? A well-phrased PICO question Is presented
? Definitions and examples are provided to explain key terms/concepts
? Sufficient background information is provided that draws from relevant sources of information to allow appreciation of the clinical relevance and significance of the PICO question.
? The PICO question is clear but may require minor modification
? Most key terms/concepts are defined and explained sufficiently
? A good background section that allows appreciation of the clinical relevance and significance of the PICO question although would benefit from further support from external sources of information.
? The PICO question may require some modifications to one or more elements.
? Some key terms/concepts would benefit from further explanation
? The background presents a basic discussion that may lack adequate support from external sources of information. However, it allows a general appreciation of the clinical relevance of the PICO question.
? The PICO questions requires major modification
? No key term or concept is defined or explained adequately
? Background section is extremely limited and does not allow the reader to appreciate the clinical relevance of the PICO question.
/15 Search strategy 15 – 11.5 11 – 9.5 9 – 7.5 7 – 0
? An appropriate search strategy is described concisely and reassures the reader that a thorough and efficient search has been performed.
? The process of identifying three original research articles is logical and is described comprehensively and is fully justified.
? An appropriate search strategy is described although this may have benefitted from minor modifications.
? The process of identifying three original research articles appears mostly logical although could be described in more detail or with greater justification
? A basic, although mostly appropriate search strategy is described.
? The process of identifying three original research articles requires greater elaboration although some justification is presented
? A poor search strategy is described or the description is not adequate to appreciate how an information search has been performed.
? There is very limited or no description of the process of identifying three original research articles or the process appears inappropriate or illogical.
/15
Review and evaluation 50 – 37.5 37 – 32.5 32 – 25 24.5 – 0
? Each article is summarized concisely with regards to its aims, methods, and findings and it is clear how each article relates to the clinical question.
? Individual articles are appraised and evaluated in terms of their quality and all comments are well justified.
? Key issues from the three individual articles are synthesised in a coherent manner in a way that is relevant the clinical question.
? A logical answer for the clinical question is proposed alongside any relevant caveats
? Each article is summarized well although some minor information is not included or there may slight lack of clarity with how one or two articles related to clinical question
? Individual articles are generally appraised well although some points may not be fully justified
? Key issues from the three articles are identified but may require more effective integration into a coherent discussion addressing relating to the clinical question.
? A logical answer to the clinical question is proposed which may require further elaboration
? Each article is summarised from a basic perspective and it may be unclear as to how articles relate to the clinical question
? Appraisal of individual articles is superficial although some good points are identified
? There is a lack of effective integration of information across the articles when addressing the clinical question although some points have merit.
? An answer to the clinical question is proposed although it may be unclear how this is informed by the information that has been appraised.
? Summaries of individual articles lack depth and there is no clear link to the clinical question
? There is no evidence of an effective appraisal process
? There is no, or a very poor attempt to integrate information across individual articles when addressing the clinical question
? No answer to the clinical question is proposed or an answer is unsupported by information presented (or due to a lack of information presented).
/50 Academic writing 20 – 15 14.5 – 12.5 12 – 10 9.5 – 0
? Writing is well-structured and flows logically
? Writing style is clear and concise
? No, or very few, spelling and grammar errors
? APA format applied faultlessly or with only minor errors (same error repeatedly)
? Writing is well-structured and flows logically with minor exceptions
? Writing is mostly clear and concise with minor exceptions
? Occasional minor spelling and grammar errors (maybe same error repeatedly)
? Some minor but varied errors of applying APA formatting
? Writing occasionally lacks structure but overall flows logically
? Writing style is sometimes unclear and/or overly wordy
? Noticeable errors in spelling and grammar
? Frequent and varied errors in applying APA formatting
? Writing lacks structure and does not present information logically
? Writing is unclear and difficult to read
? Frequent and varied errors in spelling and grammar
? No citations used
? Frequent errors and great inconsistency in attempting to apply APA formatting
/20
Total ( /100)
Notes:
1. Marker may award whole point marks or 0.5 point marks in any criterion
2. Final mark /100 will contribute towards 40% of overall course grade. So if you achieve exactly 50/100 you have achieved 20% of your overall course grade via this assessment piece.

The role and significance of undergraduate education in psychology

The role and significance of undergraduate education in psychology
Order Description
Below is an explanation of what the critical review paper is expected to feature:
1. Like any paper written, the review paper should have an introduction section that ends with a research question/ topic sentence/ question that sets the stage for the content of your paper. Meaning when i read that last statement of the introduction, i should be able to know what it is you will be explaining throughout the rest of the paper. Following the introduction, there should be 2-3 body paragraphs highlighting the ideas that directly relate to your research question/topic sentence/ question. Finally all should be summarized and tied together in a concluding paragraph.
2. The entire critical review from cover page to references should be IN APA STYLE. fonts, in text citations, reference sections and heading should follow the APA style. You have to understand that 30% of the mark you receive on these papers is dedicated to APA style writing
3. The text should be written in a formal tone. you should also keep the tone passive. do not use “I”, “we”. Do not use abbreviations and exclamations.
4. The paper is not a platform for opinions. it is good to have an opinion but an opinion alone has no place in scientific writing. Either explain the logic (backed up by research and theory) behind the opinion or do not state it altogether.
WHILE READING THE ARTICLES THAT I WILL BE UPLOADING YOU SHOULD CHOOSE A TOPIC/IDEA/POINT RELATED TO THE ARTICLES AND WRITE THE ESSAY ABOUT. AND IN THE BODY YOU SHOULD AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH TOPIC THAT YOU ARE WRITING ABOUT WITH BACKED-UP EVIDENCE FROM OTHER SOURCES.

Quantitative Analysis Paper

Quantitative Analysis Paper
The objective of this assignment is to verify the ability of students to use and analyze spreadsheets as an important quantitative tool when making managerial decisions. Students are asked to build and analyze a simple spreadsheet assigned by the instructor from an example provided in the book (end of chapter spreadsheet problems) or designed by the instructor. Once students have completed the quantitative analysis they will need to interpret the results and finish with the policy implications of their analysis. The analysis can be on topics such as, but not limited to, optimal production and pricing, cost analysis with fixed and variable inputs, competitive market equilibrium in the short and long runs, monopoly practices, identifying superior mutual fund performance, or welfare effects of externalities.
The Quantitative Analysis Paper needs to include:
Cover Page: Course name and number, assignment title, student’s name, date.
Introduction: Establishing in the student’s own words the business situation being analyzed.
Analysis Section: Responding to the questions posed in the problem in a word document format so that the completed Quantitative Analysis paper will be a combination of EXCEL and MSWORD related material.
Conclusions/Recommendations: Once students has completed the quantitative analysis they will need to interpret the results and finish with the policy implications of their analysis.
Graduate Percentage Scale:    0.00 – 68.74%    68.75 – 86.24%    86.25 – 93.74%    93.75 – 100%
Graduate Scaled Score:    0.0 – 1.5    1.6 – 2.9    3.0 – 3.5    3.6 – 4.0
% of Grade    Below Standard    Approaching Standard    At Standard    Exceeds Standard
Appropriate use of Excel    25    Calculated worksheet is not completed using Excel.
Calculated worksheet is completed using Excel; calculations are entered manually without the use of formulas; spreadsheet has many items not labelled; organization is poor.
Calculated worksheet is completed on Excel with adequate formatting; most items are clearly labelled; organization is adequate.
Calculated worksheet is completed using Excel; all items and columns are clearly labelled; organization is clear; solutions are highlighted.
Accuracy of Solution    25    Work is poorly done and does not demonstrate knowledge of course concepts. Steps in the process were not followed.
Student understands course concepts at minimum level of competency. Steps in the process are inconsistent.
Student understands course concepts at an acceptable level of competency. Steps in the process are consistent.
Student presents a clear understanding of the course concepts. Knowledge of steps in the process is precise showing maximum level of competency.
Completeness of Solution    25    Student has failed to follow the instructions which accompany the problem resulting in the wrong soltuion or missing sections of the solution.
At least one portion of the assignment is missing.
Work submitted includes each portion of the assignment, but parts do not flow logically through the process.
Each portion of the assignment has been thoroughly prepared and linked to other parts of the assignment.
Professional Presentation    25    Incorrect grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation with many errors. Unprofessional presentation format detracts from information and message.
Some improper grammar, spelling, syntax , or spelling errors. Presentation format is not logical.
Mostly correct use of grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation. Most material is logically presented in a profession format.
Writing mechanics are nearly flawless with consistently proper use of grammar, syntax, punctuation, and spelling. All material is logically presented in a profession format.
TOTAL    100%

Project Draft

Project Draft
Order Description
Other Requirements
•Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
Activity    Weighting
Analyze theories and research related to social behavior surrounding a chosen topic.     12%
Explain critical issues related to a chosen topic, which are grounded in research in the social and community services disciplines.     12%
Analyze strategies and best practices based upon main theories related to social behavior and a chosen topic.     13%
Discuss how social behavior theory related to a selected topic applies to the social self.     13%
Discuss how social behavior theory applies to a work setting.     13%
Analyze ethics and research related to a selected topic from a social psychology perspective.     12%
Analyze how problems related to a selected topic are conceptualized and solved.     12%
Synthesize social behavior theory and research to create one’s own position, philosophy, or recommendation.     13%

THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & CAPITALISM

THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & CAPITALISM
Paper details:
video link : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcA1v2n7WW4
TE 4                                  THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO & CAPITALISM
After viewing Richard Wolff on US Wages, American Exceptionalism, Consumerism, and Capitalism on YouTube (C{losed} C{aptioning}  is available by clicking on it at the bottom right of the screen for those who also wish to read along) and reading The CM
I  Please define 7 of the following terms, then cut and  paste in the paragraphs in The CM (with pg #) that describe or foretell this economic dynamic
1.    Industrialization
2.    Consumerism
3.    Managed Health Care, Jingle Writers, Commercial Artists
4.    Multinational Corporations
5.    Advertising Agencies
6.    Napster
7.    Farm Subsidies (paying farmers not to grow parts of their fields)
8.    Euro Disney
9.    Day Laborers, Piece Workers
10.    Assembly Lines
11.    Job Outsourcing
12.    Walmartization
13.    Trade Protectionism
14.    Voting against your own economic interests
II. Then answer the following 2 questions:
1.    What were the differences between the US ratio of Productivity to Wages from WWII until 1979 as compared to 1980 until today. What impact has this had on Income Equality in the US?
2.    To what factors does Wolff ascribe the astronomical growth in student debt over these last decades?

Synthesised critical review

Synthesised critical review
Paper details:
Task
You are permitted, indeed encouraged, to complete this assessment as a follow-up to what you did in Assessment 1. In other words, you can base this assessment around the same clinical question and search strategy. However, you are expected to have refined your PICO question and search as necessary following feedback received in Assessment 1. When this assessment is being marked, it will be marked as a standalone piece, and the marker will not refer back to your submission for Assessment 1.
However, you may base this assessment on a completely different PICO question to that which you used in Assessment 1 if you wish to do so. If you are continuing your topic area from Assessment 1, you need to be wary about your wording to avoid self-plagiarism, i.e. you cannot simply cut and paste wording from Assessment 1 into this assessment.
This assessment task essentially breaks down into three sections
Section 1 Background and Clinical question
This section is essentially your introduction which should provide the reader with sufficient background to understand the clinical significance of your proposed PICO question.
You should ensure that you define and describe any key terms and concepts and provide examples as necessary. You should also be sure to emphasise the real-life clinical need for addressing your question in the context of current allied health care. It should be clear that the question is relevant to current
practice and is not simply a question for the sake of asking a question for a piece of academic assessment (i.e. one for where there is already a well-established answer easily accessible in the literature).
If it helps, you may imagine that you are attempting to answer the question as a clinician in a real-life service delivery scenario, e.g. you may imagine that you are a clinician working in a rural rehabilitation centre, or whatever, if this helps you to build a better-rounded introduction section.
It is up to you whether you present your PICO question first followed by your background that justifies the question, or whether you present your introduction first which then leads to your PICO question. Either way can work well. You do not need to present your PICO question in tabulated form as was required in Assessment 1 – just the written question itself is sufficient.
This section would be expected to be in the region of 200 -300 words.
Section 2 Search strategy
You should include a paragraph describing your search strategy that has informed the following evaluative discussion in Section 3. You should do this concisely by mentioning the databases/sources you have searched to find information, any particular text and index terms you have used and any particular limits you have used on your search (e.g. date range, language of articles etc.). You should then describe the process for reviewing the results of your search in order to come down to your final selection of three. You are expected to present a process whereby you have systematically selected literature that presents as high a level of evidence as possible in relation to your type of question, and not simply selected the first three articles you come across that appear relevant to your question.
To get an idea of how to do this concisely, you may wish to refer to some published systematic reviews to see how they describe their search methodology.
You should conclude this section by identifying the articles that you have selected and will thus form the basis of your critical evaluation. In doing this you are not required to provide full bibliographic information (as you will do this in the reference list). You may do this as you would normally incorporate in-text citations, e.g.
“Following the review process, three articles were identified as being relevant to address the clinical question and as being of relatively high levels of evidence. These articles were Smith (2010), Jones (2011), and Adams (2012).
Ideally your final three articles will represent original research (inclusive of systematic reviews) and should not be Clinical Practice Guidelines. If you must use Clinical Practice Guidelines as one of you three articles (e.g. due to lack of original research addressing your question), you need to explain why you are using it and you must demonstrate that you have appraised the
quality of these Guidelines. Regardless of what your final three articles are, you are more than welcome to refer to Clinical Practice Guidelines in your background section and when you consider the clinical significance of the results of the three articles (see Section 3).
This section would be expected to be in the region of 200 -250 words.
Section 3 Evaluative review of evidence
This is by far the largest and most important section of this assessment piece as this is where you demonstrate your ability to synthesise information with the aim of answering your clinical question.
Firstly, you should aim to give brief summaries of each of the individual articles that you have selected. You should aim to include information about their research questions/focus, their research methodology, the participants, the main results and conclusions. In doing this, you should be as concise as possible.
Following the brief summaries of the individual articles you should then begin to present your synthesised evaluation that attempts to discuss how these three articles help address your clinical question. In doing so you may consider
? The level of evidence provided by each article in the context of the your overall information search (e.g. is the literature available on the topic of interest conducive to selecting high levels of evidence, or is the highest evidence available ‘only’ single case study research, etc.?)
? The quality of the evidence provided by the three articles selected. This is where you will need to demonstrate you ability to critically appraise the articles individually and come to a conclusion regarding
o Was the research well-focused?
o Were the methods appropriate?
o Could the results be trusted?
? The nature of the results provided by the three articles and how these results contribute to answering your clinical question
o Are the results in agreement?
o Is there inconsistency? What may lead to this inconsistency?
? The clinical significance of the results provided by the three articles
o Even if the results are positive, are they clinically significant?
o Do the results suggest a change in clinical practice? Or even a continuation of current practice?
o If a change of practice is indicated, are there any potential barriers to implementing these changes? Or what other issues may need to be considered for successful implementation to take place?
? An overall conclusion that summarises the previous discussion and answers your clinical question.
o There is no expectation that in order to do well, you need to answer your question positively (e.g. ‘the evidence presented highlights that treatment x is amazingly effective’)
o If the research you have reviewed raises further questions that warrant consideration, you may highlight these
o If the answer to your question is dependent on factors you had not previously considered, or if there are certain caveats, you can highlight these (e.g. the effectiveness may depend on the type of stroke someone has had therefore this may be worthy of implementing into inclusion/exclusion criteria in subsequent reviews of literature).
You will most likely not have sufficient words available to address all of the above points to a good level of detail. Therefore it is up to you to be concise, and judicious in terms of what you decide to discuss.
Other pointers
If you are unsure of what I mean by ‘synthesised’, I mean that you should demonstrate that you are bringing together information across all three articles and not simply defaulting to a structure such as ‘article one says … Meanwhile article two says … whereas article three says …’. A more critical writing approach may be something more like
‘positive results to support the use of … in people with … was observed in Smith (2012) and Jones (2011) although the results of Adams (2013) did not show any additional beneficial effects compared to people receiving normal care. Therefore, given that all three articles present good quality evidence, overall there appears sufficient evidence to conclude that … is worthy of implementation as a treatment method although its effectiveness may be dependent on … as discussed by Adams (2013)’
Within this section, you may also find it useful to describe the process of critical appraisal, e.g. by identifying the critical appraisal tools that you have used to review each of the individual articles. If you do this, it would work well at the beginning of the section.
While this section will be focused on discussing the three articles you have selected, you may also refer to other sources of information where relevant. For example, it may help to refer to authoritative information when interpreting the clinical significance of the results of the study. Similarly, it may help to refer to current clinical practice guidelines or other organizational documentation when interpreting whether a change to current practice is indicated.
Across this piece of assessment, you should be aiming to demonstrate how you have attempted to incorporate perspectives from each of the four domains of evidence-based practice. While ‘Research evidence’ is the strong
focus, you should consider this in relation to Clinical experience, Client-related factors, and also Service delivery factors as well. This should be integrated into your discussion rather than explicitly represented (e.g. you should not need headings for each of the four EBP domains with subsequent discussion).
This section would be expected to be in the region of 700-850 words.
Basic structure of piece
? Cover page
? Section 1 Background and clinical question
? Section 2 Search strategy
? Section 3 Evaluative review of evidence
? Reference list (this should contain full (APA) bibliographic information for the three articles that form the basis of your review and any additional sources you have cited. It is expected that you will need to cite more than just the three primary articles you are appraising.
You are encouraged to use headings and sub-headings to aid the structure of your writing. You may use the headings above or reasonable alternatives.
Word limit
The word limit for this assessment piece is 1,250 words maximum. There is no +10% leeway on this. A 1,250 word maximum means that this is the absolute maximum. You should state your word count on your cover page. If you do exceed to word limit, the marker will not read any word over the 1,250th word.
Words included in word count
Words not included in word count
The body of your text
Heading and sub-headings
Word in tables and figures
Cover page
Reference list
You should not need to include appendices with this assessment. While you are expected to have used some formal method to critically appraise of the three articles that make up your evaluation, you are not required to include completed critical appraisal tools.
You will only be penalized if you exceed the maximum word limit for the assessment as a whole (1,250). However, if you exceed the suggested word limits for an individual section, this may impact on your ability to effectively complete other sections. Similarly, you will not be penalized for going significantly under the 1,250 word limit, although this may also impact on your ability to effectively complete the assessment piece.
Style and formatting
Cover pages should be plain and non-distracting (i.e. no colours or fancy borders) and should present all necessary information as per usual.
You do not need to include a contents page.
All in-text citations and reference lists should be consistent with current APA styles of formatting and style.
You should use a standard font (e.g. Times New Roman, Arial) and this should be 12pt. You may use single, 1.5 or double line spacing. Page margins should be no smaller than 2.5cm all around.
If including tables, these should be introduced in the text and/or have a title so that the reader understands the purpose of the table.
You should save your final submission as a Microsoft Word document, not pdf, and you should give this a filename according to the following formula:
Your surname, Your first name, Course code, Assessment 3.docx (or .doc)
E.g.
Plant, Chris, ALLH12006, Assessment 3.docx
Student name:
Marker name:
Date marked:
HD-D
C
P
F
Mark Background and clinical question 15 – 11.5 11 – 9.5 9 – 7.5 7 – 0
? A well-phrased PICO question Is presented
? Definitions and examples are provided to explain key terms/concepts
? Sufficient background information is provided that draws from relevant sources of information to allow appreciation of the clinical relevance and significance of the PICO question.
? The PICO question is clear but may require minor modification
? Most key terms/concepts are defined and explained sufficiently
? A good background section that allows appreciation of the clinical relevance and significance of the PICO question although would benefit from further support from external sources of information.
? The PICO question may require some modifications to one or more elements.
? Some key terms/concepts would benefit from further explanation
? The background presents a basic discussion that may lack adequate support from external sources of information. However, it allows a general appreciation of the clinical relevance of the PICO question.
? The PICO questions requires major modification
? No key term or concept is defined or explained adequately
? Background section is extremely limited and does not allow the reader to appreciate the clinical relevance of the PICO question.
/15 Search strategy 15 – 11.5 11 – 9.5 9 – 7.5 7 – 0
? An appropriate search strategy is described concisely and reassures the reader that a thorough and efficient search has been performed.
? The process of identifying three original research articles is logical and is described comprehensively and is fully justified.
? An appropriate search strategy is described although this may have benefitted from minor modifications.
? The process of identifying three original research articles appears mostly logical although could be described in more detail or with greater justification
? A basic, although mostly appropriate search strategy is described.
? The process of identifying three original research articles requires greater elaboration although some justification is presented
? A poor search strategy is described or the description is not adequate to appreciate how an information search has been performed.
? There is very limited or no description of the process of identifying three original research articles or the process appears inappropriate or illogical.
/15
Review and evaluation 50 – 37.5 37 – 32.5 32 – 25 24.5 – 0
? Each article is summarized concisely with regards to its aims, methods, and findings and it is clear how each article relates to the clinical question.
? Individual articles are appraised and evaluated in terms of their quality and all comments are well justified.
? Key issues from the three individual articles are synthesised in a coherent manner in a way that is relevant the clinical question.
? A logical answer for the clinical question is proposed alongside any relevant caveats
? Each article is summarized well although some minor information is not included or there may slight lack of clarity with how one or two articles related to clinical question
? Individual articles are generally appraised well although some points may not be fully justified
? Key issues from the three articles are identified but may require more effective integration into a coherent discussion addressing relating to the clinical question.
? A logical answer to the clinical question is proposed which may require further elaboration
? Each article is summarised from a basic perspective and it may be unclear as to how articles relate to the clinical question
? Appraisal of individual articles is superficial although some good points are identified
? There is a lack of effective integration of information across the articles when addressing the clinical question although some points have merit.
? An answer to the clinical question is proposed although it may be unclear how this is informed by the information that has been appraised.
? Summaries of individual articles lack depth and there is no clear link to the clinical question
? There is no evidence of an effective appraisal process
? There is no, or a very poor attempt to integrate information across individual articles when addressing the clinical question
? No answer to the clinical question is proposed or an answer is unsupported by information presented (or due to a lack of information presented).
/50 Academic writing 20 – 15 14.5 – 12.5 12 – 10 9.5 – 0
? Writing is well-structured and flows logically
? Writing style is clear and concise
? No, or very few, spelling and grammar errors
? APA format applied faultlessly or with only minor errors (same error repeatedly)
? Writing is well-structured and flows logically with minor exceptions
? Writing is mostly clear and concise with minor exceptions
? Occasional minor spelling and grammar errors (maybe same error repeatedly)
? Some minor but varied errors of applying APA formatting
? Writing occasionally lacks structure but overall flows logically
? Writing style is sometimes unclear and/or overly wordy
? Noticeable errors in spelling and grammar
? Frequent and varied errors in applying APA formatting
? Writing lacks structure and does not present information logically
? Writing is unclear and difficult to read
? Frequent and varied errors in spelling and grammar
? No citations used
? Frequent errors and great inconsistency in attempting to apply APA formatting
/20
Total ( /100)
Notes:
1. Marker may award whole point marks or 0.5 point marks in any criterion
2. Final mark /100 will contribute towards 40% of overall course grade. So if you achieve exactly 50/100 you have achieved 20% of your overall course grade via this assessment piece.

About Fujifilm camera

About Fujifilm camera
Paper details:
About Fuji Film Camera / just answer the questions below
Also , references must be accessible so if the teacher check them out she could find them.
Q9) What is their Market share?
Q10) What is their Market cap?
Q11) How is their Financial health from beginning of operations to current
Q12) Personal comments:
Q13)What they do differently?
Q14)Who do they appeal to ?

"Called to Participate" by Mark Searle's:

“Called to Participate” by Mark Searle’s:
Respond to each of the following questions in 8-10 setences:
1) Read Mark Searle’s discussion of Virgil Michel on pages 6-8 of “Called to Participate”. Reflect on the feasibility of Michel’s vision of liturgy igniting social transformation in our contemporary, postmodern world.
2) On pages 28-32, Searle discusses the second level of ritual participation in baptism and how that capacitates one to engages both God and the world. Reflect on how this mediating role might contribute to the way one works in the business world.
3) On pages 38-42, Searle discusses the meaning of participation in God. Read this section carefully and reflect, in your own words, on what it means to participate in the life of God (with reference to Searle’s remarks).

essential of investments

essential of investments
Answer all of the following questions/problems being as comprehensive as possible by using your own words and opinions, not the textbooks or just definitions. As a guide, the assignment especially problems should be detailed showing all your work including calculator keystrokes or Excel and explanations NOT just answers or definitions. Please provide related real examples with your responses for more credit. Use all resources including online sites and remember to state your sources. All assignments should be uploaded to the corresponding Blackboard or email as well as a hard copy handed in. If you have any questions please dont hesitate in contacting me prior to the assignment due date. These assignments should also help you with topics to cover for your term projects.
NOTE: Webmaster Problems: Please note for the Web master problems assigned use your OWN company and industry when you solve the problem not the companies listed in the problems. These problems will help you toward your papers as well.
Chapter 10: Problems: 25, 27,44 and Webmaster Problem 1 (own company and industry)
Chapter 11: Problems: 14,15,29 and Webmaster Problem 1 (own company and industry)
Chapter 12: Problems: 1,3,4,5,17,19,21,25 these are questions so please provide your own, definitions, real examples and opinions. Also Webmaster problem 1 (own company and industry)
NOTE: Chapters 13 &14 are important topics to include in your papers.
Chapter 13: Problems: 3,5,8,10 and Webmaster problem 1(own company and industry)
Chapter 14: Problems 1, CFA 5,7and Webmaster problem 1 (own company and industry)
29.

Dashboard Project

Dashboard Project
Project description
Assignment Instructions and Requirements:
This Assignment involves creativity and the completion of a project management-style
template. You will gather requirements for a hypothetical one-screen interface (dashboard)
project.
Topic choices:
First, make sure you understand this course’s definition of a monitoring dashboard by
thoroughly reading the content and viewing the images presented in the Reading Guide.
Then, choose one of the following topics for this Assignment:
Community Center Dashboard – displays upcoming events, fundraising efforts,
number of people participating in events, a map to the center; could also include details
about expenditures
Business Health Dashboard – displays sales history and trends, revenue and costs;
could also include geographic data or specific products
Human Resources Dashboard – displays aggregate data relating to employee
turnover, absences, vacations taken, payroll structure; could be labeled by department
Call Center Dashboard – displays average call duration, calls handled per person or
team, sales targets; could also include number of calls waiting in queue
Completion of the Template
Use the given template. Retain the single-spacing; it is not intended to be an APA paper
assignment.
Provide a name for the dashboard project in the given location at the top of the template.
Part 1: Project Definition
Write two paragraphs (using full sentences) to give an overview of the project.
Minimum length requirement for this part: 75 words
Unit 3 [IT302: Human-Computer Interaction]
In the first paragraph:
State the general purpose of the dashboard, including what kind of information
would be shown. (Example: A weather dashboard shows temperature and )
In the second paragraph:
Explain who would be primary users and stakeholders, and why
Part 2: Requirements Collection
This section is comprised of a list of seven open-ended questions you would ask potential
users in a focus group in order to better understand they would like to see information
presented, what kind of information might be most useful, what kind of options they might
like, under what circumstances the data would be most helpful, etc.
Be specific (Example of a bad question: “What data would you like to see on the
screen?”)
Write in full sentences, but keep a bulleted or numbered list format
Part 3: Requirements Document
This section can also be a bulleted and/or numbered list, or it may be written in paragraph
form. Use the example in the textbook reading to guide you in completing this part of the
project template. Minimum length requirement for this part of the template is 300 words.
Functional requirements
Information requirements
Hardware and Software requirements
Constraints
Part 4: Conclusion (Reflection)
Provide a paragraph of at least 50 words that sums up the value of the project. You may
include explanation of additional methods of requirements collection, comparisons to
similar projects, or other information that could potentially help you “sell” your dashboard
idea to the client.
Additional Requirements
Submit your work on the Word template. Assignments submitted without the use of the
template will not be accepted.
Your assignment should show an understanding of the textbook reading.
This assignment is not based on research; do not use source material.
Written work should be free of spelling, grammar, and APA errors. Points deducted from the
grade for each writing, spelling, or grammar error are at your instructors discretion.
Please download the file “Writing Center Resources” from Doc Sharing to assist you with
meeting APA expectations. Ensure that your work is not copied from any sources. Copying
does not prove an understanding of the material, and plagiarism will not be tolerated

Pfizer

Pfizer
Order Description
A research paper featuring an analysis of a corporation and a major issue facing ” PFIZER ” company. This paper should demonstrate that the student understands how business trends affect an organization’s capability for achieving a competitive advantage in the 21st century business environment.
STEP ONE:
• The student should select a company for analysis and write up a profile of the company selected. The profile should include:
• firm Mission/Vision
• firm’s current strategic plans and/or direction
• firm’s culture
• firm’s structure and organization
• The above subject areas could be presented in a “strengths/weaknesses” format as part of an overall SWOT-style analysis
STEP TWO: Article selection and analysis
• Write a report on an article that was written within the past year that deals with a topic directly affecting the competitiveness of the student’s chosen firm. The article chosen should have something important to say about an element of organizational effectiveness – it can profile a dramatic social trend, give an industry prediction, address a strategic competency like leadership or HR, highlight a current environmental issue (for instance, the social responsibility component of sustainability), or comment on financial or market failures, etc.
• a brief summary of the article, identifying the issue that attracted them to the article, explain why this issue is important, and what they learned from the article.
• discuss how the subject of the article will affect their firm from a competitive perspective, highlighting any relevant changes necessary to the management structure, culture, or strategic direction of the firm.
• All citations and references must be in MLA format
• Final project must be via Safe Assignment so please be careful with plagiarism.

Social Science, What Makes a Marriage

Social Science, What Makes a Marriage
Order Description
Polygamy & polyandry. Why are they illegal in the US? Why is gay marriage such a hot topic and polygamy and polyandry not even thought of as part of a debate on marriage? What makes gay marriage and polygamy so different? Should polygamy and polyandry be legal? Is it legal in any other countries? Since this is a social science class there is no right answer. It also means that some personal reflection is appropriate but a significant amount of the paper should be based on reliable outside sources.

Wilds Horses

Wilds Horses
Order Description
http://www.screencast.com/t/xoNALeZ1
The following essay question is based on the podcast Wilds Horses above. Watch this documentary and type a reflection essay. A reflection essay involves writing your reaction to the podcast, including your emotional response. Include some specific details from the podcast to emphasize your reflection. In addition to your reflection, discuss your understanding of the film maker’s purpose in making this documentary.
The essay should include the following:
– Clear Thesis(plz underline it so I can follow up)/ introductory paragraph
-Body of essay (number of paragraphs varies)
-Conclusion/Summary paragraph
– Use direct and simple language.NO fancy words.

Dashboard Project

Dashboard Project
Project description
Assignment Instructions and Requirements:
This Assignment involves creativity and the completion of a project management-style
template. You will gather requirements for a hypothetical one-screen interface (dashboard)
project.
Topic choices:
First, make sure you understand this course’s definition of a monitoring dashboard by
thoroughly reading the content and viewing the images presented in the Reading Guide.
Then, choose one of the following topics for this Assignment:
Community Center Dashboard – displays upcoming events, fundraising efforts,
number of people participating in events, a map to the center; could also include details
about expenditures
Business Health Dashboard – displays sales history and trends, revenue and costs;
could also include geographic data or specific products
Human Resources Dashboard – displays aggregate data relating to employee
turnover, absences, vacations taken, payroll structure; could be labeled by department
Call Center Dashboard – displays average call duration, calls handled per person or
team, sales targets; could also include number of calls waiting in queue
Completion of the Template
Use the given template. Retain the single-spacing; it is not intended to be an APA paper
assignment.
Provide a name for the dashboard project in the given location at the top of the template.
Part 1: Project Definition
Write two paragraphs (using full sentences) to give an overview of the project.
Minimum length requirement for this part: 75 words
Unit 3 [IT302: Human-Computer Interaction]
In the first paragraph:
State the general purpose of the dashboard, including what kind of information
would be shown. (Example: A weather dashboard shows temperature and )
In the second paragraph:
Explain who would be primary users and stakeholders, and why
Part 2: Requirements Collection
This section is comprised of a list of seven open-ended questions you would ask potential
users in a focus group in order to better understand they would like to see information
presented, what kind of information might be most useful, what kind of options they might
like, under what circumstances the data would be most helpful, etc.
Be specific (Example of a bad question: “What data would you like to see on the
screen?”)
Write in full sentences, but keep a bulleted or numbered list format
Part 3: Requirements Document
This section can also be a bulleted and/or numbered list, or it may be written in paragraph
form. Use the example in the textbook reading to guide you in completing this part of the
project template. Minimum length requirement for this part of the template is 300 words.
Functional requirements
Information requirements
Hardware and Software requirements
Constraints
Part 4: Conclusion (Reflection)
Provide a paragraph of at least 50 words that sums up the value of the project. You may
include explanation of additional methods of requirements collection, comparisons to
similar projects, or other information that could potentially help you “sell” your dashboard
idea to the client.
Additional Requirements
Submit your work on the Word template. Assignments submitted without the use of the
template will not be accepted.
Your assignment should show an understanding of the textbook reading.
This assignment is not based on research; do not use source material.
Written work should be free of spelling, grammar, and APA errors. Points deducted from the
grade for each writing, spelling, or grammar error are at your instructors discretion.
Please download the file “Writing Center Resources” from Doc Sharing to assist you with
meeting APA expectations. Ensure that your work is not copied from any sources. Copying
does not prove an understanding of the material, and plagiarism will not be tolerated

Free write 6 (E)

Free write 6 (E)
Project description
Please be sure to read Chapter 12 on thesis statements in Writing Analytically before completing this activity!
Step 1: Reflecting on all the thinking you’ve done so far, if you had to state your thesis for Essay 3 right now, what would you say? Write out your tentative thesis in one or two sentences. Remember that your thesis might address both similarities and differences between the poems (the reading from our textbook as well as the comparison/contrast handout in the Essay 3 folder will give you some ideas for generating a thesis).
Step 2: Chapter 12 in Writing Analytically offers great strategies on thesis-building, and for this freewrite, we’ll look at the ideas for rephrasing thesis statements. Try using at least TWO of the following tips, and then write out a revised version of your thesis. In addition, post a couple of sentences of explanation in which you state which tips you’re using in your revised version (something like “I made my noun more specific by…, and I modified my thesis by specifying that…”).
Thesis Tips:
Choose a more active (and informative) verb for your thesis. Are you using a verb like “is” in your thesis? See if you can find a more active and specific verb that more clearly indicates your point.
Make sure the nouns in your thesis are very specific. “Voice,” for example, is pretty vague, but “First-person, highly conversational voice” is specific.
Modify (or “qualify”) your thesis in a specific way. If you are saying that the poems have “strong emotional content,” you need to modify this to tell the reader exactly how and why this is true: you could use a word like “because” to easily modify your thesis (maybe the poems have “strong emotional content because the poet utilizes repetition and vivid imagery to evoke the sadness surrounding divorce”).
Try subordination in your thesis. Use a subordinate (dependent) clause in combination with an independent clause in your thesis: begin your thesis with a subordinate clause, and then put your most important/significant point in the independent clause which follows. A thesis doesn’t have to use subordination, of course, but using this “complex sentence” pattern is often a quick tool to add more detail and clarify important information within your thesis.
If there are other tips in Chapter 12 you want to try, feel free to specify the ones you are using!
Set Two: Ted Kooser, So This is Nebraska and Two
http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/171336 http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/248688

How to use technology to build Constructivism in Math class

How to use technology to build Constructivism in Math class
choose any 3 reference from reference to answer 4 research questions .use two way (positive and negative ) and What are the results of your study? Describe the data that you collected in full.
* Discussion(1 page and half)
writ as story in ( past, now, future)
What does the data tell you about your research question (s)? Was your intervention/innovation effective? Make a good argument for why it was/wasn’t effective using your results. Go back and compare your results to your literature review to see how your results fit in with what others are saying/doing about similar issues. Finally, discuss any implications this study may have on your future work.
•     First two pages (write these pages separate) about Assignment #2
•     Second anther 4 pages about Your Action Research Proposal Presentation template are as follows down.
•    Please use 8resoures articles from scholarly journals.
As you read through chapter 2 in Yendol-Hoppey and Fichtman Dana (2009), you observed that there are eight passions framed in the text: a child, curriculum, content knowledge, teaching strategies/techniques, beliefs about practice, personal/professional identity, social justice, and context. Hopefully by the end of the chapter you have been able to narrow down a “wondering” with respect to the eight passions. You are to develop a line of inquiry regarding this wondering.  What concerns/questions do you have as they relate to your values?
Write a 2 pages explanation of the context that sparked your inquiry.  Using the examples from the text as models for your own writing, be sure to include the following:
•    What is your topic?  How to use technology to build Constructivism in Math class.
•    What does this topic mean to you?  Child uses technology to create his own meaning.
•    How did it come to be important to you?
•    Why would it be important to research this topic?
•    Who would benefit from this research?
•    Finish this explanation with a list of three questions you’d like to answer about your focus of inquiry.
This exercise will limit the subject and focus attention on a specific aspect of your inquiry to study.

How Should Schools Address Bullying?

How Should Schools Address Bullying?
Assignment: The academic research project encompasses multiple assignments that culminate in a final research paper. The final paper synthesizes Research and Argumentation. You will draw support and evidence from appropriate academic sources of information, as well as your own personal knowledge and experience. The final paper is not simply a data-driven report, but instead your opportunity to offer your opinion and analysis of a topic of your choice. The required length of the paper is 1,800 (approximately 4 pages typed, double spaced, with one-inch margins all around, not including the Works Cited page). The research project totals 400 points, or

Project Management

Project Management
Order Description
The case study indicates that you have been appointed to be the project manager for this project, reporting to Dr Southgate.
1. What do you believe to be the main management issues associated with the various aspects of this project? Who would you expect to be represented on the Project Board and how would you organize your management team?
2. Identify and analyse the main risks associated with the project. What actions would you take to avoid or mitigate the effect of the risks?
3. Devise and implement a project management plan to include the following:
•Stakeholder Analysis Communication Strategy
Use a wide range of sources for your research (e.g. journal articles, reports, books, magazines etc.) PLEASE WIKIPEDIA AND OTHER NON ACADEMIC REFERENCES ARE NOT TO BE USED BUT STRICTLY ONLY ACADEMIC REFERENCES. I will upload additional files later.
MODULE TITLE: –             Project Management
—————————————————————————————————————-
Assessment Type: Case Study – [Individual Assignment – Maximum 2000 words]
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
—————————————————————————————————————-
Module Learning Outcomes to be Assessed:-
This module is designed to give students an opportunity to be an individual contributor, working on a project team to define, plan and manage a project. Particular focus is given to hands-on practice of the processes, developing a project plan, and using project management software to build and then present the project team results in class with a debrief of key points.
This module introduces Project Management and identifies the tools and techniques to resolve problems associated with bringing projects in on time and within an established budget. Discussion will include topics such as project scheduling, PERT/CPM, resource levelling, team dynamics and cost estimates. The student will learn how to develop project proposals and project reports
The student will learn the primary elements of Project Management to such an extent that he/she is able to develop a detailed project plan for a small or large- scale project. Additionally, the student will become familiar with negotiation, team building and quantitative estimation skills.
This module also focuses on both the manufacturing and service businesses and the internal and external operations involved at all levels of the supply chain in a global environment. Students will learn how the coordination of all the functions within these operations impacts on the movement and delivery of goods and/or services to the right place at the right time. Emphasis is placed on the importance of adopting a “total systems” approach by the firm and its networks, which enhance the value adding activities of the supply chain and its logistical application to achieve customer satisfaction. The module also demonstrates the strategic importance of developing and implementing comprehensive operations for both these types of business.
Case Study
South Carigcastle Health and Social Care Trust Background
South Carigcastle Health & Social Care Trust (SCHCT) provides community health care and social care services to a population of 100,000 people living in an inner-city and suburban area of some 450 square miles in the United Kingdom. The Trust was formed five years ago from the merger of the up to then separate South Carigcastle Community Health Care Trust and Social Services Departments.
The Community Health Care Trust employed staff with medical training from a variety of disciplines such as District Nurses and Physiotherapists. They visit patients in their homes and provide care to them there.
The Social Services Department employed staff with non¬medical care skills also from a wide variety of disciplines such as Adult Carers and Child Protection Officers who also visit clients in their own homes and provide social care. The objective of both organisations was to enable people to go on living in their own homes for as long as possible, and thereby not to have to move into Care Homes run by the Trust.
This merger was a result of a new central government policy which was being piloted in the region in which South Carigcastle falls. There are nine other Community Trusts within the region, none of which are so progressive in their thinking as South Carigcastle. The objectives of the government policy are to improve the care provided and reduce the overall cost of providing that care. The new combined Trust was given a large degree of organisational and financial autonomy within the framework of overall management by the local region, and an energetic, forward thinking Chief Executive, John Jones, previously the Director of Social Services, was appointed to lead the new combined Trust. John Jones immediately appointed the hard¬working Operations Director of the Community Health Care Trust, Dr. Southgate to the position of Business Development Director – effectively his deputy.
The Trust is headquartered in an old Victorian Mental Health Hospital with 50 other offices, clinics and care homes scattered over the geographical area served by the Trust. Very few of these offices have been purpose built.
The Trust now employs 3000 staff split into a relatively small Head Office team including Finance, Personnel and Business Development and the professional care staff who are divided into 3 Directorates as follows:
•    Adult Care
•    Mental Health Care
•    Child Care Services.
Each Directorate is in turn divided into 24 professional care disciplines such as District Nursing, Physiotherapy and Child Immunisation. Each professional care discipline is, in turn, divided into up to 5 teams spread over the area covered by South Carigcastle. There are in total 84 such teams each containing only specialists in the team’s particular discipline.
Chief Executive
John Jones
Finance
Personnel
IT Department
Adult Care         Mental Health
Care        Child Care            Business
Development
Care Teams
Care Teams
Care Teams
Building Services
Special Projects
Figure 1: Organisation of South Carigcastle Health and Social Care Trust
The care delivery process
The Trust is one of the 39 totally separate organisations, which deliver care to the geographic area of South Carigcastle. The other organisations are:
•    3 separate Hospital Trusts who each provide Accident & Emergency services, maternity services and a full range of clinical services to carry out operations on patients as required.
•    35 Doctor Practices (Clinics) containing a total of 60 doctors. These Practices are all contracted independently to the National Health Service and run effectively as individual small businesses that are paid by the National Health Service depending on how many patients are registered with them. The 35 Practices have formed themselves into a local group to meet regularly and discuss local problems, particularly the problems they have in dealing with South Carigcastle Trust and the three separate Hospital Trusts.
People in need of care are referred to the Trust from a range of sources, for example the doctors, the hospitals, police, schools, neighbours and next¬-of­kin. The referrals contain wide disparities in quality and quantity of information and are normally directed to a local Trust office, which may not house the professional care team who should deal with the particular problem so the referral is then referred on within the Trust finally reaching the correct team who take action. Referrals are received on a 7×24 hour basis and are actioned immediately if they appear to be very urgent.
The key actions following receipt of the referral are typically:
•    A visit to the referred person in need of care by a senior care professional from the apparently most relevant care team, who carries out an assessment of the patient and may generate referrals to other teams within the Trust for their follow­up.
•    Creation of a hand¬written care plan. Some care plans are very complicated and some very simple. For example the Child Protection teams draw up very complex plans to solve the domestic problems leading to abuse of the child whereas the Podiatry teams are only concerned with scheduling visits to cut elderly patients’ toenails.
•    Sign­off of the costs of delivering the care by the Team Manager, or adjustment if too expensive.
•    Delivery of the care services, which vary in duration from one hour to several years depending on the discipline and type of care.
•    Review of progress and revision of the care plan as necessary.
Each professional care discipline has developed its own styles of assessment form and care plan to record information about the patient, and each uses its own medical and care jargon to describe the same condition. Although a patient may receive care services from several teams in parallel, each of which is delivering its own speciality – for example district nurses dressing leg ulcers or occupational therapists modifying the home environment – no attempt is made to co¬ordinate the care delivery or exchange care plans between the teams so they may well turn up at the same patient’s house on the same day and at the same time and one will then have to re¬schedule their visit.
The teams are traditionally suspicious of sharing patient­related information in case they make patient diagnosis mistakes, and the mental health and child protection teams are particularly concerned about security of information about their patients and clients.
The IT systems
The main IT software systems used in the Trust are not integrated with each other and comprise:
•    The legacy Social Care system, which is primarily concerned with providing a basis for analysing the type and source of referrals received by the individual social care teams and recording the type of care and cost of care delivered in response to the referral. No attempt is made to record the outcome of the care delivered and all notes made by the social workers are hand¬written and filed locally.
•    The legacy Health Care system which is primarily concerned with collecting details of the activities carried out by the health care workers so that mandatory statistical analyses can be forwarded to the Ministry of Health in central government.
•    An effective email system linking all of the offices together as well as to the outside NHS world via the systems operated by the Regional Office.
•    A financial management and payroll system.
The legacy systems are old and very user-unfriendly in look and feel, and staff activity data is entered by clerks located in the scattered offices and then used for statistical report generation by the central IT Department. None of the health and social care professionals ever make use of the information in these systems.
The network linking all of the offices together is the responsibility of the IT Team in the Regional Office. They have wider and deeper IT infrastructure skills than the Trust.
The project
Having merged the administration of the two Community Health and Social Care organisations into one central team, John Jones has decided that he now wants to make advances in the provision of more effective care to his client base.
He has enthusiastically led the Trust in active participation in several EU organised pan­European matched­funded R & D projects exploring the benefits of multi-disciplinary care teams based on patient­centred IT systems with composite care plans.
He now wishes to implement this strategy right across the Trust and has motivated many staff within the Trust with his vision of the future comprising teams of staff drawn from several disciplines developing an integrated care plan round the needs of their patient/client and working in an information­sharing environment to achieve better co¬ordination of care delivery and thereby hopefully faster recovery of the patient or at least a more comfortable supported existence at home. As always in healthcare, all staff within the Trust are already working to the limits of their available time. This project involves further changes to the organisation, ways of working and the provision of a comprehensive integrated IT system.
In one of the European projects, some good R & D work was done on a pilot project within the Trust by a successful, but small, niche software company, XYZ MediTech Ltd. who specialise in Mental Healthcare IT systems. They are very keen to develop a software package for a much wider health and social care market and see this leading edge project to be an excellent opportunity to bypass existing Healthcare and Social Care software suppliers and establish a market lead.
Against the advice of the Regional Office’s IT Officer, John Jones has succeeded in obtaining approval from the Minister of Health in the Government to bypass normal procurement procedures and to create a fixed price contract containing stiff penalty clauses for late delivery with XYZ MediTech Ltd., who tendered against a well­structured but high level (bullet­point style) Requirements Specification written jointly by staff from the Trust and the Regional Office. The Regional IT Officer was concerned about the financial capacity of XYZ MediTech Ltd. to develop such a large software package.
The Trust’s team involved in the Requirements Specification comprised the Trust’s IT Manager and IT Systems Manager and four managers seconded from the District Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Child Protection and Mental Social Work teams respectively who were chosen on the basis of their reputation for being innovative in their thinking and supportive of the overall multi¬disciplinary team concept. The Requirements Specification Team Leader was a senior Systems Consultant, James Saunders, who was seconded from the Regional IT team for the purpose. The
Requirements Specification comprised an overall vision of the future written by John Jones and up to two pages of bullet­points for each Care Discipline identifying their particular process and information needs. An extract from the Requirements Specification is provided in the Appendix.
All of the Trust’s Directors are in agreement with John Jones’ vision of the future but have targets to meet in the short­term and huge organisations to run. No plans currently exist of how the care staff will be re¬organised into the multi¬disciplinary teams.
If the project is successful the Region intends to implement the same re-¬organisation everywhere and the Minister of Health will take the same approach right across the country. Both the Region and the Ministry want to monitor progress.
Dr. Southgate has been made responsible for driving the whole project and has recruited you as Project Manager reporting to her, to take day¬-to­day responsibility. The goals have been set by John Jones, the Regional Director and the Minister of Health of a full live pilot implementation starting in 2 years with completion of the whole project within 5 years. No detailed plans exist for how these goals might be achieved.
.
Appendix: Example page from the South Carigcastle Requirements Specification
Ref    Function Name    Criteria
3    Production of Treatment/Care Plans
3.1    Access to Assessment information    The software will provide easy access to Assessment information and Assessment summaries both for individual staff members and, where appropriate, other members of the team.
3.2    Access to history    The software will provide access to historic Assessments and Treatment/Care Plans.
3.3    Access to all records    The software will provide seamless access to all the required records on the software irrespective of the discipline.
3.4    Links to Episode of Care    The software will automatically link the
Treatment/Care Plan to the appropriate Episode of Care.
3.5    Development of Uni and Multi disciplinary plans    The software will support the development of both ‘Uni’ and ‘Multi’ disciplinary Treatment/Care Plans.
3.6    Record goals and objectives    The software will record goals and objectives and allow for time scales and anticipated outcomes in coded form for subsequent analysis.
3.7    Review date assignment    The software will assist the User assigning review dates.
3.8    Highlight reviews    The software will automatically highlight imminent or late reviews.
3.9    Record of unsatisfied demand    The software will facilitate the recording of the reasons for unsatisfied demand.
3.10    Record reason for Care/Service    The software will record the primary reason for Care/Service delivery.
3.11    Library of standardised plans    The software will contain a library of standardised Treatment/Care/Service Plans which can be tailored to individual needs.
3.12    Updating plans    The software will allow the facility to update or add to Treatment/Care Plans and enable staff to record manually the date of any changes made.
The software will facilitate the production of updated Treatment/Care Plan based on earlier versions.
3.13    Correction of content    It will be possible to ‘correct’ the content of a Treatment/Care Plan.
QUESTIONS
The case study indicates that you have been appointed to be the project manager for this project, reporting to Dr Southgate.
1.    What do you believe to be the main management issues associated with the various aspects of this project? Who would you expect to be represented on the Project Board and how would you organize your management team?
(30 marks)
2.    Identify and analyse the main risks associated with the project. What actions would you take to avoid or mitigate the effect of the risks?
(40 marks)
3.    Devise and implement a project management plan to include the following:
•    Stakeholder Analysis Communication Strategy                (30 marks)

Materials Engineering.

Materials  Engineering.
Links
Successful completion of Unit 8: Engineering Design and this unit would enable learners to meet, in part, the Engineering Technician (Eng Tech) and Incorporated Engineer (IEng) requirements laid down in the UK Engineering Council Standard for Professional Engineering Competence (UK-SPEC) Competence B2, ‘Identify, organise and use resources effectively to complete tasks, with consideration for cost, quality, safety and environmental impact’.
Essential requirements
Learner access to suitable materials testing equipment, specimens and test instrumentation is required. The range of tests chosen will depend on the learner’s working environment and particular needs but will need to include, as a minimum, tests that involve metals and polymers. Sample materials from each of the four categories for inspection, as well as products/structures produced from these categories of material, are also required.
Employer engagement and vocational contexts
Liaison with employers would prove of benefit to centres, especially if they are able to offer help with the provision of a suitable materials testing and/or processing/fabrication environment.
LO
Learning outcome
(LO)    AC    In this assessment you will have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to:    Task no.
Evidence
(Page no)
LO1    Be able to determine the properties and selection criteria of materials from test and data sources
1.1 Detail the appropriate material properties and criteria for the selection of a metallic, ceramic, polymer and composite
1.2 Explain the particular characteristics related to the
microstructure and macroscopic behaviour of the four
categories of engineering materials
1.3 Generate and process test data to assess material
properties for two categories of material
1.4 Investigate and assess the quality of suitable data from
three different sources
LO2    Understand the relationships between manufacturing process and material behaviour
2.1 Explain how one heat treatment process and two other
treatment processes affect the structure, properties and
behaviour of the parent material
2.2 Explain how one liquid processing method and two
mechanical processing methods affect the structure,
properties and behaviour of the parent material
2.3 Investigate how the composition and structure of metal
alloys, polymers and polymer matrix composites
influence the properties of the parent material
LO3    Be able to select suitable materials and processing method for a specific product
3.1 Analyse the function/s of a product in terms of the materials’ constraints on its design
3.2 Identify the required properties for the product and
select the most appropriate materials and processing
methods
3.3 Identify and explain the possible limitations on the
product imposed by the processing and by the need to
safeguard the environment and minimise costs
LO4
Understand the in-service causes of failure of engineering materials
4.1 Explain the common causes of in-service failure for
products or structures produced from each or a
combination of the four categories of engineering
materials
4.2 For one product or material structure, identify and
explain the in-service conditions that may contribute to
early failure
4.3 Explain the methods for investigating materials failure
and for estimating product service life, when a product
is subject to creep and fatigue loading
4.4 Determine and make recommendations for
remedial/preventive measures for a given product or
Materials structure, that will help improve its service life.
Assignment title    Materials Unit 21 assignment
Purpose of this assignment
This assignment will give you the opportunity to show your knowledge of basic engineering problems involving the strength of materials. The selection of the most appropriate materials for an engineered product and their processing is of prime importance if the product is to be fit for purpose. Engineers must thus be aware of the range of materials at their disposal. Knowledge of the structure of materials and the way in which this affects their properties is also desirable. Material properties may be determined or verified by testing and engineers should be aware of the range of standard tests and test equipment that is used and be able to interpret the test data. Materials generally need to be formed to shape, fabricated or processed in some other way, to make engineering components. The properties of the raw material can affect the choice of process and in some cases the choice of process can affect the final properties of a component. Materials also, for a variety of reasons, sometimes fail in service and engineers need to be aware of the modes and causes of such failure, as well as the preventative methods that may be used, to prolong their service life.
This unit will thus provide learners with the necessary background knowledge and understanding of the properties, testing, treatments, processing, selection, failure modes and prevention of a variety of engineering materials. In addition, this unit offers learners the opportunity to consider environmental issues related to increased productivity and sustainability that lead to less waste and to the more efficient use of energy and resources when selecting materials for particular applications.
Scenario
You are going to spend five months of practice as a Mechanical Engineer in “First Testing Company”, one of the biggest Machine Elements Laboratories in the United Kingdom.  You will be required to attend an interview and in preparation for this your potential supervisor asks you to solve the following tasks in order to assess your level of knowledge and understanding.
Task 1 : (LO 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3,1.4 and D1) Research 1:
For the diagram below define the terms
1.    Proportional limit
2.    Yield stress
3.    Ultimate stress
4.    Fracture
And explain what is happening in the following regions.
1.    Elastic region
2.    Yielding region
3.    Strain hardening region
4.    Necking region
Task Graph in Excel, as above, the relevant data for the selection of a metallic, ceramic, polymer and composite.
1.1 Detail on graph the appropriate material properties and criteria for the selection of a metallic, ceramic, polymer and composite.
1.2 Explain on graph the particular characteristics related to the microstructure and macroscopic behaviour of the four
Categories of engineering materials (metallic, ceramic, polymer and composite).
1.3 Generate and process test data (on graph) to assess material properties for two categories of material
1.4 Investigate and assess the quality of suitable data from three different sources
Task 2 (LO 2) Research 2:
For the Brinell hardness testing find and record:-
1.    The advantages.
2.    The limitations.
2.1 Explain how one heat treatment process and two other treatment processes affect the structure, properties and
behaviour of the parent material
2.2 Explain how one liquid processing method and two mechanical processing methods affect the structure,
properties and behaviour of the parent material
2.3 Investigate how the composition and structure of metal alloys, polymers and polymer matrix composites influence the properties of the parent material
Task 3 (LO3 and M1) Research 3:
For each of the 6 methods of NDT Visual, Liquid penetration, Magnetic, Ultrasonic, Eddy current and X-ray
a.    Find one additional example for each within the engineering industry, with a description of the application
b.    Describe for each the reasons the particular method was used over the alternative methods
3.1 Analyse the functions of a product in terms of the materials’ constraints on its design
3.2 Identify the required properties for the product and select the most appropriate materials and processing
methods
3.3 Identify and explain the possible limitations on the product imposed by the processing and by the need to
safeguard the environment and minimise costs
Task 4 (LO 4, M2 and M3) Research 4:
For the five forms of steel Martensitic, Austenite, Cementite, Perlite Course and Perlite fine, Discuss
a.    How each is formed and the requirements for their formation
b.    The different properties of each. E.g. Hardness, toughness etc.
Task 5 (LO 4 and D2) Research 5:
You have been approached by a manufacturer of an Aircraft Undercarriage and asked to design a new Retracting Lever for their new model. (see image below)
For both of these components:
a.    Give an example of the material that could be used to make them.
b.    The properties that the materials require to perform their function safely and efficiently.
c.    Describe any treatments that the materials may need. i.e. hardening etc. and how this can be performed.
d.    Describe a process by which the body of the part  can be formed.
e.    Describe 2 different surface processes that could be used on the retracting level to protect it from corrosion.
4.1 Explain the common causes of in-service failure for products or structures produced from each or a combination of the four categories of engineering materials. Try to predict what would happen if you redesigned the lever with either each or a combination of the categories of material.
4.2 For the retracting lever, identify and explain the in-service conditions that may contribute to early failure.
4.3 Explain the methods for investigating materials failure and for estimating product service life, when a retracting lever is subject to creep and fatigue loading
4.4 Determine and make recommendations for remedial/preventive measures for a retracting lever that will help improve its service life.
Evidence checklist    Summary of evidence required by student    Evidence presented
Tasks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5    •    A report written in a formal style, including a contents page indicating the different report chapters and sections.
•    Attach your Assignment 1 report and witness statement to your results for Task 1 to 5. This must be submitted electronically
•    A bibliography with references must be supplied using the Harvard System of referencing.
•    An electronic copy of your reports submitted electronically on moodle.
Achievement Summary
Qualification    Pearson BTEC HND Diploma in Mechanical Engineering
Assessor name
Ed Strickland
Unit Number and title    Unit 21 Materials
Student name
Criteria Reference    To achieve the criteria the evidence must show that the student is able to:    Achieved?
(tick)
LO 1    Be able to determine the properties and selection criteria of materials from test and data sources
LO 2    Understand the relationships between manufacturing process and material behaviour
LO 3    Be able to select suitable materials and processing method for a specific product
LO 4    Understand the in-service causes of failure of engineering materials
Higher Grade achievements (where applicable)
Grade descriptor
Achieved?
(tick)
Grade descriptor
Achieved?
(tick)
M1: Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions
D1: Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions
M2: Select / design and apply appropriate methods / techniques
D2: Take responsibility for managing and organising activities
M3: Present and communicate appropriate findings
D3: Demonstrate convergent/lateral/creative thinking

Community Development and Socail Work

Community Development and Socail Work
Order Description
Task is based on learning from the two enquiries. To write the paper, students will need to demonstrate ability to:
Critically analyse Community development activities (can draw from various sources: visited projects; other examples from subject resources; own research)
Critically analyse and reflect on contemporary context in which CD and SW operates (political, economic, social, organisational etc). This includes consideration of both ‘challenges’ and ‘opportunities’ for CD
Critical self-reflection (what knowledge/skills/values do you possess that you consider important with regard to SW & CD; what do you still need to develop?)

Critical analysis of a project

Critical analysis of a project
This assignment is a critical analysis of a product/project. I will send you the previous assignment. You can do critical analysis for that one or you can choose another product/project. It’s up to you.
In this assessment you have to discuss these areas.
1.    Project scope management
•    Theory
•    Applications
•    Conclusion
•    Recommendations
All the areas should be discussed in detail.
2.    Project time management
3.    Project cost management
4.    Project quality management
5.    Project risk management
6.    Project procurement management
7.    Project HRM
8.    Project integration and communication management
Please refer PMBOK (project management book of knowledge) for these areas
Project areas need to be discuss
1.    Initiating process
2.    Planning process
3.    Executing process
4.    Monitoring and controlling process
5.    Closing process
Please add tables and graphs for these 8 areas like activities related and documents attached
Assessment length(4000 words)
1.    Executive summary(200-250)
2.    Table of contents
3.    Introduction(2500)
3.1.    Introduction(250)
3.2.    Project background(250)
4.    Body(2000)
4.1.    Critical analysis(2000)
5.    Conclusion(250)
6.    Recommendations(250)

Marketing – logistics – distribution strategy

Marketing – logistics – distribution strategy
Order Description
Coursework 1 Q & A:
Intro Case Study: Innovations in Distribution Strategy
This assignment readings feature a discussion of logistics, including a case study of the future of same-day delivery. This case illustrates how companies can find competitive advantages through becoming better at logistics. Home delivery, as a service logistic, has been popular in the United States since the end of World War II and the advent of suburban growth. More recently, the service has once again been increasing in popularity for many reasons that may vary from target market to target market. For example, when Tom Monahan created Domino’s Pizza, the market for pizzas on college campuses was very high. Therefore, when Monahan started his Domino’s business, he decided to offer free home delivery guaranteed within 30 minutes.
More recently, Amazon and other online retailers have begun experimenting with same-day delivery. This brief case (two pages) considers the question of whether same-day delivery is going to expand or disappear in the future.
For this coursework, read the Chopra case study article and review the readings on logistics.
———–Question and Answer————–
***Answers to the following questions, making sure your response is cohesive and well-reasoned:
A) What are the characteristics of businesses that can succeed with same-day delivery?
B) What are the potential trade-offs when companies consider this type of service to offer to their customers?
C) What factors related to innovation would increase the likelihood of success and why? In formulating your response, consider the following along with any other factors that you think are important:
1) Does home delivery reduce any costs?
Is the location of warehousing facilities important?
2) Can multiple customer orders be bundled together (urban versus rural market)?
3) Is the inventory mix important (e.g., simple or complex)?
4) Are there transportation or technology advances available?
*Answer each section and section off coursework by each question
No plagiarism and answer all questions. Headings within paper must be the questions above. Thanking you in advance. I will upload reference.
Reference:
*Chopra, S. (2013, May 13). Cases: The future of same-day delivery: Same as the past? Watertown, MA: Harvard Business Publishing. Retrieved from https://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/pl/26533289/26533291/7f43a269c161feb57865f9c88bd8a753
For your assignment, you explore how companies are expanding their services and products to customers through a new type of delivery—same-day. The authors describe some of the considerations Amazon, Walmart, and e-Bay had to take into account before rolling out such a new and potentially risky endeavor.
Reference 2:
*Lam, K. C. J., & Postle, R. (2006). Textile and apparel supply chain management in Hong Kong. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 18(4), 265–277.
What do you do when you produce a product that has a short shelf life, such as apparel that goes out of fashion more quickly than it can be produced? Add to that the difficulties in getting goods to international buyers and trade restrictions, and you will get a sense of some of the supply chain problems faced by the organization featured in this article. The authors describe what it takes to get a product from raw materials to final customer via supply chain in their research into the Hong Kong textile and apparel industry.

4 dashboard + financial tools and KPI

4 dashboard + financial tools and KPI
Order Description
Real Life Simulation
This is for a company –
set up a dashboard
I need you to find/create the most efficient and best financial tools (like KPI’s) in order to have set up a foundation for following the performance of the company – its needs to be able to show the weaknesses and make it “transparent”
Please use and add to these indicators below (show graphs and equations)
Credit Days
Credit Limit
Current Debt
Money Collection (difference in AR)
Price Indexes
Price Control
So basically what indicators with explanations and formulas will be best for a company to be able to track and see in depth the weaknesses.
Its a manufacturing company of constructions materials and paint

Community Development and Socail Work

Community Development and Socail Work
Order Description
Task is based on learning from the two enquiries. To write the paper, students will need to demonstrate ability to:
Critically analyse Community development activities (can draw from various sources: visited projects; other examples from subject resources; own research)
Critically analyse and reflect on contemporary context in which CD and SW operates (political, economic, social, organisational etc). This includes consideration of both ‘challenges’ and ‘opportunities’ for CD
Critical self-reflection (what knowledge/skills/values do you possess that you consider important with regard to SW & CD; what do you still need to develop?)

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Paper details:
Your paper must use a minimum of four journal and/or textbook references. These must be real journals, which you can find in online sources such as the ASU Online Library, but can not be online only web sites. In addition, you can use one or two, maximum of two, web sources such as Wikipedia if it helps you with a definition; however, the majority of your paper must be based on real journal and/or textbook references. My recommendation is you uses the ASU Online Library search rather than Google. You will spend hours searching through Google looking for real journal articles; however, in the ASU Online Library (you will find it in your MyASU), you can quickly narrow your search to books and journals only.
The final report is worth 90 points and should be approximately 8 to 10 pages in length, and include the following:
1. Title page with the title of your paper, IEE 454, date, your name, and contact information (5 points)
2. Abstract (10 points)
3. Table of contents (5 points)
4. Body of the paper (40 points)
5. Conclusion (20 points)
6. Bibliography (10 points)
Points can be subtracted for poor grammar, spelling, formatting, etc. The format for this paper, and the final paper must be professional. Use Microsoft Word for the paper. Please use a font size of 12, along with an easy to read font. Use double spacing and have a one inch margin on the top, bottom, left and right. Put your name and IEE 454 in the header of each page. Use proper bibliography formatting based on a technical journal or engineering textbook. Do not copy or even include the web link; you must include the required information for a bibliography.
Design book
https://app.knovel.com/web/toc.v/cid:kpPDFMEAD1

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice
In your own words,  discuss the life cycle of a crisis. Summarize a crisis from either your own organization or one you are familiar with, and discuss the 5 stage framework and how it applies. Briefly discuss what this framework offers that the three and four stage frameworks do not.

S.683 – Compassionate Access, Research Expansion, and Respect States Act of 2015.

S.683 – Compassionate Access, Research Expansion, and Respect States Act of 2015.
Instructions for the Semester Brief [Paper, writing assignment]:
1. Review the accompanying document titled Writing a Health Policy Brief 2015.
2. Page limit is:
1 page for GRADUATE students
2 pages for UNDERGRADUATE students.
3. Write a Health Policy Brief or Semester Brief based on the accompanying document tiled
S.683 – Compassionate Access, Research Expansion, and Respect States Act of 2015.
4. Submit your Semester Brief via the SafeAssign link in Course Content.
This is an individual assignment and collaboration is not authorized.  University and class rules apply.

Internship IINN company

Internship IINN company
write 10 pages project for my internship. I am doing my internship in a company which is: IINN in the United states. The department I work in is Insight Physical Therapy. I will send the attachment which has all the requirements for the project. Also, I will send you 6 reports that I did for the internship and it will help you and give you an overview of what I am doing in PT (physical therapy) so far. You will see in the attachment that I will send you for the requirement (grading rubric): III the healthcare environment
b- for healthcare admn HCR301 (Intro to Hlth Info Sys for Adm) HCR377(Health Care HR Administration) HCR385( Health Care Program Evaluation) HCR410(Healthcare Strategic Planning) I just want to clear each class above.
IV. Reflection:
A- HCR370(Hlthcare Profess & Leadrship)
E- HCR 304( Inro to Ethics in healthcare)
In the overview of the Agency/ Organization: use IINN website and I you need any further information about it let me know please.
write 4 sources just in case and if you need to use more let me know.

Greeting Cards Sales

Greeting Cards Sales
Problems
Complete Problems 11 through 25 at the end of Chapter 1 using the Greeting Card Sales.xls Excel file on the CD-ROM accompanying the text
Required Text
Lawrence, J., & Pasternack, B. (2002). Applied management science: Modeling, spreadsheet analysis, and communication for
decision making (2nd ed.) [with accompanying CD-ROM]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9780471391906

1. A single Microsoft Word file (unzipped) via the Moodle course web site. Details about the online submission process required for this assessment item are available from the course website.

1.    A single Microsoft Word file (unzipped) via the Moodle course web site. Details about the online submission process required for this assessment item are available from the course website.
2.    A plain text file named snort.conf which contains your SNORT rules in answer to Question 1.
3.    A copy of your message.txt, extra_logo.png, COIS23001Ass2.sig and ass2sig.jpg  files from Question 4.
4.    A copy of mydetails.txt.asc file from Question 5
Question 1:
Snort Rules    (10 Marks)
This question presents a  fictitious security vulnerability in a range of lasers printers.  The question requires that you develop SNORT IDS rules to detect exploits of this fictitious vulnerability. All information regarding this vulnerability is fabricated to give the illusion of a real security threat.  As a result, searches on the Internet will not yield any information regarding the signature of this vulnerability.  All the information required to detect exploits for this vulnerability are presented in this question, except where noted otherwise.
You are a security specialist working for XYZ Incorporated.  XYZ use SNORT as their NIDS which protects both their IP sub-networks being 192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24.
A security vulnerability has been detected in the Humphrey Pollard Laserprint 12050 printer model.  This vulnerability is remotely exploitable and allows the execution of arbitrary code.
There is a bug in the way the printer processes the postscript spool management header.  A sample of a spool header is given below:
%!PS-Adobe-3.0 %%Creator: texttops/CUPS v1.2.2%%CreationDate: Thu 21 Sep 2006 11:49:57 AM EST%%Title: TODO %%For: username %%DocumentNeededResources: font Courier-Bold …
The printer’s code which parses these headers only allows 8 bytes for the “%%For” field value buffer in memory.  In the example above, the field value is “username”.  It is possible to overflow the buffer by providing a value to the “%%For” field that is greater than 8 bytes. The “%%For” field can be found anywhere in the packet.
An exploit has been released in the form of a worm which when infecting the Laser printer’s memory, tricks the laser printer into emailing all documents received for printing to an email account in Russia.  The worm propagates by scanning networks in proximity of its own for other vulnerable printers.  On finding vulnerable machines, it copies itself to them and the cycle continues.
It also propagates via email as a PDF attachment.  The malicious code is embedded in the PDF file. The email message suggests that the attached document contains a joke and requires printing to a laser printer to view.  When the user prints the PDF, its payload is sent to the printer either directly, or via a printer spooling server.  Effectively, this means the worm can attack printers from any host on the network.
If a printer is found to be compromised, power-cycling (turning off and then on) the printer will erase the worm from the printer’s volatile memory.  However, this does not prevent the printer from being re-infected.
You are required to write 2 SNORT IDS rules labeled (a) and (b) to manage this vulnerability until patches are applied and printers reset.  Rule (a) must detect attempts to exploit this vulnerability on any printer in the company network.  The rule should scan for attempts from any host on the network to any host on the network.  It should also scan only for connections to the Jetdirect printing TCP/IP port number, used by this range of printers. You may need to research Jetdirect to identify which port number it uses for printing and what transport protocol. Google is a good place to start.
The signature of the exploit is given as follows:
%%For: username
The value “username” can be any sequence of characters, but must be exactly 8 characters long. For example, “username” could be “abcdefgh”.  Note also there is a space between the colon and “username”.  Immediately following the 8 characters for the username is the payload of the exploit, which is given below as decimal byte values:
124 185 30 135 99 214 51 29
Your rule should match the entire sequence as described above starting from “%%For:” through to the last decimal byte of the exploit payload “29”.  On detecting packets, your rule should generate an alert with a message stating: “Attempt to exploit laser printer vulnerability”.
Rule (b) must detect attempts by the malicious payload running on any infected printers to email documents to the Internet.
You have 6 printers on your network that are vulnerable to this attack.  Their IP addresses are:
192.168.1.45
192.168.1.40
192.168.2.15
192.168.2.30
192.168.2.31
192.168.2.40
Your email rule must apply only to the vulnerable printers on the network.  In other words, your rule should detect attempts to email the hacker from only the above printers, and no other hosts.
This model of laser printer also provides scanning and faxing capabilities.  When the scanning function is used, the unit will email the scanned document to an Internet email address given by the user when scanning. As a result, it is normal behaviour for these printers to send emails via SMTP.  Therefore, it is necessary to check the recipient email address of the document.  The rule should detect attempts to email users outside of the organisation, as no document should be emailed outside the company from a printer.  The organisation’s domain name is: xyzcorp.com.au.  So any emails sent to an address of form: user@xyzcorp.com.au should not be detected as these addresses are for company employees.  Any other email addresses without the exact domain name above should be detected. Any mail server could be used to deliver the email.  On detecting an email from one of these printers to an address outside the organisation, your rule should generate an alert with the message: “Compromised printer attempting to email document outside organisation”
For both rules, be sure to complete the following.
1.    Allocate an appropriate SID value and a revision number
2.    Designate an appropriate class type for this attack.
3.    Annotate your rules with comments describing what each component of the rule does, so other security specialists in your team can see how your rules are written.  Comments can be introduced to your rules file snort.conf by preceding each line with a hash character “#”.  Anything after the hash character to the end of the line will be treated as a comment by SNORT and ignored by the rule parsing code.  This is how you should comment your rules.
An example of how to present your rules in your assignment document is shown below:
# Your explanation of the below in italics
var HOME_NET 138.77.23.0/16
var EXTERNAL_NET !138.77.23.0/16
# Your explanation of the below
drop udp $EXTERNAL_NET any -> $HOME_NET 993
#Your explanation of the below, and so on…

An example explanation for a SNORT rule option:
# The content of the packet must contain the string “USER root” to be matched.
# Furthermore, the offset option specifies that the string “USER root” should be
# matched exactly 10 bytes from the beginning of the packet.  In other words, it will
# only match packets where 10 bytes from the start of the payload, the string
# “USER root” is specified.
content: “USER root”; offset:10;
Testing your rule
A pcap dump file has been provided which includes the signatures for both the laser printer exploit, and the email messages that are sent from infected printers.  This file serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows you to analyse the format of normal and malicious packets. Using Wireshark, you are able to open the pcap dump file, look at the format of the packets, and search for the malicious ones using the information in this document.  Secondly, the pcap dump file can be used with SNORT to test your rules.  To do the above, you need have installed SNORT and Wireshark on your home computer.
Instructions on how to  obtain these applications are available on the course website under the “Software Resources” section.
To test your rule with SNORT, copy the sample.pcap file to a working folder on your computer.  In this same folder, create a sub-folder called “logs”.  Open up notepad and save an empty file in your working folder called “snort.conf”.  This file will contain your rules. As you change the rules in notepad, resave the file.  Now to test your rule using SNORT, you execute the SNORT program from a command window as follows:
c:snortbinsnort.exe –r sample.pcap –c snort.conf  –l log
(This is an example – your install location for SNORT may differ.  Note also this is a windows example – you may use Linux or OS X to complete this assignment).
Check the output of the alert.ids file to see which packets have been detected by your rules. Also check the packet dump files as generated by SNORT using Wireshark which give the full packet content that were detected by your rules.  They are the files named “snort.log.{number}” where {number} is the timestamp value of when you ran SNORT.  This provides a history of each time you execute SNORT.  The greatest number is the newest version. You can drag these files from explorer window onto the Wireshark window. Also, alerts are appended to the end of your alert.ids file each time you execute SNORT. So just a hint:  before you run SNORT each time to test your rules, delete the alerts file and the dump files so it is less confusing.  Otherwise, they can be hard to read. Reviewing these logs files are essential to helping you to identify where you have gone wrong with your rules.
Your alert.ids file should contain the following:
[**] [1:1000022:1] Attempt to exploit laser printer vulnerability [**]
[Classification: <<DELETED>>] [Priority: 1]
09/21-11:49:57.965425 192.168.2.31:49140 -> 192.168.2.30:9100
TCP TTL:64 TOS:0x0 ID:39862 IpLen:20 DgmLen:782 DF
***A**** Seq: 0x31A554DB  Ack: 0xFCFF2DD  Win: 0xB7  TcpLen: 32
TCP Options (3) => NOP NOP TS: 23973781 489101
[**] [1:1000022:1] Attempt to exploit laser printer vulnerability [**]
[Classification: <<DELETED>>] [Priority: 1]
09/21-11:50:13.094991 192.168.2.11:49144 -> 192.168.2.40:9100
TCP TTL:64 TOS:0x0 ID:44774 IpLen:20 DgmLen:782 DF
***A**** Seq: 0x322170AB  Ack: 0x100D84CB  Win: 0xB7  TcpLen: 32
TCP Options (3) => NOP NOP TS: 23977563 489132
[**] [1:1000021:1] Compromised printer attempting to email document outside orga
nisation [**]
[Classification: <<DELETED>>] [Priority: 2]
09/21-14:57:32.058922 192.168.2.40:1941 -> 192.168.1.4:25
TCP TTL:128 TOS:0x0 ID:65489 IpLen:20 DgmLen:70 DF
***AP*** Seq: 0xFC0CF9C8  Ack: 0x32CC7240  Win: 0xFE7D  TcpLen: 20
[**] [1:1000021:1] Compromised printer attempting to email document outside organisation [**]
[Classification: <<DELETED>>] [Priority: 2]
09/21-15:02:40.010228 192.168.1.40:1955 -> 192.168.1.4:25
TCP TTL:128 TOS:0x0 ID:5281 IpLen:20 DgmLen:70 DF
***AP*** Seq: 0x9B7E2E43  Ack: 0x463DFBEF  Win: 0xFE7C  TcpLen: 20
Note:  The classification identifer has been deleted. If your alert.ids file is different to the above, you have false positives or false negatives.  This means your rule is not specific enough, or is too specific.  Identify which alerts are incorrect in your file and open the snort.log.{number} dump file to view their contents to see where you have gone wrong. If you are missing alerts, then identify the timestamp in the alert.ids file given above and search for the same packet in the sample.pcap file using Wireshark. Instructions on how to do this using Wireshark are given below in the tips section.
Tips:
•    Search for the SMTP RFC document “RFC0821” via google.  In particular, you will need to familiarise yourself with the “RCPT TO:” SMTP command.  This is the format you need to check for to detect safe receiving email addresses.
•    Use Wireshark to analyse the pcap dump file.  You can identify which packets contain the exploit by using the “Edit” menu, and “Find Packet” option.  You can specify a String value and search in the “Packet bytes” to find the signatures of the vulnerability.
•    Make use of SNORT to test your rule.  Check the output from your alerts file with what is provided in this document to see if you have implemented your rule properly. In particular, check for false positives, and false negatives.
•    The alert.ids file generated by SNORT on execution will provide the headers of the packets that were detected by your rules.  If you wish to see the full contents of these packets, you can search for them in the pcap dump file using Wireshark.  The headers of the packet in the alert.ids file include the timestamp when the packet was captured.  You can search for the exact timestamp in the pcap file to find the same packet.  This can be done by changing the settings of Wireshark to show the absolute time of the packets, rather than an offset from the very first packet.  Then if you wanted to find the packet in the alert.ids file with the timestamp: “11:49:57.965425”, you would search for the same string in Wireshark.  To change the display format for the timestamp in Wireshark:
1.    Click “View” menu
2.    Click “Time display format” option
3.    Click “Time of day”
•    Certain characters are “special” in SNORT rules.  These characters must be escaped to tell SNORT to treat them literally, rather than interpret their special meaning.  To escape a special character, you simply precede it with a back-slash “”.  For example, if you wish to continue your rule on a new line in the configuration file, then you end the line with a “” character to escape the special meaning of the ENTER character at the end of the line. SNORT treats the ENTER character as special.  It means it is the end of the current rule. With a “” at the end of the line, it tells SNORT to treat it as a literal ENTER which will be interpreted as just spacing for your rule and allows it to continue on the next line. If you receive the following error when you attempt to run your rule through SNORT: “ParsePattern Got Null enclosed in quotation marks (“)!”, then you have a special character in your rule content that needs to be escaped.  Refer to the SNORT documentation website for details on which characters have special meanings.
•    Research how to express a group of unrelated individual IP addresses as a source or destination.
•    Make sure you include the classtype in your rule.  Refer to the SNORT documentation to determine which classtype is appropriate for this exploit as described above.   You will probably have to make use of the classification.config file (located in the Snortetc directory) – research how to make reference to this file from your rules file.
•    Failure to use the correct syntax in your rule will mean the rule is ineffective.  This means you will lose marks on this question.
•    Refer to the Snort manual for assistance in writing the rules – a link to the manual is availed from the Software Resources section of the course web site.
Note: Duplicating the contents from the text, lecture slides, weekly notes or the Internet is not acceptable (even if it is referenced) and will not attract any marks.  Your solutions must be written in your own words. If you cannot write your answer in your own words, then you have not yet mastered the topic and require further reading or advice from your tutor. Any information taken from an external source (either from the textbook or any other source) must be referenced appropriately.  Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism.
Question 1 Marking Criteria
There is a total of 5 marks for each of the two rules. 2.5 marks for commenting, and 2.5 marks for rule correctness explained below.
Commenting criteria:
•    2.5 marks
A very good, in depth explanation of the SNORT Rule.  Shows good understanding of the material
•    2 marks
Has a few misunderstandings or explanations
•    1 – 1.5 marks
Passable explanations, a few mistakes, some major and not very descriptive
•    0.5 marks
Major problems.  Does not demonstrate a good understanding of the material or solution is very vague
•    0 marks
Essentially nothing correct or solutions have been copied verbatim from other sources
SNORT rule correctness criteria:
•    2.5 marks
A correct, concise SNORT rule that identifies malicious packets, without false positives or false negatives, and adheres to the assignment specification fully
•    1.5 – 2
marks A few mistakes, but still essentially correct and does not contain syntax errors
•    0 – 1 marks
Does not meet the specifications, has false positives/false negatives, or syntax errors
Question 2:
Kerberos Authentication Protocol    (10 Marks)
Kerberos is one of the most secure authentication protocols being used today. The Kerberos authentication protocol is very briefly described on page 280 in Chapter 8 of the Ciampa textbook. You are required to do personal research to complete the following questions regarding this topic:
A.    Give your general description of the Kerberos authentication protocol.
B.    Explain the term: Authenticator used in the Kerberos authentication protocol.
C.    In the Kerberos authentication protocol, there are 3 basic roles: client, server and Key Distribution Centre (KDC). Give your description of each of them.
D.    By explaining the term: Session Ticket, describe how a session key is created by KDC, and distributed to the client and the server
E.    Describe the mutual authentication procedure between the client and the server after the client obtains the session ticket
To answer these questions, you should consult reference materials from other texts and the Internet.  You are required to reference these sources – DO NOT DIRECTLY COPY material from them – i.e. use your own words.
Question 2 Marking Criteria
There is a total of 10 marks available for this question.  Each question (A – E) is worth 2 marks.  A question that is addressed thoroughly will score 2 mark – a lesser mark will be awarded if material is missed or the answer is unclear.  0 Marks will be awarded if the answer is copied directly from sources (i.e. isn’t in your own words).
Question 3:
Wireless Protocols    (10 Marks)
WPA2 Enterprise security is an integral component of modern network infrastructure.   AES/CCMP encryption and 802.1x authentication is currently regarded as the best way of securing enterprise-level wireless networks. You are required to do personal research to complete the following questions regarding this topic:
A.    Describe 802.1x authentication and the steps that when a wireless client connects to a network using RADIUS server for authentication.
B.    Explain the PEAP protocol – how does it differ from EAP and what EAP deficiency does it address?
C.    What makes a brute-force attack both particularly difficult and potentially easy on a wireless network using AES/CCMP encryption and 802.1x authentication?   Hint:  What do you need to know in order to attempt the attack?
D.    Assume an office wireless network was only configured with WPA2-AES encryption (i.e. no additional authentication standards).  What problems would this cause?
E.    Assume an office wireless network was only configured with 802.1x authentication (i.e. no additional encryption).  What problems would this cause?
To answer some of these questions, you should consult reference materials from other texts and the Internet.  You are required to reference these sources – DO NOT DIRECTLY COPY material from them – i.e. use your own words.
Question 3 Marking Criteria
There is a total of 10 marks available for this question.
Question A – 3 Marks
Question B – 3 Marks
Question C – 2 Mark
Question D – 1Mark
Question E – 1 Mark
A question that is addressed thoroughly will score full marks – a lesser mark will be awarded if material is missed or the answer is unclear.  0 Marks will be awarded if the answer is copied directly from sources (i.e. isn’t in your own words).
Question 4:  Steganography Exercise    [10 Marks]
This exercise requires you  to use Steganography to embed secret text into a graphic file and also to embed a secret watermark into a second graphic file. To accomplish these tasks you are to download a copy of OpenStego from the internet. You will also need to download the two graphic files cqu_logo.png  and Bundaberg.jpg from the Moodle site.
a)    Data Hiding in a graphic file [5 Marks]
You are to create a “message.txt”  file containing the text “This is my hidden text file” to use as your Message File in OpenStego.
You are to use “cqu_logo.png” as your Cover File in OpenStego  and “extra_logo.png” as your Output Stego File.
Note: You MUST use your student number (sxxxxxxx) as the password .
You are to include both your message.txt and extra_logo.png  files in your assignment submission.
b)    Watermarking a second graphic file [5 marks]
You are to generate a signature file (“COIS23001Ass2.sig”) using “Copyright 2015,COIS23001” as the PassPhrase.
You can now embed your watermark in the “Bundaberg.jpg” graphic file to create your Output file called “ass2sig.jpg”.
You are to submit a copy of your COIS23001Ass2.sig ass2sig.jpg with your assignment submission.
Note: You MUST include a copy of your message.txt , extra_logo.png, your COIS23001Ass2.sig and ass2sig.jpg files with your assignment submission.
Question 4 (a) Marking Criteria
1.5 marks for correct message.txt, 1.5 marks for correct password, 2 marks for correct extra_logo.png  file.
Question 4 (b) Marking Criteria
2 marks for correct signature file, 3 marks for correct output file.
Question 5                                     10 marks
You are the Chief Information security Officer (CISO) of a small medium sized – accounting Services Company. In the last few weeks, senior staff have been complaining that some confidential information has been disclosed via email without any authorisation.  You are approached by the Chief Information Officer (CIO) to discuss the issue and see the most appropriate way to tackle this problem. You suspect that some of the employees might be using their technical skills to access sensitive information either from the mail servers or during transmission. To counteract this malpractice, you suggest the CIO the implementation of encryption. Before you actually implement the system, you want to conduct a pilot using the GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) software.
The pilot requires that you install GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) software onto your own computer and complete the following activities.
Note:  The GNU Privacy Guard is available for free download from http://www.gnupg.org/ and “A Practical Introduction to GNU Privacy Guard in Windows” by Brendan Kidwell is available at http://www.glump.net/howto/gpg_intro
After installing GPG software onto your own computer, complete the following tasks:
1.    Generate your own key-pair by using GPG software and do not create a pass-phrase for your private key (in a real world this is not a good practice. Just for the sake of this assignment, do not create a pass-phrase). You need to use screen-shots to show that you have successfully completed this task. A valid screen-shot is similar to the one shown in Figure 1. Pay attention to the red circles, which demonstrate the success of key pair generation ( 2 marks).
Figure 1 Key Pair Creation
2.    Export your public key and paste it into your assignment document. You need to use two screen-shots to show that you have successfully completed this task. One screen-shot is to show the use of gpg command and the other is to show the exported public key. For example, the screen-shot in Figure 2, shows a public key, which is exported into the file: CC-pubkey.txt (2 marks).
Figure 2 Screen-shot of a Public Key
3.    Explain the steps how to import your Lecturer’s public key from the key-server http://pgp.mit.edu  (your lecturer created a public key and stored it at the MIT PGP Public Key Server). Include in the assignment document the gpg command line, individual options you used and their meaning.  As above, use screenshots of website interactions, with accompanying explanations of the screenshots to explain the steps how to import your Lecturer’s public key from the key-server http://pgp.mit.edu (3 marks).
4.    Create an ASCII text file to store your full-name, your student number, and your student CQU email address (please do not use any other email address). Then using your lecturer’s public key, encrypt this text file. The resulting file should also be ASCII armored so that it is readable once decrypted by your lecturer / tutor.  Failure to do so will result in loss of marks. Submit the resulting encrypted file along with your assignment solutions document (word document) via the online submission system and following the naming convention given above (3 marks).
An example explaining the steps to export a key
Here is a specific example for explaining the step of exporting a private key, to be imported onto another computer running GPG. Use this example to guide you in how to give explanations in this question.
To export your private key, you need to execute the following gpg command:
gpg –output “privkey.txt” –export-secret-keys “Xiao Li”
The output option specifies the filename in which to write the private key into. Finally, the export-secret-keys option specifies the name of the private key to be exported. The name is given as “Xiao Li”. This option is distinct from the “export” option which exports only public keys.
Now the private key is stored in the file “privkey.txt” unencrypted and can be imported into another version of GPG.
Hints:
Where required be detailed and specific about your actions explaining exactly what you did, and why you did not. Document the exact GPG commands you have used, and provide an explanation of what the command does, including the individual command line options, and/or provide screenshots of any interactions with websites.
Brendan Kidwell’s practical guide is not the only one available on the Internet. There are plenty of other documents on the Internet that explain how to use GPG for various functions.
Marking:
2 Marks for key-pair creation
2 Marks for exporting your public key
3 Marks for explaining the steps how to import your Lecturer’s public key from the key-server
3 Marks for creating an ASCII text file and encrypting it using your lecturer’s public key

Individual Federal Income Tax

Individual Federal Income Tax
Paper details:
Book: Federal Taxation 2015 for Individuals (28th edition). Pope & Anderson
Do Chapter 7 – Problem 63 (Tax Return)

Coursework, Engineering and Construction

Coursework, Engineering and Construction
Structure report as per the sections in the question.
Do not combine sections.
If you dont attempt a particular section, you automatically loose all marks attributed
to that section.Your report can be longer than 10 sides (e.g. due to figures, graphs & tables) but no more than 8 sides of text
in report main body.

Business Workplace Research Report

Business Workplace Research Report
Order Description
Managing Occupational Risk
NOTE: I live in Western Australia in case its needed for the Occupational Health and Safety documents
Assignment – (Report Style)
Carry out a safety inspection at your own workplace (if not possible, then at a workplace where you can negotiate an access for the purpose of this exercise, such as a petrol station, a retail store or similar).
i) Identify the widest possible range of occupational hazards.
ii)
ii) For each occupational hazard identified by you, assess whether the current control strategies in place are adequate and satisfactory.
iii) If not satisfactory, propose improved control strategies for each such hazard.
Word limit guideline: 2000 – 3000 words Learning outcome/s and Graduate Attributes
Completing this assignment will help you achieve the following learning outcome:
• The understanding of Occupational Safety & Health Statutory requirements.
• Application of a legislative framework.
• Hazard identification and control.
• Key management elements for the development of an organisational safety and health program.
Assignment instructions
For this assignment you are required to undertake research and if practical attempt to obtain Strategic and Operational Occupational Safety and Health Plans from organisations. Review the plans and assess how they compare against the researched statutory requirements.
Resources
The following resources will assist:
• Unit text
• Occupational Safety & Health Legislation
• Internet addresses provided
Marking criteria
Presentation (10%)
Research (40%)
Application and an understanding of the key elements (30%)
Assignment flow and readability (10%)
References (10%)

Deaf Culture

Deaf Culture
Order Description
write  a book report of :
Miller, Katrina R. Deaf Culture Behind Bars: Signs and Stories of a Texas Population.
Salem, OR: AGO Publications, 2003.

Change Management Position Paper

Change Management Position Paper
Order Description
Position Paper Assignment
You will write a Change Management Position Paper that is worth 220 points toward your final grade. This assignment is due Module 7. You will select a large organization, profit or nonprofit, that has recently gone through significant change. Choose an organization that you can find substantial written material documenting the change effort. Analyze the organization on the basis of the readings covered in this course and write a 5-6 page paper discussing the change effort.
You are expected to utilize materials from the course and search for other sources of materials. You may utilize the FSCJ Library/Learning Commons Online Resources to conduct your research. You can utilize the business databases that are available such as ABI/Inform (ProQuest) and Business Source Complete (EBSCO) or you can use the various business journals that are available.
Select this link to access the LINCC Web:
https://www.linccweb.org/eresources.asp?lib_code=flcc0800
Requirements
The paper should follow this outline:
1. Introduction: Describe the situation, organization, and context for the change?
2. Analysis: Analyze the approach taken by the change agent(s), and address the following: a) the image of the type of change held by the change agent, b) the “culture” of the setting that is changing and the role culture played in the change, c) the extent to which the (envisioned and actual) change was first or second order vs. adaptive or transformational, d) the method(s) for implementing change, f) the vision for the change, and g) how the change was communicated.
3. Overall Evaluation: Evaluate the quality of the change agent’s work based on class readings.
4. Recommendations: Include recommendations suggesting what steps could have been taken to increase the success of the project.
Criteria for grading the paper will include:
• Use of materials from the course. I expect that your paper will make a number of references to class readings in addition to other source material.
• The use of supporting data. If you make an assertion such as “Morale at the company was at an all-time low,” on what do you base this? Or, if you suggest, “This project has had an enormous impact on customer satisfaction,” how do you know this to be true? While it is acceptable to occasionally insert some subjectivity into the analysis – be clear to identify what is subjective opinion and what is based on more objective data sources.
• The quality of your conclusions and recommendations.
Formatting
• The paper will follow APA Format and Style.
• The body of the paper is 5-6 pages excluding title and reference pages.

Evaluation of lighting Design

Evaluation of lighting Design
Evaluation of Lighting Design. This assignment will develop a student’s ability to identify and develop lighting design strategies architectural spaces.
Choose a real architectural interior space.
Describe your chosen space.
Analyse the function ofa space in terms ofthe visual tasks required
Critique the effectiveness ofthe current lighting.
Suggest an alternative approach.
Important: Choose an example that has a diversity of elements you can discuss.
The aim ofthis assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of the information for this course.

EXPLAIN THE LAWS CONCERNING ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EXPLAIN THE BIBLICAL VIEWPOINT ON ASSISTED SUICIDE. USE AT LEAST 10 OF THE CITED REFERENCES BELOW;

EXPLAIN THE LAWS CONCERNING ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EXPLAIN THE BIBLICAL VIEWPOINT ON ASSISTED SUICIDE.
USE AT LEAST 10 OF THE CITED REFERENCES BELOW;
The debate over whether physician-assisted suicide is ethical and should be legal has persisted for many years.  Although many people feel the taking of a life is morally and biblically wrong, legalizing physician-assisted suicide can be a compassionate way to end suffering and pain due to terminal illness and provide a level of control for the patient over his or her own death.
Outline
I.    Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)
A.    Definition and History
B.    Dr. Jack Kevorkian
II.    Euthanasia
A.    Passive Euthanasia
B.    Active Euthanasia
III.    Patient Self-Determination Act
IV.    Constitutional Rights
A.    Equal protection clause – 14th Amendment to the Constitution
1.    Basic component of human freedom
2.    Right to decide one’s own destiny (autonomy)
B.    9th Amendment to the Constitution
V.    Social Policy
A.    Litigation
1.    United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
2.    United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
B.    Legislation
1.    Death with Dignity Act – Measure 16 (Oregon)
C.    Doctors’ participation in PAS
VI.    Legal Precedents
A.    In re Quinlan, 70 NJ. 10, 355 A.2d 647, 664 (1976)
B.    Vacco v. Quill, 521 U.S. 793 (1997)
C.    Gonzales v. Oregon, 546 U.S. 243 (2006)
VII.    Biblical Viewpoint
VIII.    Conclusion
IX.    References
Annas, G.J. (1976).  Law and the life sciences: In re Quinlan: Legal comfort for doctors.  The Hastings Center Report, 6(3), 29-31.
Bostrom, B.A. (2006).  Gonzales v. Oregon.  Issues in Law & Medicine, 21(3), 203-210.
Bross, W. & Ivey, J. (2006).  Healthcare issues—patient self determination acts and informed consent.  Alabama Nurse, 32(4), 9.
Bruder, P. (1996).  Reaping the whirlwind: Legalizing assisted suicide.  Hospital Topics, 74(3), 8-10.
Delka, L. (1995).  Constitutional law: Physician-assisted suicide, crime or compassion?  Washburn Law Journal, 35, 197-211.
Devlin, M. (1996).  Quill v. Vacco. Issues in Law & Medicine, 12(1), 65-67.
Feinberg, B. (1998).  The court upholds a state law prohibiting physician-assisted suicide.  Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(3), 847-876.
George, K. (2007).  A woman’s choice? The gendered risks of voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.  Medical Law Review, 15, 1-33.
Hosseini, H.M. (2012).  Ethics, the illegality of physician assisted suicide in the United States, and the role and ordeal of Dr. Jack Kevorkian before his death.  Review of European Studies, 4(5), 203-209.
Keown, D. & Keown, J. (1995).  Killing, karma and caring: Euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.  Journal of Medical Ethics, 21, 265-269.
Martyn, S.R. & Bourguignon, H.J. (2000).  Now is the moment to reflect: Two years of experience with Oregon’s physician-assisted suicide law.  The Elder Law Journal, 8, 1-56.
Morgan, R.C. & Sutherland, D.D. (1996).  Last Rights? Confronting physician-assisted suicide in law and society: Legal liturgies on physician-assisted suicide.  Stetson Law Review, 26(2), 481-528.
Stansbury, K.M. (1996).  Health law—physician assisted suicide—due process, the right to die, equal protection and slippery slopes.  Land and Water Law Review, 31, 623-644.
Valente, S.M. (2004).  End-of-life challenges: Honoring autonomy.  Cancer Nursing, 27(4), 314-319.

Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories
Read some segments of Chapter 1 in Munson and to do some analysis of the Dax Cowart case. For Assignment 6, read sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Chapter 1. Now – citing references in the text as well as your own ethical position, answer the following question: Do you agree with Eugene Rosam’s reply to Anita Catlin’s position? Rosam’s reply can be found on page 101 – 103. Give reasons why you side with either Rosam or Catlin making sure you use material you have encountered in the readings.

Sports and society

Sports and society
1.    Discuss the differences between play, games, sport, and work and provide an example of each.  As the majority of games become more mainstream, there is often a corresponding movement to organize them with standardized rules and competitive events, which means that they take on the characteristics of a sport. Is this positive or negative? Why?
2.    Hazing is a form of overconformity in sport: true or false? Why? Would you create any rules/regulations to address this issue? Why or why not?
3.    How does the media influence sport and how does this affect the understanding of sport by the general public?  Discuss this answer through a specific example and provide a source for the example (either video or text-based).

values in our consumer society

values in our consumer society
In the readings we have been exposed to in the last few weeks, the writers have challenged dominant ways of thinking about the values in our consumer society. Drawing from all three essays listed below, compose a 4-page, thesis-centered essay in response to the following prompt:
Identify at least one value that seems to be a part of consumer culture (i.e. positive thinking). How have certain social forces (i.e. school, television, or the media, etc) helped shape the value(s)? What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of having these values in a consumer society?

Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories
Read some segments of Chapter 1 in Munson and to do some analysis of the Dax Cowart case. For Assignment 6, read sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Chapter 1. Now – citing references in the text as well as your own ethical position, answer the following question: Do you agree with Eugene Rosam’s reply to Anita Catlin’s position? Rosam’s reply can be found on page 101 – 103. Give reasons why you side with either Rosam or Catlin making sure you use material you have encountered in the readings.
Apply to Anita Catlin 3-iC5gm_ in his repiy to Catlin, points out that Jehovah’s W’t
do not believe that children should be allowed to die (flees Dcirents against medical treatment for their chiidren.The parents Qire not I Weoiment for their children. just not treatment that involv:se:l Medical
«u5ion,Also, Rosam claims, we must recognize that a tran f pod “°”5’tential to cause medical ha ‘ – 3 won h°S
the Po _ Tm. not rust medical benefit Thus giving a child blood, contrary to Catlin, does not necessarily ‘rneetl
every goal of medicine.’ some laws and recent court decisions, Rosam points out, do mirequire that a child receive the best” treatment, but only a treat- merit that is ‘adequate’ or ‘reasonable.’ Thus, if a treatment does
not involve the use of blood, even if some do not consider it the best treatment. there are no grounds forintertering with parental decision making. Like Catlin, Rosam thinks it IS unacceptable to try to convince
Jehovah’s Witness parents to give up their beliefs.
We have read with interest the well researched article and children that we find most difficult to deal with,
byAnita Catlin. We agree with her that the case she and admittedly have few answers for, a sickle cell
mentions is one that would ose a dilemma for the crisis, with a stroke in pro ess, is indeed a challen e.
P _ 8‘ 8
healthcare community as it indeed does for Jehovah’s The case presents multiple problems.
Witnesses themselves. Of all the conditions in adults We, too, like the author. would never recommend
that the child be allowed to die.What we would ask is
E gene mam ” ,” HEC
Fgram, got. 8, (ly1Y.tgI:pn;rt?gg:%nl996 by that the doctor do everything he can to the of.
Spmgeeveriag. Reproduced by permission. the child without using a blood transfusionfltie situation

“The Master said, ‘If the ruler himself is upright, all will go well even though he does not give orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed.’” (The Analects of Confucius. xiii, 6)

“The Master said, ‘If the ruler himself is upright, all will go well even though he does not give orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed.’” (The Analects of Confucius. xiii, 6)
“The Master said, ‘If only someone would make use of me, even for a single year, I could do a great deal; and in three years I could finish the work.’” (The Analects of Confucius. xiii, 10)
The Axial Period was a time of philosophical transformation that identified mankind to be both the primary source of human misfortune and unhappiness, and the only means to a solution. The philosophies of Confucius, Buddha, Zarathustra and Heraklitus assumed the capacity of human nature to recognize within itself and beyond itself an ethical (internal) standard of truth and virtue, and the desire to act upon that standard in the service of a community. However, of these philosophies, only the thought of Confucius contained any practical political intention or expectation, and Confucius himself was never given the opportunity to advise or influence, directly, the political culture of the China of his time. Others though, like Cleisthenes in Athens and Asoka in India, did attempt political applications of these essentially non-political philosophies. Constrained to the usual 500words, evaluate whether or not you would consider the Mauryan Empire, as ruled by Asoka, a representation, at least to some extent, of Confucius’ political expectations for his vision of Axial Period ideology – Note: your commentary will need to be informed by the “All Men Are My Children” selection from this week’s ‘Readings’ section of the ‘Course Materials’.
ASOKA MAURYA “A II Men Are My Chi/clrcu” [ 10!)]
The picture of Mauryan administration as deScribed above is
one of a vast conglomeration of power manipulated by the dominant
will of an emperor served by a large standing army and a
fairly numerous bureaucracy. Such an administration could have
arisen only in answer to certain specific needs of the times. We
have referred earlier to the breakdown of tribal society and the
emergence of regional societies in its place. These regional societies
were still rather heterogeneous in their ethnic, economic.
and social composition. To this heterogeneity was added the internationalism
and cosmopolitanism of the Mauryas, which, if it
made the diversity more interesting, also made it more complex
and created new problems. With the breakdown of the traditional
systems of social control the problem of administrative organization
assumed new dimensions. New economic activity
threw up new social classes, whose wealth was both bcneficial and
challenging to society and social order. There was also a decline
in the moral norms guiding social conduct.52 The growth of numerous
sectarian theories created possibilities of religious feuds
that could seriously disturb the peace of the realm. The tribal
assemblies were effete, and the organs of autonomous urban control
had yet to develop. This was an age of movement over areas
and classes. In such an age of transition, when the traditional
organs of control failed to exercise real power, it was natural that
control would pass into the hands of the king and his bureaucrats.
The king had not only to be the ruler but also the peacemaker,
the prosecutor, and the judge. The new society needed
not only a new centralized administration but also a uniform or
homogeneous ethos. The Asokan attempt was to find solutions to
the problem of achieving an equilibrium for the new and sometimes
conflicting political and social forces, and it was in this that
the Asokan administration assumed a new character.
The first two Mauryas had developed the essential structure of
Mauryan administration, which closely resembled the theoretical
injunctions of the Arthashastra. The observations of the Greeks
reveal the organizational complexity and skill of this structure.
Asoka inherited it and for the first ten years or so used it for the
consolidation of his empire. After the Kalinga war there was a
gradual change in his personal philosophy, and certain administrath’c
dlanges wcre IIcccssary to implcmcllt this changing view
of the state ami the purpose of life. The country, (‘or him, now
appeared to be a vast family over which he, the pater familias,
prcsided. As the head of this extraordinarily complex and large
family consisting of groups (nikayas) at various levels of civilization
and social development, hc had to devise a policy of toleration
aIIII unity. 111lleed,Asoka seemed to be constal1lly pn:occupied
with the concept of unity, or samavtl)’a, 33 as hc called it.
Politics for him was ncither purely power (danda) and glory (11ishvarya)
nor just an instrument of law and order; its purpose had to
be somcthing highcr, which is called dharma. Now it is true that
in the traditional scheme of idcals of life, as formulated and institutionalized
in later works, dharma figures as the first of the four
values, but it is one of four. For Asoka dharma meant everything,
the highest value and perhaps the only value I This was a result of
the Buddhist influence on his life, and it was this distinctively
Buddhist legacy that he desired to enshrine through his own
statecraft. He viewed life, all life, as one and indivisible and constantly
revealed his preoccupation with the welfare of both men
and animals. For the less privileged sections of society he felt a
special concern and constantly exhorted his subjects to be kind
and sympathetic to the servants and slaves. His thinking was allinclusive,
comprehending within its scope not only diversity of
social classes, but also variations in the manifestations of life, human
and animal. Discriminating intelligence (pradnya) and
compassion for all beings (karuna) were the major foundations of
his philosophy of life. He strove ceaselessly to realize these ideals
in practice and hopcd to live in the best Buddhist tradition of a
counterpart of the Being of Infinite Compassion, the Bodhisattva,
so well-known in Buddhist literature and philosophy. Finally,
Asoka had set before himself the aim of making his administration
so morally elevating for his subjects that the distinction between
gods and men would more or less disappcar, and the vcry
gods would descend from thcir hcavens to this world to rub
shoulders with mere men. In his characteristic enthusiasm Asoka
claimed that this great aim had now been realized.

Site layout on a confined site

Site layout on a confined site
Site layout decisions (e.g. plant, materials, accommodation, hoardings, etc) depend on many factors.
One significant factor is the nature of the site.
You are part of the management team of a construction company. You have won a contract for the
construction of a -storey mix development in CBD. The building occupies the complete area of ti
site. The site is surrounded on three sides by high-rise buildings. The building has an in-situ concrete
frame with curtain walling.
Describe FOUR (4) site layout problems and possible solutions to these problems. State any
assumptions. Consideration of the problems and suggested solutions should enable you to:
a) Appreciate the process of problem resolution for the site management team
b) Evaluate options and set criteria for an appropriate solution
c) Source information to assist in problem identification and resolution. Your solution should be based on further reading of the topics considered in Construction Site Management.

Declining Stage of a Product

Declining Stage of a Product
You are the marketing director for a product that has reached the declining stage of the product life cycle. Pick a product that meets this characteristic. What are your recommendations to management to breathe new life into this product?

Prevention against African American Male Drop outs in high school The evidence-based practice paper should be 9-13 pages in length (not including references) and must follow APA 6th format guidelines. The paper must be written in an academic tone in accordance with APA guidelines. Define your practice problem/issue and your population of interest. Use reliable sources to provide standardized definitions of your problem and describe the prevalence of the problem in the general population. Present your EBP question in a clear and concise manner. Keep in mind: the purpose of this section is to educate your reader on your issue and population, and make an argument for why your practice problem needs to be addressed. Describe how you went about searching for the evidence you present in the paper (include your search terms, what search engines/databases you used, about how many studies or articles were available for the problem you identified and how you decided on the research articles you selected). Your goal is to identify three evaluation studies (quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods) of social work interventions for your issue, and when possible, your population. Studies that identify risk factors for / correlates of a social work problem, or attempt to explain pathways that lead to the problem are not good fits for this section (although they may provide good information for your Background section). When you submit your draft of this section, you will also submit the three (or more) articles you intend to review with a very brief 2-4 sentence summary of the article (for example: "The Smith, et al. (2007) article is a quasi-experimental study that evaluates the ABC intervention for women with depression. I chose it because the sample closely aligns with my population of interest and it is one of very few studies on the topic that uses an experimental design.") Briefly describe and critique the three intervention evaluation studies you identified. Include a brief (1-2 paragraphs) description of the intervention. Use the skills you have learned in class to provide thoughtful critiques of the evaluation research that has been conducted on these interventions (e.g., identify and discuss the study methodology, identify the studies' strengths and weaknesses and discuss how they are important for interpreting the results, discuss issues of internal and external validity and why they are important, etc.). You are expected to go beyond what the authors provide to you in the manuscripts. Make an argument for one intervention approach (from those you presented in Part III) that you believe presents a viable solution to your practice problem. This intervention should be both relevant to your target population, and rigorous enough to be implemented with your population of interest. Describe how and why this intervention is the most appropriate for your issue and population. • What aspects of the supporting research have led you to believe this intervention will be successful in practice? • Assess and describe the fit of this practice solution/intervention for your client. Does it seem applicable to your client’s preferences, culture and values? Does it seem realistic (time needed or cost of intervention)? Why or why not? • What considerations will be necessary for successful implementation of this intervention in practice? Conclude your paper by briefly restating your EBP question and your primary findings. Identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for additional research.

Prevention against African American Male Drop outs in high school
The evidence-based practice paper should be 9-13 pages in length (not including references) and must follow APA 6th format guidelines. The paper must be written in an academic tone in accordance with APA guidelines.
Define your practice problem/issue and your population of interest. Use reliable sources to provide standardized definitions of your problem and describe the prevalence of the problem in the general population. Present your EBP question in a clear and concise manner. Keep in mind: the purpose of this section is to educate your reader on your issue and population, and make an argument for why your practice problem needs to be addressed.
Describe how you went about searching for the evidence you present in the paper (include your search terms, what search engines/databases you used, about how many studies or articles were available for the problem you identified and how you decided on the research articles you selected). Your goal is to identify three evaluation studies (quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods) of social work interventions for your issue, and when possible, your population. Studies that identify risk factors for / correlates of a social work problem, or attempt to explain pathways that lead to the problem are not good fits for this section (although they may provide good information for your Background section).
When you submit your draft of this section, you will also submit the three (or more) articles you intend to review with a very brief 2-4 sentence summary of the article (for example: “The Smith, et al. (2007) article is a quasi-experimental study that evaluates the ABC intervention for women with depression. I chose it because the sample closely aligns with my population of interest and it is one of very few studies on the topic that uses an experimental design.”)
Briefly describe and critique the three intervention evaluation studies you identified. Include a brief (1-2 paragraphs) description of the intervention. Use the skills you have learned in class to provide thoughtful critiques of the evaluation research that has been conducted on these interventions (e.g., identify and discuss the study methodology, identify the studies’ strengths and weaknesses and discuss how they are important for interpreting the results, discuss issues of internal and external validity and why they are important, etc.). You are expected to go beyond what the authors provide to you in the manuscripts.
Make an argument for one intervention approach (from those you presented in Part III) that you believe presents a viable solution to your practice problem. This intervention should be both relevant to your target population, and rigorous enough to be implemented with your population of interest.
Describe how and why this intervention is the most appropriate for your issue and population.
• What aspects of the supporting research have led you to believe this intervention will be successful in practice?
• Assess and describe the fit of this practice solution/intervention for your client. Does it seem applicable to your client’s preferences, culture and values? Does it seem realistic (time needed or cost of intervention)? Why or why not?
• What considerations will be necessary for successful implementation of this intervention in practice?
Conclude your paper by briefly restating your EBP question and your primary findings. Identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for additional research.

Early years education Read three articles on Early years education . Then the following disciplines addressed: Paper name, etc. Objectives of paper. Concepts of paper. Variable, methodology, instrument, data analysis and the major findings of each paper. It really is a question of reading the papers and filling out the spreadsheet which I will provide for you.

Early years education
Read three articles on Early years education . Then the following disciplines addressed: Paper name, etc. Objectives of paper. Concepts of paper. Variable, methodology, instrument, data analysis and the major findings of each paper.  It really is a question of reading the papers and filling out the spreadsheet which I will provide for you.

“Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” and “Harrison Bergeron”

“Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” and “Harrison Bergeron”
Both “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” and “Harrison Bergeron” can be interpreted as stories about rebellion and nonconformity.  Compare and contrast the two stories, arguing which story you think is the most convincing or least convincing for readers who want to be seen as individuals.

Glory

Glory
Write an essay on the review of the movie Glory

Nursing

Nursing
The registered professional nurse has been asked to develop a program for the local Asian American community that focuses on primary and secondary prevention strategies for colorectal cancer.
Write a four page paper which includes a cover page (page 1), your response to the items below (pages 2 & 3), and a reference page (page 4):
The program design must address these 3 components:
1.Primary and secondary prevention strategies for colorectal cancer.
2.Evidence supporting the recommendations for the prevention strategies for colorectal cancer.
3.Strategies must include cultural preferences of the Asian American population.
You may find the following resources helpful:
•Intercultural Cancer Council: Cancer Fact Sheets
•Patient and Family Education Services
•The Provider’s Guide to Quality and Culture

Shakespeare Drama course

Shakespeare Drama course
The course covers the following plays: Othello, Titus Andronicus, A Midsummar Nights Dreams, Henry IV, Measure for Measure and Pericles
Think ofa debatable topic suitable for developing a piece ofa scholarly writing. Before you write the informal proposal let me know what
Write the question you hope to answer in your research paper.
This sentence must end in a question mark. Before I suggest what your question can/should be, I will tell you what it may not be. It may not be one of subjective opinion (e.g., “ls Richard III betterthan Henry V?”) or emotion (e.g., “ls Learthe saddest Shakespeare play?”). Unless you have actually discovered a new fact about your author/text(s), your question may not be one that can be answered factually (e.g., “From what literary sources did Shakespeare steal the plots of his plays?”). Rather, your question must be an objective, intellectual one based on the primary text(s) and capable of sustained scholarly conversation, debate, and disagreement. That is,it must be a complex, probing question that must have more than one reasonably plausible answer. Ideally, the question you ask will be of genuine importance to you because your sincere curiosity and desire to make a mark in the world of scholarship will sustain you through the research and drafting process. This is the single most difficult assignment ofthis course for most people.

Data minimum techniques

Data minimum techniques
Provide an overview for two data mining technique for the following
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
Decision tree analysis
Genetic algorithms
Rule induction

Government Entitlements? MAYBE?

Government Entitlements? MAYBE?
Classical Argument Research paper. This paper should consist of 7-8 well-written pages that addresses the issue you would like to argue. From your paper, your audience should be clear. I should understand your perspective and how it differs from other opinions in scope or in position. Be sure that you have anticipated audience questions and answered them, cited sources thoroughly, and have covered your topic well and in an interesting way.

biology

biology
Discuss role of homeostasis

Araby by James Joyce

Araby by James Joyce
North Richmond Street, being blind, was a quiet street except at the hour when the
Christian Brothers’ School set the boys free. An uninhabited house of two storeys stood at
the blind end, detached from its neighbours in a square ground. The other houses of the
street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown
imperturbable faces.
The former tenant of our house, a priest, had died in the back drawing-room. Air, musty
from having been long enclosed, hung in all the rooms, and the waste room behind the
kitchen was littered with old useless papers. Among these I found a few paper-covered
books, the pages of which were curled and damp: The Abbot, by Walter Scott, The
Devout Communicant, and The Memoirs of Vidocq. I liked the last best because its
leaves were yellow. The wild garden behind the house contained a central apple-tree and
a few straggling bushes, under one of which I found the late tenant’s rusty bicycle-pump.
He had been a very charitable priest; in his will he had left all his money to institutions
and the furniture of his house to his sister.
When the short days of winter came, dusk fell before we had well eaten our dinners.
When we met in the street the houses had grown sombre. The space of sky above us was
the colour of ever-changing violet and towards it the lamps of the street lifted their feeble
lanterns. The cold air stung us and we played till our bodies glowed. Our shouts echoed
in the silent street. The career of our play brought us through the dark muddy lanes
behind the houses, where we ran the gauntlet of the rough tribes from the cottages, to the
back doors of the dark dripping gardens where odours arose from the ashpits, to the dark
odorous stables where a coachman smoothed and combed the horse or shook music from
the buckled harness. When we returned to the street, light from the kitchen windows had
filled the areas. If my uncle was seen turning the corner, we hid in the shadow until we
had seen him safely housed. Or if Mangan’s sister came out on the doorstep to call her
brother in to his tea, we watched her from our shadow peer up and down the street. We
waited to see whether she would remain or go in and, if she remained, we left our shadow
and walked up to Mangan’s steps resignedly. She was waiting for us, her figure defined
by the light from the half-opened door. Her brother always teased her before he obeyed,
and I stood by the railings looking at her. Her dress swung as she moved her body, and
the soft rope of her hair tossed from side to side.
Every morning I lay on the floor in the front parlour watching her door. The blind was
pulled down to within an inch of the sash so that I could not be seen. When she came out
on the doorstep my heart leaped. I ran to the hall, seized my books and followed her. I
kept her brown figure always in my eye and, when we came near the point at which our
ways diverged, I quickened my pace and passed her. This happened morning after
morning. I had never spoken to her, except for a few casual words, and yet her name was
like a summons to all my foolish blood.
2
Her image accompanied me even in places the most hostile to romance. On Saturday
evenings when my aunt went marketing I had to go to carry some of the parcels. We
walked through the flaring streets, jostled by drunken men and bargaining women, amid
the curses of labourers, the shrill litanies of shop-boys who stood on guard by the barrels
of pigs’ cheeks, the nasal chanting of street-singers, who sang a come-all-you about
O’Donovan Rossa, or a ballad about the troubles in our native land. These noises
converged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore my chalice safely
through a throng of foes. Her name sprang to my lips at moments in strange prayers and
praises which I myself did not understand. My eyes were often full of tears (I could not
tell why) and at times a flood from my heart seemed to pour itself out into my bosom. I
thought little of the future. I did not know whether I would ever speak to her or not or, if I
spoke to her, how I could tell her of my confused adoration. But my body was like a harp
and her words and gestures were like fingers running upon the wires.
One evening I went into the back drawing-room in which the priest had died. It was a
dark rainy evening and there was no sound in the house. Through one of the broken panes
I heard the rain impinge upon the earth, the fine incessant needles of water playing in the
sodden beds. Some distant lamp or lighted window gleamed below me. I was thankful
that I could see so little. All my senses seemed to desire to veil themselves and, feeling
that I was about to slip from them, I pressed the palms of my hands together until they
trembled, murmuring: `O love! O love!’ many times.
At last she spoke to me. When she addressed the first words to me I was so confused that
I did not know what to answer. She asked me was I going to Araby. I forgot whether I
answered yes or no. It would be a splendid bazaar; she said she would love to go.
`And why can’t you?’ I asked.
While she spoke she turned a silver bracelet round and round her wrist. She could not go,
she said, because there would be a retreat that week in her convent. Her brother and two
other boys were fighting for their caps, and I was alone at the railings. She held one of the
spikes, bowing her head towards me. The light from the lamp opposite our door caught
the white curve of her neck, lit up her hair that rested there and, falling, lit up the hand
upon the railing. It fell over one side of her dress and caught the white border of a
petticoat, just visible as she stood at ease.
`It’s well for you,’ she said.
`If I go,’ I said, `I will bring you something.’
What innumerable follies laid waste my waking and sleeping thoughts after that evening!
I wished to annihilate the tedious intervening days. I chafed against the work of school.
At night in my bedroom and by day in the classroom her image came between me and the
page I strove to read. The syllables of the word Araby were called to me through the
silence in which my soul luxuriated and cast an Eastern enchantment over me. I asked for
leave to go to the bazaar on Saturday night. My aunt was surprised, and hoped it was not
3
some Freemason affair. I answered few questions in class. I watched my master’s face
pass from amiability to sternness; he hoped I was not beginning to idle. I could not call
my wandering thoughts together. I had hardly any patience with the serious work of life
which, now that it stood between me and my desire, seemed to me child’s play, ugly
monotonous child’s play.
On Saturday morning I reminded my uncle that I wished to go to the bazaar in the
evening. He was fussing at the hallstand, looking for the hat-brush, and answered me
curtly:
`Yes, boy, I know.’
As he was in the hall I could not go into the front parlour and lie at the window. I felt the
house in bad humour and walked slowly towards the school. The air was pitilessly raw
and already my heart misgave me.
When I came home to dinner my uncle had not yet been home. Still it was early. I sat
staring at the clock for some time and, when its ticking began to irritate me, I left the
room. I mounted the staircase and gained the upper part of the house. The high, cold,
empty, gloomy rooms liberated me and I went from room to room singing. From the front
window I saw my companions playing below in the street. Their cries reached me
weakened and indistinct and, leaning my forehead against the cool glass, I looked over at
the dark house where she lived. I may have stood there for an hour, seeing nothing but
the brown-clad figure cast by my imagination, touched discreetly by the lamplight at the
curved neck, at the hand upon the railings and at the border below the dress.
When I came downstairs again I found Mrs Mercer sitting at the fire. She was an old,
garrulous woman, a pawnbroker’s widow, who collected used stamps for some pious
purpose. I had to endure the gossip of the tea-table. The meal was prolonged beyond an
hour and still my uncle did not come. Mrs Mercer stood up to go: she was sorry she
couldn’t wait any longer, but it was after eight o’clock and she did not like to be out late,
as the night air was bad for her. When she had gone I began to walk up and down the
room, clenching my fists. My aunt said:
`I’m afraid you may put off your bazaar for this night of Our Lord.’
At nine o’clock I heard my uncle’s latchkey in the hall door. I heard him talking to
himself and heard the hallstand rocking when it had received the weight of his overcoat. I
could interpret these signs. When he was midway through his dinner I asked him to give
me the money to go to the bazaar. He had forgotten.
`The people are in bed and after their first sleep now,’ he said.
I did not smile. My aunt said to him energetically:
`Can’t you give him the money and let him go? You’ve kept him late enough as it is.’
4
My uncle said he was very sorry he had forgotten. He said he believed in the old saying:
`All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.’ He asked me where I was going and, when
I told him a second time, he asked me did I know The Arab’s Farewell to his Steed. When
I left the kitchen he was about to recite the opening lines of the piece to my aunt.
I held a florin tightly in my hand as I strode down Buckingham Street towards the station.
The sight of the streets thronged with buyers and glaring with gas recalled to me the
purpose of my journey. I took my seat in a third-class carriage of a deserted train. After
an intolerable delay the train moved out of the station slowly. It crept onward among
ruinous houses and over the twinkling river. At Westland Row Station a crowd of people
pressed to the carriage doors; but the porters moved them back, saying that it was a
special train for the bazaar. I remained alone in the bare carriage. In a few minutes the
train drew up beside an improvised wooden platform. I passed out on to the road and saw
by the lighted dial of a clock that it was ten minutes to ten. In front of me was a large
building which displayed the magical name.
I could not find any sixpenny entrance and, fearing that the bazaar would be closed, I
passed in quickly through a turnstile, handing a shilling to a weary-looking man. I found
myself in a big hall girded at half its height by a gallery. Nearly all the stalls were closed
and the greater part of the hall was in darkness. I recognized a silence like that which
pervades a church after a service. I walked into the centre of the bazaar timidly. A few
people were gathered about the stalls which were still open. Before a curtain, over which
the words Café Chantant were written in coloured lamps, two men were counting money
on a salver. I listened to the fall of the coins.
Remembering with difficulty why I had come, I went over to one of the stalls and
examined porcelain vases and flowered tea-sets. At the door of the stall a young lady was
talking and laughing with two young gentlemen. I remarked their English accents and
listened vaguely to their conversation.
`O, I never said such a thing!’
`O, but you did!’
`O, but I didn’t!’
`Didn’t she say that?’
`Yes. I heard her.’
`O, there’s a… fib!’
Observing me, the young lady came over and asked me did I wish to buy anything. The
tone of her voice was not encouraging; she seemed to have spoken to me out of a sense of
duty. I looked humbly at the great jars that stood like eastern guards at either side of the
dark entrance to the stall and murmured:
5
`No, thank you.’
The young lady changed the position of one of the vases and went back to the two young
men. They began to talk of the same subject. Once or twice the young lady glanced at me
over her shoulder.
I lingered before her stall, though I knew my stay was useless, to make my interest in her
wares seem the more real. Then I turned away slowly and walked down the middle of the
bazaar. I allowed the two pennies to fall against the sixpence in my pocket. I heard a
voice call from one end of the gallery that the light was out. The upper part of the hall
was now completely dark.
Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity; and
my eyes burned with anguish and anger.

scholarly inquiry

scholarly inquiry
The course covers the following plays: Othello, Titus Andronicus, A Midsummar Nights Dreams, Henry IV, Measure for Measure and Pericles
Think ofa debatable topic suitable for developing a piece ofa scholarly writing. Before you write the informal proposal let me know what the topic is in the next 24 hours so i can see my professor and get the topic approved and i will let you know soon so you can start
Every scholarly inquiry begins with a question. After all, you can’t recognize the answer if you don’t know what the question is. Consequently, scholars must learn howto formulate questions before they can generate original, well-reasoned and-researched answers to them.
This sentence must end in a question mark. Before I suggest what your question can/should be, I will tell you what it may not be. It may not be one of subjective opinion (e.g., “ls Richard III betterthan Henry V?”) or emotion (e.g., “ls Learthe saddest Shakespeare play?”). Unless you have actually discovered a new fact about your author/text(s), your question may not be one that can be answered
factually (e.g., “From what literary sources did Shakespeare steal the plots of his plays?”). Rather, your question must be an objective, intellectual one based on the primary text(s) and capable of sustained scholarly conversation, debate, and disagreement. That is,it must be a complex, probing question that must have more than one reasonably plausible answer. Ideally, the question you ask will be of genuine importance to you because your sincere curiosity and desire to make a mark in the world of scholarship will sustain you through the
research and drafting process. Thi

may book 1

may book 1
Use the book to write this assignment. the book is Effective Writing: Handbook for Accountants; 9th edition (2012) by May and May; Published by Pearson; ISBN: 978-0-13-256724-4
and the part I want you to do is E2-8 (p. 29)

The four major buying behaviors are complex, dissonance-reducing, habitual buying, and variety-seeking buying behaviors. What implications does each of these buying behaviors have for a firm’s promotional strategies?

The four major buying behaviors are complex, dissonance-reducing, habitual buying, and variety-seeking buying behaviors. What implications does each of these buying behaviors have for a firm’s promotional strategies?
This question requires each of the 4 major buying behaviours to ideally be listed with reference to the kinds of promotional strategies likely to be employed. You may have quite a few good ideas for strategies that link up with the buying behaviour.
The key is that the question asks for ‘each’ and therefore you should reference all four buying behaviours.
For example:
Cognitive buying behaviour promotional strategies must therefore usually respond with promotion that is information rich (i.e. using print media with long copy).
Dissonance-reducing buying behaviour may involve promotion that confirms the consumer’s choice by showcasing how many others have made the ‘same choice as you’. For example, ‘four our of five dentists agree that Crest toothpaste prevents cavities and whitens teeth’ etc.
Habitual buying behaviour occurs under conditions of low consumer involvement and little significant brand differences. Hence, this is almost pure behavioural decision-making and hence advertising tends to be focused on classical conditioning, in which buyers are taught to identify a certain product by a single symbol repeatedly attached to it.
In variety-seeking situations, the advertising approach differs across firms. Market leaders often want to encourage habituation and therefore employ conditioning strategies, whereas non-incumbent firms rely instead on inducing consumers to switch and instead employ more cognitive approaches and appeal to consumers on the basis of reasons for making the switch.

Nec weak internal control contribute to Nasdaq delisting

Nec weak internal control contribute to Nasdaq delisting
Founded in July 17, 1899
Nippon Electric Company, Limited – renamed NEC corporation effective April 1983, both expressed as NEC hereafter
Sec filing is mandatory
NEC announced it could not complete financial analysis required by Sec due to employee fraud
Problem at hand
Problem num 1: in 2006 NEC manager had been fabricating $311 million in business deals from 2002. Manager had access to all things necessary to falsify deals. Nec did not provide separation of duties, audits, forced vacations.
Problem num 2
In 2006, 10 employees were involved in fraudulent transactions amounting to $18 million. Employees gained 4.1 million in kickbacks. Employees that crated the false deals were the same that confirmed them.
Present solution
NEC established an internal control system and confirmation is carried out by a 3rd party administrative division
Nec could never catch up with SEC and in May 2007 they lost their listing on the Nasdaq
Propose Recommendation
Create internal controls
3rd party audits
Separation of roles to ensure the same person who makes the deals
Obtain security clearance for employees with access to funds…background checks, monitor accounts,
Electronic financial records
Summary
Effects of fraud to the company’s reputation
Cost involved in rebuilding a company reputation is costly
Importance of implementing strict security measures that will discourage employees to commit fraud
Tract employee activities improves accountability
a. SEC requires mandatory filings
b. NEC could not complete the filings due to employee fraud
ll. Problem at Hand
a. Fraud #1 – In 2006 a manager was found to have fabricated $311 million dollars in business deals
from 2002
i. Manager had access to all things necessary to falsify deals
ii. NEC did not provide separation of duties, audits, forced vacations
b. Fraud #2 – In 2006 10 employees engaged in fraudulent transactions for a total of $18 million
i. Employees gained $4.1 million in kickbacks
ii. Employees that created the false deals were the same that confirmed them
ill. Solution H rd _ _ g
a. NEC established an internal control system and confirmation IS carried out by a 3 party administrative
division
b. NEC could never catch up with SEC and in May 2007 they lost their listing on the NASDAQ
IV. Alternative Solutions
a. 3’“ party audits
b‘ Internal audits n who makes the deals
3fivififiaccess to funds (background checks, monitor accounts,
etc)

tax return

tax return
there are two parts forthe assignment:
part A- complete an income tax return forthis part to be completed, you will have to include:
1. Taxable income
Assessable income
e.g Note 1. Sales $75,000
Less Allowable deductions
e.g Note 2. Electricity bill $5,000
2.explanatory notes
e.g Note 1. Sales
Note 2. Electricity bill
(Please provide sections and cases in your
explanation)
3.Decline in value (tax term for depreciaion, you will need to caculate how much assets we can get deduction fort he yean
4.income tax return
Part B-Calculate any fringe benefits tax liability
ljust need to complete these transactions:
Entertainment
Allowance
Superannuation Expense
Subscription to Vogue Magazine
Loan repayment
Fixed asset acquisition
Cash purchase -trading
stock
Payment to creditors
essential texts:
Core Tax Legislation and Study Guide, Barkoczy,2013, 16th edition
Foundations ofTax,
Barkoczy, 2013, 5th edition

Racists are being Hella Racist Because Miss America isnt white" Read the article entitled " racists are being Hella Racist Because Miss America isnt white" and reach to what the author has written. Do you agree with the tweets? Do you not disagree with the tweets?why? What does it mean to be American? How does that relate to what it means to be Miss America? WHy do people believe this misinformation and these stereotypes? Do any of the theries we have discussed in class or in your readings explain why people believe/ think this way(not justify,but explain)?

Racists are being Hella Racist Because Miss America isnt white”
Read the article entitled ” racists are being Hella Racist Because Miss America isnt white”
and reach to what the author has written.
Do you agree with the tweets?
Do you not disagree with the tweets?why?
What does it mean to be American?
How does that relate to what it means to be Miss America?
WHy do people believe this misinformation and these stereotypes?
Do any of the theries we have discussed in class or in your readings explain why people believe/ think this way(not justify,but explain)?

philosophy of religion

philosophy of religion
Respond to an article written by an actual atheist. This article titled “On Being an Atheist,” was written by H. J. McCloskey in 1968 for the journal Question.
2.    The response paper is to be a minimum of 2,000 words (not including quotes) and should be written as a single essay and not just a list of answers to questions.
3.    The basis for your answers should primarily come from the resources provided in the lessons covering the philosophy of religion unit of the course (Evans and Manis-Philosophy of Religion Chapter 7, and the presentation) and these sources should be mentioned in your paper. You are not merely to quote these sources as an answer to the question—answer them in your own words.
4.    You may use other outside sources as well, as long as you properly document them. However, outside sources are not necessary. Each of the questions can be answered from the sources provided in the lessons.
5.    While the use of the Bible is not restricted, its use is not necessary and is discouraged unless you intend to explain the context of the passage and how that context applies to the issue at hand in accordance with the guidelines provided earlier in the course. You are not to merely quote scripture passages as answers to the questions. Remember this is a philosophical essay not a biblical or theological essay.
6.    While you may quote from sources, all quotations should be properly cited and quotes from sources will not count towards the 2,000 word count of the paper.
7.    You may be critical of McCloskey, but should remain respectful. Any disparaging comment(s) about McCloskey will result in a significant reduction in grade.
8.    Please note that all papers are to be submitted through SafeAssign, which is a plagiarism detection program. The program is a database of previously submitted papers including copies of papers that have been located on the Internet. Once submitted, your paper will become part of the database as well. The program detects not only exact wording but similar wording. This means that if you plagiarize, it is very likely that it will be discovered. Plagiarism will result in a 0 for the paper and the likelihood of you being dropped from the course.
Specifically, you should address the following questions in your paper:
1.    McCloskey refers to the arguments as “proofs” and often implies that they can’t definitively establish the case for God, so therefore they should be abandoned. What would you say about this in light of my comments on the approaches to the arguments in the PointeCast presentation? I will attempt to download this presentation.
2.    On the Cosmological Argument:
a.    McCloskey claims that the “mere existence of the world constitutes no reason for believing in such a being [i.e., a necessarily existing being].” Using Evans and Manis’ discussion of the non-temporal form of the argument (on pp. 69–77), explain why the cause of the universe must be necessary (and therefore uncaused).
b.    McCloskey also claims that the cosmological argument “does not entitle us to postulate an all-powerful, all-perfect, uncaused cause.” In light of Evans and Manis’ final paragraph on the cosmological argument (p. 77), how might you respond to McCloskey?
3.    On the Teleological Argument:
a.    McCloskey claims that “to get the proof going, genuine indisputable examples of design and purpose are needed.” Discuss this standard of “indisputability” which he calls a “very conclusive objection.” Is it reasonable?
b.    From your reading in Evans and Manis, can you offer an example of design that, while not necessarily “indisputable,” you believe provides strong evidence of a designer of the universe?
c.    McCloskey implies that evolution has displaced the need for a designer. Assuming evolution is true, for argument’s sake, how would you respond to McCloskey (see Evans and Manis pp. 82–83)?
d.    McCloskey claims that the presence of imperfection and evil in the world argues against “the perfection of the divine design or divine purpose in the world.” Remembering Evans and Manis’ comments about the limitations of the cosmological argument, how might you respond to this charge by McCloskey?
4.    On the Problem of Evil:
a.    McCloskey’s main objection to theism is the presence of evil in the world and he raises it several times: “No being who was perfect could have created a world in which there was unavoidable suffering or in which his creatures would (and in fact could have been created so as not to) engage in morally evil acts, acts which very often result in injury to innocent persons.” The language of this claim seems to imply that it is an example of the logical form of the problem. Given this implication and using Evans and Manis’ discussion of the logical problem (pp. 159–168, noting especially his concluding paragraphs to this section), how might you respond to McCloskey?

Nursing Education

Nursing Education
1.  READ the following:
•    Chapter 10: Child Health
•    Chapter 11: Communicable Diseases
2.  READ the following four (4) articles related to nursing education systems around the globe (Ireland, Kenya, Poland, China). CLICK on the PDF files.
•    O’Dwyer, P.  (2007). The educational preparation of nurses in Ireland. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(3), 136-139. [PDF file]
•    Mule, G.K.  (1986). Nursing education in Kenya: Trends and innovations.  International Nursing Review, 33(3), 83-86. [PDF file]
•    Sztembis, B.  (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities. International Nursing Review, 53(2), 102-109. [PDF file]
•    Xu, Y., Xu, Z., & Zhang, J.  (2000). The nursing education system in the People’s Republic of China: Evolution, structure and reform. International Nursing Review, 47(4), 207-217. [PDF file]
3.   WRITE a 750 word paper CCOMPARE the nursing education systems of the two (2) of the countries in the above journal articles.  See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements and answering the following:
•    HEADING: Political History and Development of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Describe how the political history of the country influenced nursing education in your selected (2) countries. How did nursing education develop?
•    HEADING: Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Which government agency(ies) or organizations influenced the training of nurses and how did the agency(ies) do that?  Did nursing organizations play a role?
•    HEADING: Current System of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    According to the article, what is the current system for educating nurses in the selected counties?  Are there diploma (hospital-based) schools?  Has nursing education moved into university settings?  Is there a combination of nursing education programs (similar to U.S. system) to train nurses?
•    HEADING:  Post-Graduate (Masters) Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Is post-graduate (masters) education for nurses available?
•    HEADING: Reflections on Nursing Education in [Selected Countries]
o    In conclusion, what surprised you about nursing education in the countries that you selected?
•    Use the above headings in your paper.  In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper.
•    See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for APA formatting.
•    See end of Module for common paper errors.
REMINDERS:
•    Comparison of: Political History and Development of Nursing Education;
•    Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education;
•    Current System of Nursing Education;
•    Post-Graduate (Masters) Education
8.8 million children under the age of 5 die each year
Many of these deaths are preventable
Children are a particularly vulnerable population
Closely linked with poverty
Insufficient progress has been made in certain parts of the world in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality
Perinatal : first week of life
Neonatal : referring to the first month of life
Infant : referring to the first year of life
Under-5 : referring to children 0-4 years old
40% of the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries
Disproportionately affect the poor
Enormous economic consequences
Relevance to MDGs
Burden of communicable disease is unnecessary, many can be prevented or treated
Communicable disease- transmitted from animal to animal, animal to human, or human to human
Spread and contracted through food, water, bodily fluids, vector, inhalation, nontraumatic contact, and traumatic contact
Controlled with vaccination, mass chemotherapy, vector control, improved water and sanitation, improved care seeking and disease recognition, case management, and behavioral change
36% of total deaths, 40% of total DALYs lost annually in low- and middle-income countries
Relative importance compared to noncommunicable diseases and injuries varies by region
South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have highest relative burden of deaths from communicable diseases
Relative importance of specific communicable diseases varies by region, age group
Constrain health and development of children, having an effect on education and productivity
Strong stigma and discrimination associated with HIV, TB, and others
Limit productivity of adult workers
Costs of treatment burden families
High rates reduce investment in a country’s development
The Burden of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases
Resistant forms of disease emerge or re-emerge when bacteria, parasites, and viruses are genetically altered
Critical global health problems because they can arise anywhere, at anytime, and spread rapidly
Drug resistance limits ability to treat infection
Addressing the Burden of HIV/AIDS
Focus on prevention of new infections
Successful efforts have included strong political leadership and open communication
Approach to prevention must vary with nature of epidemic
Efforts need to combine education and behavioral change, bio-medical approaches, and structural approaches

Individual Analysis and Reflection

Individual Analysis and Reflection
1. Improve self-awareness of your own strengths and weaknesses;
2. Develop a more in-depth understanding ofthe academic literature in a class-related topic area
3.CriticaIIy reflect on the personal relevance of class-related topics
4. Develop graduate capabilities related to written communication, critical thinking, and inquirylresearch.
Guidelines:
2) Identify one specific class-related skill or topic area that you believe you personally need to improve. Research the academic literature about this
skillltopic. Critically reflect on how this skill or topic area affected you while completing the tutorial group presentation (Assessment1).[PS. my group presentation topic is Virtual teams]
3) Summarise your research and analysis in an essay of no more than 1500 words.
Include the following information:
a. Title Page (not included in word count)
Include your full name and student id number, the subject
code and assignment title, your
tutor’s name, and dateltime your tutorial meets.
b. Introduction and Conclusion:
Include a separate
introduction and conclusion paragraph. The introduction should be a relatively brief and engaging introduction to the topic and should also
briefly outline the contents of your paper. The conclusion should include a brief summary ofthe paper’s major points and concluding
thoughts
c. Academic Analysis of your Topic:
Summarise and critically analyse the academic literature on your topic. For example,
what
is the predominant theory or model in this area? What aspects ofthe skillltopic are unknown and require further study? Are there any
controversies or mixed findings about the topic? How is this skillltopic related to other class-related topics? How does the skillltopic
affect work or relationship outcomes? Etc.
Important Note 1: A single paper of approximately 1500 words cannot and should not address
everything related to the skillltopic you identify. You should discuss a few issues in-depth rather than attempt to cover a lot of issues
superficially. Your paper should be a critical analysis and integration ofthe main issues you identify.
Important Note 2: Your analysis
must be clearly linked to relevant academic theory and research. You may use your textbook and articles from class as a starting point, but
you are expected to read additional academic sources to develop your analysis. You must research and include reference to at least 5
academic, peer-reviewed journal articles not provided in class. These articles should be relevant to the topic, contemporary (i.e.,
published in the last 5 years), and high quality (e.g., published in journals ranked by the Australian Business Dean’s Council or
Australian Research Council as A*, A, or B).Note that Wikipedia and similar websites are NOT acceptable sources for this assignment.
Remember to appropriately cite in-text ALL references that you use. Follow the style guidelines for Academy of Management Journal.
d.
Critical Reflection:
Reflect on how this skillltopic area affected interactions and outcomes in your tutorial
group presentation
(Assessment 1)
Briefly describe a relevant experience while preparing your tutorial group presentation.
Based on your academic analysis, what could you have done differently? What can you do better in the future? What have you learned from the experience? How can you improve your ability in the skillltopic area in the future? Etc.
Ensure that the critical reflection applies your academic analysis and clearly links the skilllarea that you analysed in point c to the group experience you describe.
e. References (not included in word count):

How does the fair work Act 2009 (Ctv) differ from the workplace relations Act 1986 (Cth) (as amended by the work choice amendment)? In your view which provides a fairer and more effective set employment standards and why?

How does the fair work Act 2009 (Ctv) differ from the workplace relations Act 1986 (Cth) (as amended by the work choice amendment)? In your view which provides a fairer and more effective set employment standards and why?
How does the fair work Act 2009 (Ctv) differ from the workplace relations Act 1986 (Cth) (as amended by the work choice amendment)? In your view which provides a fairer and more effective set employment standards and why?

Evaluation of Lighting Design

Evaluation of Lighting Design
Evaluation of Lighting Design. This assignment will develop a student’s ability to identify and develop lighting design strategies architectural spaces.
Choose a real architectural interior space.
Describe your chosen space.
Analyse the function ofa space in terms of the visual tasks required
Critique the effectiveness ofthe current lighting.
Suggest an alternative approach.
Important: Choose an example that has a diversity of elements you can discuss.
The aim ofthis assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of the information for this course.

Tariffs and Import duties(Please read the paper instrutions first before you bid it)

Tariffs and Import duties(Please read the paper instrutions first before you bid it)
•    Tariffs and custom duties are taxes imposed by the government on imported goods entering the domestic market. These taxes also include freight charges and insurance for those goods.
•     Ultimately, different tariffs and import duties are applied differently by different government depending on the nature of the import.
•     The most fundamental effect of tariffs and import duties is that they increase the cost of the imported product in the domestic market and has potential to affect the competitiveness similar locally produced commodities.
•    A tariff-induced increase in price has the effect of creating a gap in prices between the exporting and importing countries.
•    Basically, the net cost on the side of the importing country is equal to “cost to consumers minus profits to producers minus government revenues.” In essence, this is the efficiency loss as a result of distortions in the pricing system and profits gained from improved terms of trade which is brought about by lowered international prices.
The Australian Manufacturing Sector
•    Australia waives tariffs and import duties to all the goods believed to compete unfairly with goods manufactured in Australia.
•    For the last one decade the rates have been at an average of rate of 3.5%.
•     Australian manufactured products that are believed not to compete with the imported goods enter at a rate of about 3% only if they were previously manufactured there or attract a duty free charge if they were never manufactured at all
•    Dumping duty of 20% is imposed on imported products that are believed to compete unfairly with locally manufactured goods. These measures are instrumental and they have prompted investments, developed a large skill base and jobs which is essential for developing industry.
•    The policies played a significant role in import replacement and thus creating job opportunities.
•    High import duties and tariffs can be attributed to the unattractiveness of investment in the Australia manufacturing sector.
•    Restrictions, import duties and tariffs have widened the margins between the cost of importing raw materials and the market prices for the finished goods.
•    Manufacturers in Australia believe that tariffs help compensate for operational cost penalties to support what may otherwise be uncompetitive activities.
•    Note that the higher the tariff the higher the disincentive for Australian manufacturers to consider exporting goods to markets where they anticipate prices are below those prevailing in the domestic market
•     Import tariffs inflates prices to consumers and reduce their disposable incomes, the impact extends to increasing the competitiveness of the local industries
•    Persistent application of tariffs stimulates regional investments and growth of commercial enterprises.
•    Tariffs and duties serve as sources of revenue to the government, protect local infant industries and help remedy the economy from trade distortions
Indonesian agricultural sector
•    In 2011, Indonesia had an average applied tariffs  of 7%, however, the country has been periodically revising import duties and tariffs for agricultural products
•    There is a large gap between the applied and bound tariffs which creates a lot of uncertainty for any foreign companies and businesses aiming at investing in Indonesia
•     Importers believe that reduction of import duties for agricultural and manufactured goods can increase market accessibility opportunities in Indonesia.
•    Indonesia has a very extensive preferential trade area relationship with many countries and stands to benefit from lower tariffs and collective bargaining power. Indonesia has stringent import requirements  including permit requirements, import licensing, pre shipment assessments, product labeling and quantitative import restrictions.
•    Aimed at protecting the domestic agricultural sector from unhealthy competition especially from imported products.
•    The Indonesian government regularly suspends or adjusts import duties for importation of food products such as rice, wheat and soybeans in an effort to curb inflation and respond to civil unrest.
•    When global prices for food products hiked last year the government zero rated soybean import tariffs.
Brazilian energy sector
•    Brazil is working on a strategic plan to reduce  import tariffs in the energy sector so as to help industries cut down on cost and offset the effect of depreciation of the domestic currency against the dollar
•    By the start  the Brazilian government unilaterally scraped out the 20% import duty on ethanol imports.
•     Move that will help Brazil build a global marketplace for biofuels especially those imported from the U.S
•    Brazil is leading by example through zero rating import duties and tariffs for importation of clean and renewable fuels.
•    Brazilian Chamber of Foreign Trade proposes that the government should make the zero rated tariffs permanent to encourage importation and help reduce cost of production. Brazil is a good investment destination since the cost of production is also low as a result of lowered fuel prices.
•    It stands to reap a net gain of about $ 356 million dollars as a result of eliminating import duties to zero
•    According to Rogers 2012 et al, “The best way to cut energy costs and reduce global dependence on oil is to give consumers more choices and make providers of different energy sources compete in open markets,”
•    The previous 20% tariff on ethanol imports was a setback for importation.
•    It is expected that by the end , the zero rated tariff on ethanol will open markets and essentially expand the consumption of ethanol which will transform it into a global source of energy
•    Importers to enjoy the tax relieves must register with the Brazilian Secretariat of Foreign Trade (SECEX) to be able to access all the computerized trading documentation system.
•    Except for ethanol, the government employs administrative bottlenecks to make it difficult to import goods from countries like China, Africa and sometimes the U.S.
•    This is a measure that the government is using to discourage importation of some products that are manufactured locally so as to avoid unnecessary competition with the foreign made goods.
•    Importers face high dumping duties especially if the government realizes that their products are trading cheaply in Brazil than the country of origin
Conclusion
•    It has been established that import duties and tariffs are an important source of revenue for developing countries.
•    Employing import duties and tariffs stimulate growth for infant industries and protect the less developed economies from dumping caused by flooding of subsidized imports from developed nations.
•    In a nutshell, import duties, tariffs and other protectionist measures play a critical role in economic development of Brazil, Indonesia and Australia.

Utopia

Utopia
Please read the attached and answer the following 2 questions.  Question #2 will obviously require additional resources.  Also, please use additional resources for question #1.
QUESTION 1.
WHAT KIND OF STATE IS IT THE PURPOSE OF THE PRINCE TO MAINTAIN AND HOW SHOULD A PRINCE BEST ACCOMPLISH CONTROL OF HIS STATE?
QUESTION 2.
WHAT WOULD YOUR GROUP’S AUTHOR THINK SHOULD BE UNITED STATES POLICY ABOUT SYRIA IN 2013?
Utopia, by Thomas More
The Project Gutenberg eBook, Utopia, by Thomas More, Edited by Henry Morley
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
UTOPIA
***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK UTOPIA***
Transcribed from the 1901 Cassell & Company Edition by David Price, email ccx074@coventry.ac.uk
UTOPIA
INTRODUCTION
Sir Thomas More, son of Sir John More, a justice of the King’s Bench, was born in 1478, in Milk Street, in the city of London.  After his earlier education at St. Anthony’s School, in Threadneedle Street, he was placed, as a boy, in the household of Cardinal John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor.  It was not unusual for persons of wealth or influence and sons of good families to be so established together in a relation of patron and client.  The youth wore his patron’s livery, and added to his state.  The patron used, afterwards, his wealth or influence in helping his young client forward in the world.  Cardinal Morton had been in earlier days that Bishop of Ely whom Richard III. sent to the Tower; was busy afterwards in hostility to Richard; and was a chief adviser of Henry VII., who in 1486 made him Archbishop of Canterbury, and nine months afterwards Lord Chancellor.  Cardinal Morton—of talk at whose table there are recollections in “Utopia”—delighted in the quick wit of young Thomas More.  He once said, “Whoever shall live to try it, shall see this child here waiting at table prove a notable and rare man.”
At the age of about nineteen, Thomas More was sent to Canterbury College, Oxford, by his patron, where he learnt Greek of the first men who brought Greek studies from Italy to England—William Grocyn and Thomas Linacre.  Linacre, a physician, who afterwards took orders, was also the founder of the College of Physicians.  In 1499, More left Oxford to study law in London, at Lincoln’s Inn, and in the next year Archbishop Morton died.
More’s earnest character caused him while studying law to aim at the subduing of the flesh, by wearing a hair shirt, taking a log for a pillow, and whipping himself on Fridays.  At the age of twenty-one he entered Parliament, and soon after he had been called to the bar he was made Under-Sheriff of London.  In 1503 he opposed in the House of Commons Henry VII.’s proposal for a subsidy on account of the marriage portion of his daughter Margaret; and he opposed with so much energy that the House refused to grant it.  One went and told the king that a beardless boy had disappointed all his expectations.  During the last years, therefore, of Henry VII.  More was under the displeasure of the king, and had thoughts of leaving the country.
Henry VII. died in April, 1509, when More’s age was a little over thirty.  In the first years of the reign of Henry VIII. he rose to large practice in the law courts, where it is said he refused to plead in cases which he thought unjust, and took no fees from widows, orphans, or the poor.  He would have preferred marrying the second daughter of John Colt, of New Hall, in Essex, but chose her elder sister, that he might not subject her to the discredit of being passed over.
In 1513 Thomas More, still Under-Sheriff of London, is said to have written his “History of the Life and Death of King Edward V., and of the Usurpation of Richard III.”  The book, which seems to contain the knowledge and opinions of More’s patron, Morton, was not printed until 1557, when its writer had been twenty-two years dead.  It was then printed from a MS. in More’s handwriting.
In the year 1515 Wolsey, Archbishop of York, was made Cardinal by Leo X.; Henry VIII. made him Lord Chancellor, and from that year until 1523 the King and the Cardinal ruled England with absolute authority, and called no parliament.  In May of the year 1515 Thomas More—not knighted yet—was joined in a commission to the Low Countries with Cuthbert Tunstal and others to confer with the ambassadors of Charles V., then only Archduke of Austria, upon a renewal of alliance.  On that embassy More, aged about thirty-seven, was absent from England for six months, and while at Antwerp he established friendship with Peter Giles (Latinised Ægidius), a scholarly and courteous young man, who was secretary to the municipality of Antwerp.
Cuthbert Tunstal was a rising churchman, chancellor to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who in that year (1515) was made Archdeacon of Chester, and in May of the next year (1516) Master of the Rolls.  In 1516 he was sent again to the Low Countries, and More then went with him to Brussels, where they were in close companionship with Erasmus.
More’s “Utopia” was written in Latin, and is in two parts, of which the second, describing the place ([Greek text]—or Nusquama, as he called it sometimes in his letters—“Nowhere”), was probably written towards the close of 1515; the first part, introductory, early in 1516.  The book was first printed at Louvain, late in 1516, under the editorship of Erasmus, Peter Giles, and other of More’s friends in Flanders.  It was then revised by More, and printed by Frobenius at Basle in November, 1518.  It was reprinted at Paris and Vienna, but was not printed in England during More’s lifetime.  Its first publication in this country was in the English translation, made in Edward’s VI.’s reign (1551) by Ralph Robinson.  It was translated with more literary skill by Gilbert Burnet, in 1684, soon after he had conducted the defence of his friend Lord William Russell, attended his execution, vindicated his memory, and been spitefully deprived by James II. of his lectureship at St. Clement’s.  Burnet was drawn to the translation of “Utopia” by the same sense of unreason in high places that caused More to write the book.  Burnet’s is the translation given in this volume.
The name of the book has given an adjective to our language—we call an impracticable scheme Utopian.  Yet, under the veil of a playful fiction, the talk is intensely earnest, and abounds in practical suggestion.  It is the work of a scholarly and witty Englishman, who attacks in his own way the chief political and social evils of his time.  Beginning with fact, More tells how he was sent into Flanders with Cuthbert Tunstal, “whom the king’s majesty of late, to the great rejoicing of all men, did prefer to the office of Master of the Rolls;” how the commissioners of Charles met them at Bruges, and presently returned to Brussels for instructions; and how More then went to Antwerp, where he found a pleasure in the society of Peter Giles which soothed his desire to see again his wife and children, from whom he had been four months away.  Then fact slides into fiction with the finding of Raphael Hythloday (whose name, made of two Greek words [Greek text] and [Greek text], means “knowing in trifles”), a man who had been with Amerigo Vespucci in the three last of the voyages to the new world lately discovered, of which the account had been first printed in 1507, only nine years before Utopia was written.
Designedly fantastic in suggestion of details, “Utopia” is the work of a scholar who had read Plato’s “Republic,” and had his fancy quickened after reading Plutarch’s account of Spartan life under Lycurgus.  Beneath the veil of an ideal communism, into which there has been worked some witty extravagance, there lies a noble English argument.  Sometimes More puts the case as of France when he means England.  Sometimes there is ironical praise of the good faith of Christian kings, saving the book from censure as a political attack on the policy of Henry VIII.  Erasmus wrote to a friend in 1517 that he should send for More’s “Utopia,” if he had not read it, and “wished to see the true source of all political evils.”  And to More Erasmus wrote of his book, “A burgomaster of Antwerp is so pleased with it that he knows it all by heart.”
H. M.
DISCOURSES OF RAPHAEL HYTHLODAY, OF THE BEST STATE OF A COMMONWEALTH
Henry VIII., the unconquered King of England, a prince adorned with all the virtues that become a great monarch, having some differences of no small consequence with Charles the most serene Prince of Castile, sent me into Flanders, as his ambassador, for treating and composing matters between them.  I was colleague and companion to that incomparable man Cuthbert Tonstal, whom the King, with such universal applause, lately made Master of the Rolls; but of whom I will say nothing; not because I fear that the testimony of a friend will be suspected, but rather because his learning and virtues are too great for me to do them justice, and so well known, that they need not my commendations, unless I would, according to the proverb, “Show the sun with a lantern.”  Those that were appointed by the Prince to treat with us, met us at Bruges, according to agreement; they were all worthy men.  The Margrave of Bruges was their head, and the chief man among them; but he that was esteemed the wisest, and that spoke for the rest, was George Temse, the Provost of Casselsee: both art and nature had concurred to make him eloquent: he was very learned in the law; and, as he had a great capacity, so, by a long practice in affairs, he was very dexterous at unravelling them.  After we had several times met, without coming to an agreement, they went to Brussels for some days, to know the Prince’s pleasure; and, since our business would admit it, I went to Antwerp.  While I was there, among many that visited me, there was one that was more acceptable to me than any other, Peter Giles, born at Antwerp, who is a man of great honour, and of a good rank in his town, though less than he deserves; for I do not know if there be anywhere to be found a more learned and a better bred young man; for as he is both a very worthy and a very knowing person, so he is so civil to all men, so particularly kind to his friends, and so full of candour and affection, that there is not, perhaps, above one or two anywhere to be found, that is in all respects so perfect a friend: he is extraordinarily modest, there is no artifice in him, and yet no man has more of a prudent simplicity.  His conversation was so pleasant and so innocently cheerful, that his company in a great measure lessened any longings to go back to my country, and to my wife and children, which an absence of four months had quickened very much.  One day, as I was returning home from mass at St. Mary’s, which is the chief church, and the most frequented of any in Antwerp, I saw him, by accident, talking with a stranger, who seemed past the flower of his age; his face was tanned, he had a long beard, and his cloak was hanging carelessly about him, so that, by his looks and habit, I concluded he was a seaman.  As soon as Peter saw me, he came and saluted me, and as I was returning his civility, he took me aside, and pointing to him with whom he had been discoursing, he said, “Do you see that man?  I was just thinking to bring him to you.”  I answered, “He should have been very welcome on your account.”  “And on his own too,” replied he, “if you knew the man, for there is none alive that can give so copious an account of unknown nations and countries as he can do, which I know you very much desire.”  “Then,” said I, “I did not guess amiss, for at first sight I took him for a seaman.”  “But you are much mistaken,” said he, “for he has not sailed as a seaman, but as a traveller, or rather a philosopher.  This Raphael, who from his family carries the name of Hythloday, is not ignorant of the Latin tongue, but is eminently learned in the Greek, having applied himself more particularly to that than to the former, because he had given himself much to philosophy, in which he knew that the Romans have left us nothing that is valuable, except what is to be found in Seneca and Cicero.  He is a Portuguese by birth, and was so desirous of seeing the world, that he divided his estate among his brothers, ran the same hazard as Americus Vesputius, and bore a share in three of his four voyages that are now published; only he did not return with him in his last, but obtained leave of him, almost by force, that he might be one of those twenty-four who were left at the farthest place at which they touched in their last voyage to New Castile.  The leaving him thus did not a little gratify one that was more fond of travelling than of returning home to be buried in his own country; for he used often to say, that the way to heaven was the same from all places, and he that had no grave had the heavens still over him.  Yet this disposition of mind had cost him dear, if God had not been very gracious to him; for after he, with five Castalians, had travelled over many countries, at last, by strange good fortune, he got to Ceylon, and from thence to Calicut, where he, very happily, found some Portuguese ships; and, beyond all men’s expectations, returned to his native country.”  When Peter had said this to me, I thanked him for his kindness in intending to give me the acquaintance of a man whose conversation he knew would be so acceptable; and upon that Raphael and I embraced each other.  After those civilities were past which are usual with strangers upon their first meeting, we all went to my house, and entering into the garden, sat down on a green bank and entertained one another in discourse.  He told us that when Vesputius had sailed away, he, and his companions that stayed behind in New Castile, by degrees insinuated themselves into the affections of the people of the country, meeting often with them and treating them gently; and at last they not only lived among them without danger, but conversed familiarly with them, and got so far into the heart of a prince, whose name and country I have forgot, that he both furnished them plentifully with all things necessary, and also with the conveniences of travelling, both boats when they went by water, and waggons when they trained over land: he sent with them a very faithful guide, who was to introduce and recommend them to such other princes as they had a mind to see: and after many days’ journey, they came to towns, and cities, and to commonwealths, that were both happily governed and well peopled.  Under the equator, and as far on both sides of it as the sun moves, there lay vast deserts that were parched with the perpetual heat of the sun; the soil was withered, all things looked dismally, and all places were either quite uninhabited, or abounded with wild beasts and serpents, and some few men, that were neither less wild nor less cruel than the beasts themselves.  But, as they went farther, a new scene opened, all things grew milder, the air less burning, the soil more verdant, and even the beasts were less wild: and, at last, there were nations, towns, and cities, that had not only mutual commerce among themselves and with their neighbours, but traded, both by sea and land, to very remote countries.  There they found the conveniencies of seeing many countries on all hands, for no ship went any voyage into which he and his companions were not very welcome.  The first vessels that they saw were flat-bottomed, their sails were made of reeds and wicker, woven close together, only some were of leather; but, afterwards, they found ships made with round keels and canvas sails, and in all respects like our ships, and the seamen understood both astronomy and navigation.  He got wonderfully into their favour by showing them the use of the needle, of which till then they were utterly ignorant.  They sailed before with great caution, and only in summer time; but now they count all seasons alike, trusting wholly to the loadstone, in which they are, perhaps, more secure than safe; so that there is reason to fear that this discovery, which was thought would prove so much to their advantage, may, by their imprudence, become an occasion of much mischief to them.  But it were too long to dwell on all that he told us he had observed in every place, it would be too great a digression from our present purpose: whatever is necessary to be told
concerning those wise and prudent institutions which he observed among civilised nations, may perhaps be related by us on a more proper occasion.  We asked him many questions concerning all these things, to which he answered very willingly; we made no inquiries after monsters, than which nothing is more common; for everywhere one may hear of ravenous dogs and wolves, and cruel men-eaters, but it is not so easy to find states that are well and wisely governed.
As he told us of many things that were amiss in those new-discovered countries, so he reckoned up not a few things, from which patterns might be taken for correcting the errors of these nations among whom we live; of which an account may be given, as I have already promised, at some other time; for, at present, I intend only to relate those particulars that he told us, of the manners and laws of the Utopians: but I will begin with the occasion that led us to speak of that commonwealth.  After Raphael had discoursed with great judgment on the many errors that were both among us and these nations, had treated of the wise institutions both here and there, and had spoken as distinctly of the customs and government of every nation through which he had past, as if he had spent his whole life in it, Peter, being struck with admiration, said, “I wonder, Raphael, how it comes that you enter into no king’s service, for I am sure there are none to whom you would not be very acceptable; for your learning and knowledge, both of men and things, is such, that you would not only entertain them very pleasantly, but be of great use to them, by the examples you could set before them, and the advices you could give them; and by this means you would both serve your own interest, and be of great use to all your friends.”  “As for my friends,” answered he, “I need not be much concerned, having already done for them all that was incumbent on me; for when I was not only in good health, but fresh and young, I distributed that among my kindred and friends which other people do not part with till they are old and sick: when they then unwillingly give that which they can enjoy no longer themselves.  I think my friends ought to rest contented with this, and not to expect that for their sakes I should enslave myself to any king whatsoever.”  “Soft and fair!” said Peter; “I do not mean that you should be a slave to any king, but only that you should assist them and be useful to them.”  “The change of the word,” said he, “does not alter the matter.”  “But term it as you will,” replied Peter, “I do not see any other way in which you can be so useful, both in private to your friends and to the public, and by which you can make your own condition happier.”  “Happier?” answered Raphael, “is that to be compassed in a way so abhorrent to my genius?  Now I live as I will, to which I believe, few courtiers can pretend; and there are so many that court the favour of great men, that there will be no great loss if they are not troubled either with me or with others of my temper.”  Upon this, said I, “I perceive, Raphael, that you neither desire wealth nor greatness; and, indeed, I value and admire such a man much more than I do any of the great men in the world.  Yet I think you would do what would well become so generous and philosophical a soul as yours is, if you would apply your time and thoughts to public affairs, even though you may happen to find it a little uneasy to yourself; and this you can never do with so much advantage as by being taken into the council of some great prince and putting him on noble and worthy actions, which I know you would do if you were in such a post; for the springs both of good and evil flow from the prince over a whole nation, as from a lasting fountain.  So much learning as you have, even without practice in affairs, or so great a practice as you have had, without any other learning, would render you a very fit counsellor to any king whatsoever.”  “You are doubly mistaken,” said he, “Mr. More, both in your opinion of me and in the judgment you make of things: for as I have not that capacity that you fancy I have, so if I had it, the public would not be one jot the better when I had sacrificed my quiet to it.  For most princes apply themselves more to affairs of war than to the useful arts of peace; and in these I neither have any knowledge, nor do I much desire it; they are generally more set on acquiring new kingdoms, right or wrong, than on governing well those they possess: and, among the ministers of princes, there are none that are not so wise as to need no assistance, or at least, that do not think themselves so wise that they imagine they need none; and if they court any, it is only those for whom the prince has much personal favour, whom by their fawning and flatteries they endeavour to fix to their own interests; and, indeed, nature has so made us, that we all love to be flattered and to please ourselves with our own notions: the old crow loves his young, and the ape her cubs.  Now if in such a court, made up of persons who envy all others and only admire themselves, a person should but propose anything that he had either read in history or observed in his travels, the rest would think that the reputation of their wisdom would sink, and that their interests would be much depressed if they could not run it down: and, if all other things failed, then they would fly to this, that such or such things pleased our ancestors, and it were well for us if we could but match them.  They would set up their rest on such an answer, as a sufficient confutation of all that could be said, as if it were a great misfortune that any should be found wiser than his ancestors.  But though they willingly let go all the good things that were among those of former ages, yet, if better things are proposed, they cover themselves obstinately with this excuse of reverence to past times.  I have met with these proud, morose, and absurd judgments of things in many places, particularly once in England.”  “Were you ever there?” said I.  “Yes, I was,” answered he, “and stayed some months there, not long after the rebellion in the West was suppressed, with a great slaughter of the poor people that were engaged in it.
“I was then much obliged to that reverend prelate, John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal, and Chancellor of England; a man,” said he, “Peter (for Mr. More knows well what he was), that was not less venerable for his wisdom and virtues than for the high character he bore: he was of a middle stature, not broken with age; his looks begot reverence rather than fear; his conversation was easy, but serious and grave; he sometimes took pleasure to try the force of those that came as suitors to him upon business by speaking sharply, though decently, to them, and by that he discovered their spirit and presence of mind; with which he was much delighted when it did not grow up to impudence, as bearing a great resemblance to his own temper, and he looked on such persons as the fittest men for affairs.  He spoke both gracefully and weightily; he was eminently skilled in the law, had a vast understanding, and a prodigious memory; and those excellent talents with which nature had furnished him were improved by study and experience.  When I was in England the King depended much on his counsels, and the Government seemed to be chiefly supported by him; for from his youth he had been all along practised in affairs; and, having passed through many traverses of fortune, he had, with great cost, acquired a vast stock of wisdom, which is not soon lost when it is purchased so dear.  One day, when I was dining with him, there happened to be at table one of the English lawyers, who took occasion to run out in a high commendation of the severe execution of justice upon thieves, ‘who,’ as he said, ‘were then hanged so fast that there were sometimes twenty on one gibbet!’ and, upon that, he said, ‘he could not wonder enough how it came to pass that, since so few escaped, there were yet so many thieves left, who were still robbing in all places.’  Upon this, I (who took the boldness to speak freely before the Cardinal) said, ‘There was no reason to wonder at the matter, since this way of punishing thieves was neither just in itself nor good for the public; for, as the severity was too great, so the remedy was not effectual; simple theft not being so great a crime that it ought to cost a man his life; no punishment, how severe soever, being able to restrain those from robbing who can find out no other way of livelihood.  In this,’ said I, ‘not only you in England, but a great part of the world, imitate some ill masters, that are readier to chastise their scholars than to teach them.  There are dreadful punishments enacted against thieves, but it were much better to make such good provisions by which every man might be put in a method how to live, and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and of dying for it.’  ‘There has been care enough taken for that,’ said he; ‘there are many handicrafts, and there is husbandry, by which they may make a shift to live, unless they have a greater mind to follow ill courses.’  ‘That will not serve your turn,’ said I, ‘for many lose their limbs in civil or foreign wars, as lately in the Cornish rebellion, and some time ago in your wars with France, who, being thus mutilated in the service of their king and country, can no more follow their old trades, and are too old to learn new ones; but since wars are only accidental things, and have intervals, let us consider those things that fall out every day.  There is a great number of noblemen among you that are themselves as idle as drones, that subsist on other men’s labour, on the labour of their tenants, whom, to raise their revenues, they pare to the quick.  This, indeed, is the only instance of their frugality, for in all other things they are prodigal, even to the beggaring of themselves; but, besides this, they carry about with them a great number of idle fellows, who never learned any art by which they may gain their living; and these, as soon as either their lord dies, or they themselves fall sick, are turned out of doors; for your lords are readier to feed idle people than to take care of the sick; and often the heir is not able to keep together so great a family as his predecessor did.  Now, when the stomachs of those that are thus turned out of doors grow keen, they rob no less keenly; and what else can they do?  For when, by wandering about, they have worn out both their health and their clothes, and are tattered, and look ghastly, men of quality will not entertain them, and poor men dare not do it, knowing that one who has been bred up in idleness and pleasure, and who was used to walk about with his sword and buckler, despising all the neighbourhood with an insolent scorn as far below him, is not fit for the spade and mattock; nor will he serve a poor man for so small a hire and in so low a diet as he can afford to give him.’  To this he answered, ‘This sort of men ought to be particularly cherished, for in them consists the force of the armies for which we have occasion; since their birth inspires them with a nobler sense of honour than is to be found among tradesmen or ploughmen.’  ‘You may as well say,’ replied I, ‘that you must cherish thieves on the account of wars, for you will never want the one as long as you have the other; and as robbers prove sometimes gallant soldiers, so soldiers often prove brave robbers, so near an alliance there is between those two sorts of life.  But this bad custom, so common among you, of keeping many servants, is not peculiar to this nation.  In France there is yet a more pestiferous sort of people, for the whole country is full of soldiers, still kept up in time of peace (if such a state of a nation can be called a peace); and these are kept in pay upon the same account that you plead for those idle retainers about noblemen: this being a maxim of those pretended statesmen, that it is necessary for the public safety to have a good body of veteran soldiers ever in readiness.  They think raw men are not to be depended on, and they sometimes seek occasions for making war, that they may train up their soldiers in the art of cutting throats, or, as Sallust observed, “for keeping their hands in use, that they may not grow dull by too long an intermission.”  But France has learned to its cost how dangerous it is to feed such beasts.  The fate of the Romans, Carthaginians, and Syrians, and many other nations and cities, which were both overturned and quite ruined by those standing armies, should make others wiser; and the folly of this maxim of the French appears plainly even from this, that their trained soldiers often find your raw men prove too hard for them, of which I will not say much, lest you may think I flatter the English.  Every day’s experience shows that the mechanics in the towns or the clowns in the country are not afraid of fighting with those idle gentlemen, if they are not disabled by some misfortune in their body or dispirited by extreme want; so that you need not fear that those well-shaped and strong men (for it is only such that noblemen love to keep about them till they spoil them), who now grow feeble with ease and are softened with their effeminate manner of life, would be less fit for action if they were well bred and well employed.  And it seems very unreasonable that, for the prospect of a war, which you need never have but when you please, you should maintain so many idle men, as will always disturb you in time of peace, which is ever to be more considered than war.  But I do not think that this necessity of stealing arises only from hence; there is another cause of it, more peculiar to England.’  ‘What is that?’ said the Cardinal: ‘The increase of pasture,’ said I, ‘by which your sheep, which are naturally mild, and easily kept in order, may be said now to devour men and unpeople, not only villages, but towns; for wherever it is found that the sheep of any soil yield a softer and richer wool than ordinary, there the nobility and gentry, and even those holy men, the dobots! not contented with the old rents which their farms yielded, nor thinking it enough that they, living at their ease, do no good
to the public, resolve to do it hurt instead of good.  They stop the course of agriculture, destroying houses and towns, reserving only the churches, and enclose grounds that they may lodge their sheep in them.  As if forests and parks had swallowed up too little of the land, those worthy countrymen turn the best inhabited places into solitudes; for when an insatiable wretch, who is a plague to his country, resolves to enclose many thousand acres of ground, the owners, as well as tenants, are turned out of their possessions by trick or by main force, or, being wearied out by ill usage, they are forced to sell them; by which means those miserable people, both men and women, married and unmarried, old and young, with their poor but numerous families (since country business requires many hands), are all forced to change their seats, not knowing whither to go; and they must sell, almost for nothing, their household stuff, which could not bring them much money, even though they might stay for a buyer.  When that little money is at an end (for it will be soon spent), what is left for them to do but either to steal, and so to be hanged (God knows how justly!), or to go about and beg? and if they do this they are put in prison as idle vagabonds, while they would willingly work but can find none that will hire them; for there is no more occasion for country labour, to which they have been bred, when there is no arable ground left.  One shepherd can look after a flock, which will stock an extent of ground that would require many hands if it were to be ploughed and reaped.  This, likewise, in many places raises the price of corn.  The price of wool is also so risen that the poor people, who were wont to make cloth, are no more able to buy it; and this, likewise, makes many of them idle: for since the increase of pasture God has punished the avarice of the owners by a rot among the sheep, which has destroyed vast numbers of them—to us it might have seemed more just had it fell on the owners themselves.  But, suppose the sheep should increase ever so much, their price is not likely to fall; since, though they cannot be called a monopoly, because they are not engrossed by one person, yet they are in so few hands, and these are so rich, that, as they are not pressed to sell them sooner than they have a mind to it, so they never do it till they have raised the price as high as possible.  And on the same account it is that the other kinds of cattle are so dear, because many villages being pulled down, and all country labour being much neglected, there are none who make it their business to breed them.  The rich do not breed cattle as they do sheep, but buy them lean and at low prices; and, after they have fattened them on their grounds, sell them again at high rates.  And I do not think that all the inconveniences this will produce are yet observed; for, as they sell the cattle dear, so, if they are consumed faster than the breeding countries from which they are brought can afford them, then the stock must decrease, and this must needs end in great scarcity; and by these means, this your island, which seemed as to this particular the happiest in the world, will suffer much by the cursed avarice of a few persons: besides this, the rising of corn makes all people lessen their families as much as they can; and what can those who are dismissed by them do but either beg or rob?  And to this last a man of a great mind is much sooner drawn than to the former.  Luxury likewise breaks in apace upon you to set forward your poverty and misery; there is an excessive vanity in apparel, and great cost in diet, and that not only in noblemen’s families, but even among tradesmen, among the farmers themselves, and among all ranks of persons.  You have also many infamous houses, and, besides those that are known, the taverns and ale-houses are no better; add to these dice, cards, tables, football, tennis, and quoits, in which money runs fast away; and those that are initiated into them must, in the conclusion, betake themselves to robbing for a supply.  Banish these plagues, and give orders that those who have dispeopled so much soil may either rebuild the villages they have pulled down or let out their grounds to such as will do it; restrain those engrossings of the rich, that are as bad almost as monopolies; leave fewer occasions to idleness; let agriculture be set up again, and the manufacture of the wool be regulated, that so there may be work found for those companies of idle people whom want forces to be thieves, or who now, being idle vagabonds or useless servants, will certainly grow thieves at last.  If you do not find a remedy to these evils it is a vain thing to boast of your severity in punishing theft, which, though it may have the appearance of justice, yet in itself is neither just nor convenient; for if you suffer your people to be ill-educated, and their manners to be corrupted from their infancy, and then punish them for those crimes to which their first education disposed them, what else is to be concluded from this but that you first make thieves and then punish them?’
“While I was talking thus, the Counsellor, who was present, had prepared an answer, and had resolved to resume all I had said, according to the formality of a debate, in which things are generally repeated more faithfully than they are answered, as if the chief trial to be made were of men’s memories.  ‘You have talked prettily, for a stranger,’ said he, ‘having heard of many things among us which you have not been able to consider well; but I will make the whole matter plain to you, and will first repeat in order all that you have said; then I will show how much your ignorance of our affairs has misled you; and will, in the last place, answer all your arguments.  And, that I may begin where I promised, there were four things—’  ‘Hold your peace!’ said the Cardinal; ‘this will take up too much time; therefore we will, at present, ease you of the trouble of answering, and reserve it to our next meeting, which shall be to-morrow, if Raphael’s affairs and yours can admit of it.  But, Raphael,’ said he to me, ‘I would gladly know upon what reason it is that you think theft ought not to be punished by death: would you give way to it? or do you propose any other punishment that will be more useful to the public? for, since death does not restrain theft, if men thought their lives would be safe, what fear or force could restrain ill men?  On the contrary, they would look on the mitigation of the punishment as an invitation to commit more crimes.’  I answered, ‘It seems to me a very unjust thing to take away a man’s life for a little money, for nothing in the world can be of equal value with a man’s life: and if it be said, “that it is not for the money that one suffers, but for his breaking the law,” I must say, extreme justice is an extreme injury: for we ought not to approve of those terrible laws that make the smallest offences capital, nor of that opinion of the Stoics that makes all crimes equal; as if there were no difference to be made between the killing a man and the taking his purse, between which, if we examine things impartially, there is no likeness nor proportion.  God has commanded us not to kill, and shall we kill so easily for a little money?  But if one shall say, that by that law we are only forbid to kill any except when the laws of the land allow of it, upon the same grounds, laws may be made, in some cases, to allow of adultery and perjury: for God having taken from us the right of disposing either of our own or of other people’s lives, if it is pretended that the mutual consent of men in making laws can authorise man-slaughter in cases in which God has given us no example, that it frees people from the obligation of the divine law, and so makes murder a lawful action, what is this, but to give a preference to human laws before the divine? and, if this is once admitted, by the same rule men may, in all other things, put what restrictions they please upon the laws of God.  If, by the Mosaical law, though it was rough and severe, as being a yoke laid on an obstinate and servile nation, men were only fined, and not put to death for theft, we cannot imagine, that in this new law of mercy, in which God treats us with the tenderness of a father, He has given us a greater licence to cruelty than He did to the Jews.  Upon these reasons it is, that I think putting thieves to death is not lawful; and it is plain and obvious that it is absurd and of ill consequence to the commonwealth that a thief and a murderer should be equally punished; for if a robber sees that his danger is the same if he is convicted of theft as if he were guilty of murder, this will naturally incite him to kill the person whom otherwise he would only have robbed; since, if the punishment is the same, there is more security, and less danger of discovery, when he that can best make it is put out of the way; so that terrifying thieves too much provokes them to cruelty.
“But as to the question, ‘What more convenient way of punishment can be found?’ I think it much easier to find out that than to invent anything that is worse; why should we doubt but the way that was so long in use among the old Romans, who understood so well the arts of government, was very proper for their punishment?  They condemned such as they found guilty of great crimes to work their whole lives in quarries, or to dig in mines with chains about them.  But the method that I liked best was that which I observed in my travels in Persia, among the Polylerits, who are a considerable and well-governed people: they pay a yearly tribute to the King of Persia, but in all other respects they are a free nation, and governed by their own laws: they lie far from the sea, and are environed with hills; and, being contented with the productions of their own country, which is very fruitful, they have little commerce with any other nation; and as they, according to the genius of their country, have no inclination to enlarge their borders, so their mountains and the pension they pay to the Persian, secure them from all invasions.  Thus they have no wars among them; they live rather conveniently than with splendour, and may be rather called a happy nation than either eminent or famous; for I do not think that they are known, so much as by name, to any but their next neighbours.  Those that are found guilty of theft among them are bound to make restitution to the owner, and not, as it is in other places, to the prince, for they reckon that the prince has no more right to the stolen goods than the thief; but if that which was stolen is no more in being, then the goods of the thieves are estimated, and restitution being made out of them, the remainder is given to their wives and children; and they themselves are condemned to serve in the public works, but are neither imprisoned nor chained, unless there happens to be some extraordinary circumstance in their crimes.  They go about loose and free, working for the public: if they are idle or backward to work they are whipped, but if they work hard they are well used and treated without any mark of reproach; only the lists of them are called always at night, and then they are shut up.  They suffer no other uneasiness but this of constant labour; for, as they work for the public, so they are well entertained out of the public stock, which is done differently in different places: in some places whatever is bestowed on them is raised by a charitable contribution; and, though this way may seem uncertain, yet so merciful are the inclinations of that people, that they are plentifully supplied by it; but in other places public revenues are set aside for them, or there is a constant tax or poll-money raised for their maintenance.  In some places they are set to no public work, but every private man that has occasion to hire workmen goes to the market-places and hires them of the public, a little lower than he would do a freeman.  If they go lazily about their task he may quicken them with the whip.  By this means there is always some piece of work or other to be done by them; and, besides their livelihood, they earn somewhat still to the public.  They all wear a peculiar habit, of one certain colour, and their hair is cropped a little above their ears, and a piece of one of their ears is cut off.  Their friends are allowed to give them either meat, drink, or clothes, so they are of their proper colour; but it is death, both to the giver and taker, if they give them money; nor is it less penal for any freeman to take money from them upon any account whatsoever: and it is also death for any of these slaves (so they are called) to handle arms.  Those of every division of the country are distinguished by a peculiar mark, which it is capital for them to lay aside, to go out of their bounds, or to talk with a slave of another jurisdiction, and the very attempt of an escape is no less penal than an escape itself.  It is death for any other slave to be accessory to it; and if a freeman engages in it he is condemned to slavery.  Those that discover it are rewarded—if freemen, in money; and if slaves, with liberty, together with a pardon for being accessory to it; that so they might find their account rather in repenting of their engaging in such a design than in persisting in it.
“These are their laws and rules in relation to robbery, and it is obvious that they are as advantageous as they are mild and gentle; since vice is not only destroyed and men preserved, but they are treated in such a manner as to make them see the necessity of being honest and of employing the rest of their lives in repairing the injuries they had formerly done to society.  Nor is there any hazard of their falling back to their old customs; and so little do travellers apprehend mischief from them that they generally make use of them for guides from one jurisdiction to another; for there is nothing left them by which they can rob or be the better for it, since, as they are disarmed, so the very having of money is a sufficient conviction: and as they are certainly punished if discovered, so they cannot hope to escape; for their habit being in all the parts of it different from what is commonly worn, they cannot fly away, unless they would go naked, and even then their cropped ear would betray them.  The only danger to be feared from them is their conspiring against the government; but those of one division and neighbourhood can do nothing to any purpose unless a general conspiracy were laid amongst all the slaves of the several jurisdictions, which cannot be done, since they cannot meet or talk together; nor will any venture on a design where the concealment would be so dangerous and the discovery so profitable.  None are quite hopeless of recovering their freedom, since by their obedience and patience, and by giving good grounds to believe that they will change their manner of life for the future, they may expect at last to obtain their liberty, and some are every year restored to it upon the good character that is given of them.  When I had related all this, I added that I did not see why such a method might not be followed with more advantage than could ever be expected from that severe justice which the Counsellor magnified so much.  To this he answered, ‘That it could never take place in England without endangering the whole nation.’  As he said this he shook his head, made some grimaces, and held his peace, while all the company seemed of his opinion, except the Cardinal, who said, ‘That it was not easy to form a judgment of its success, since it was a method that never yet had been tried; but if,’ said he, ‘when sentence of death were passed upon a thief, the prince would reprieve him for a while, and make the experiment upon him, denying him the privilege of a sanctuary; and then, if it had a good effect upon him, it might take place; and, if it did not succeed, the worst would be to execute the sentence on the condemned persons at last; and I do not see,’ added he, ‘why it would be either unjust, inconvenient, or at all dangerous to admit of such a delay; in my opinion the vagabonds ought to be treated in the same manner, against whom, though we have made many laws, yet we have not been able to gain our end.’  When the Cardinal had done, they all commended the motion, though they had despised it when it came from me, but more particularly commended what related to the vagabonds, because it was his own observation.
“I do not know whether it be worth while to tell what followed, for it was very ridiculous; but I shall venture at it, for as it is not foreign to this matter, so some good use may be made of it.  There was a Jester standing by, that counterfeited the fool so naturally that he seemed to be really one; the jests which he offered were so cold and dull that we laughed more at him than at them, yet sometimes he said, as it were by chance, things that were not unpleasant, so as to justify the old proverb, ‘That he who throws the dice often, will sometimes have a lucky hit.’  When one of the company had said that I had taken care of the thieves, and the Cardinal had taken care of the vagabonds, so that there remained nothing but that some public provision might be made for the poor whom sickness or old age had disabled from labour, ‘Leave that to me,’ said the Fool, ‘and I shall take care of them, for there is no sort of people whose sight I abhor more, having been so often vexed with them and with their sad complaints; but as dolefully soever as they have told their tale, they could never prevail so far as to draw one penny from me; for either I had no mind to give them anything, or, when I had a mind to do it, I had nothing to give them; and they now know me so well that they will not lose their labour, but let me pass without giving me any trouble, because they hope for nothing—no more, in faith, than if I were a priest; but I would have a law made for sending all these beggars to monasteries, the men to the Benedictines, to be made lay-brothers, and the women to be nuns.’  The Cardinal smiled, and approved of it in jest, but the rest liked it in earnest.  There was a divine present, who, though he was a grave morose man, yet he was so pleased with this reflection that was made on the priests and the monks that he began to play with the Fool, and said to him, ‘This will not deliver you from all beggars, except you take care of us Friars.’  ‘That is done already,’ answered the Fool, ‘for the Cardinal has provided for you by what he proposed for restraining vagabonds and setting them to work, for I know no vagabonds like you.’  This was well entertained by the whole company, who, looking at the Cardinal, perceived that he was not ill-pleased at it; only the Friar himself was vexed, as may be easily imagined, and fell into such a passion that he could not forbear railing at the Fool, and calling him knave, slanderer, backbiter, and son of perdition, and then cited some dreadful threatenings out of the Scriptures against him.  Now the Jester thought he was in his element, and laid about him freely.  ‘Good Friar,’ said he, ‘be not angry, for it is written, “In patience possess your soul.”’  The Friar answered (for I shall give you his own words), ‘I am not angry, you hangman; at least, I do not sin in it, for the Psalmist says, “Be ye angry and sin not.”’  Upon this the Cardinal admonished him gently, and wished him to govern his passions.  ‘No, my lord,’ said he, ‘I speak not but from a good zeal, which I ought to have, for holy men have had a good zeal, as it is said, “The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up;” and we sing in our church that those who mocked Elisha as he went up to the house of God felt the effects of his zeal, which that mocker, that rogue, that scoundrel, will perhaps feel.’  ‘You do this, perhaps, with a good intention,’ said the Cardinal, ‘but, in my opinion, it were wiser in you, and perhaps better for you, not to engage in so ridiculous a contest with a Fool.’  ‘No, my lord,’ answered he, ‘that were not wisely done, for Solomon, the wisest of men, said, “Answer a Fool according to his folly,” which I now do, and show him the ditch into which he will fall, if he is not aware of it; for if the many mockers of Elisha, who was but one bald man, felt the effect of his zeal, what will become of the mocker of so many Friars, among whom there are so many bald men?  We have, likewise, a bull, by which all that jeer us are excommunicated.’  When the Cardinal saw that there was no end of this matter he made a sign to the Fool to withdraw, turned the discourse another way, and soon after rose from the table, and, dismissing us, went to hear causes.
“Thus, Mr. More, I have run out into a tedious story, of the length of which I had been ashamed, if (as you earnestly begged it of me) I had not observed you to hearken to it as if you had no mind to lose any part of it.  I might have contracted it, but I resolved to give it you at large, that you might observe how those that despised what I had proposed, no sooner perceived that the Cardinal did not dislike it but presently approved of it, fawned so on him and flattered him to such a degree, that they in good earnest applauded those things that he only liked in jest; and from hence you may gather how little courtiers would value either me or my counsels.”
To this I answered, “You have done me a great kindness in this relation; for as everything has been related by you both wisely and pleasantly, so you have made me imagine that I was in my own country and grown young again, by recalling that good Cardinal to my thoughts, in whose family I was bred from my childhood; and though you are, upon other accounts, very dear to me, yet you are the dearer because you honour his memory so much; but, after all this, I cannot change my opinion, for I still think that if you could overcome that aversion which you have to the courts of princes, you might, by the advice which it is in your power to give, do a great deal of good to mankind, and this is the chief design that every good man ought to propose to himself in living; for your friend Plato thinks that nations will be happy when either philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers.  It is no wonder if we are so far from that happiness while philosophers will not think it their duty to assist kings with their counsels.”  “They are not so base-minded,” said he, “but that they would willingly do it; many of them have already done it by their books, if those that are in power would but hearken to their good advice.  But Plato judged right, that except kings themselves became philosophers, they who from their childhood are corrupted with false notions would never fall in entirely with the counsels of philosophers, and this he himself found to be true in the person of Dionysius.
“Do not you think that if I were about any king, proposing good laws to him, and endeavouring to root out all the cursed seeds of evil that I found in him, I should either be turned out of his court, or, at least, be laughed at for my pains?  For instance, what could I signify if I were about the King of France, and were called into his cabinet council, where several wise men, in his hearing, were proposing many expedients; as, by what arts and practices Milan may be kept, and Naples, that has so often slipped out of their hands, recovered; how the Venetians, and after them the rest of Italy, may be subdued; and then how Flanders, Brabant, and all Burgundy, and some other kingdoms which he has swallowed already in his designs, may be added to his empire?  One proposes a league with the Venetians, to be kept as long as he finds his account in it, and that he ought to communicate counsels with them, and give them some share of the spoil till his success makes him need or fear them less, and then it will be easily taken out of their hands; another proposes the hiring the Germans and the securing the Switzers by pensions; another proposes the gaining the Emperor by money, which is omnipotent with him; another proposes a peace with the King of Arragon, and, in order to cement it, the yielding up the King of Navarre’s pretensions; another thinks that the Prince of Castile is to be wrought on by the hope of an alliance, and that some of his courtiers are to be gained to the French faction by pensions.  The hardest point of all is, what to do with England; a treaty of peace is to be set on foot, and, if their alliance is not to be depended on, yet it is to be made as firm as possible, and they are to be called friends, but suspected as enemies: therefore the Scots are to be kept in readiness to be let loose upon England on every occasion; and some banished nobleman is to be supported underhand (for by the League it cannot be done avowedly) who has a pretension to the crown, by which means that suspected prince may be kept in awe.  Now when things are in so great a fermentation, and so many gallant men are joining counsels how to carry on the war, if so mean a man as I should stand up and wish them to change all their counsels—to let Italy alone and stay at home, since the kingdom of France was indeed greater than could be well governed by one man; that therefore he ought not to think of adding others to it; and if, after this, I should propose to them the resolutions of the Achorians, a people that lie on the south-east of Utopia, who long ago engaged in war in order to add to the dominions of their prince another kingdom, to which he had some pretensions by an ancient alliance: this they conquered, but found that the trouble of keeping it was equal to that by which it was gained; that the conquered people were always either in rebellion or exposed to foreign invasions, while they were obliged to be incessantly at war, either for or against them, and consequently could never disband their army; that in the meantime they were oppressed with taxes, their money went out of the kingdom, their blood was spilt for the glory of their king without procuring the least advantage to the people, who received not the smallest benefit from it even in time of peace; and that, their manners being corrupted by a long war, robbery and murders everywhere abounded, and their laws fell into contempt; while their king, distracted with the care of two kingdoms, was the less able to apply his mind to the interest of either.  When they saw this, and that there would be no end to these evils, they by joint counsels made an humble address to their king, desiring him to choose which of the two kingdoms he had the greatest mind to keep, since he could not hold both; for they were too great a people to be governed by a divided king, since no man would willingly have a groom that should be in common between him and another.  Upon which the good prince was forced to quit his new kingdom to one of his friends (who was not long after dethroned), and to be contented with his old one.  To this I would add that after all those warlike attempts, the vast confusions, and the consumption both of treasure and of people that must follow them, perhaps upon some misfortune they might be forced to throw up all at last; therefore it seemed much more eligible that the king should improve his ancient kingdom all he could, and make it flourish as much as possible; that he should love his people, and be beloved of them; that he should live among them, govern them gently and let other kingdoms alone, since that which had fallen to his share was big enough, if not too big, for him:—pray, how do you think would such a speech as this be heard?”
“I confess,” said I, “I think not very well.”
“But what,” said he, “if I should sort with another kind of ministers, whose chief contrivances and consultations were by what art the prince’s treasures might be increased? where one proposes raising the value of specie when the king’s debts are large, and lowering it when his revenues were to come in, that so he might both pay much with a little, and in a little receive a great deal.  Another proposes a pretence of a war, that money might be raised in order to carry it on, and that a peace be concluded as soon as that was done; and this with such appearances of religion as might work on the people, and make them impute it to the piety of their prince, and to his tenderness for the lives of his subjects.  A third offers some old musty laws that have been antiquated by a long disuse (and which, as they had been forgotten by all the subjects, so they had also been broken by them), and proposes the levying the penalties of these laws, that, as it would bring in a vast treasure, so there might be a very good pretence for it, since it would look like the executing a law and the doing of justice.  A fourth proposes the prohibiting of many things under severe penalties, especially such as were against the interest of the people, and then the dispensing with these prohibitions, upon great compositions, to those who might find their advantage in breaking them.  This would serve two ends, both of them acceptable to many; for as those whose avarice led them to transgress would be severely fined, so the selling licences dear would look as if a prince were tender of his people, and would not easily, or at low rates, dispense with anything that might be against the public good.  Another proposes that the judges must be made sure, that they may declare always in favour of the prerogative; that they must be often sent for to court, that the king may hear them argue those points in which he is concerned; since, how unjust soever any of his pretensions may be, yet still some one or other of them, either out of contradiction to others, or the pride of singularity, or to make their court, would find out some pretence or other to give the king a fair colour to carry the point.  For if the judges but differ in opinion, the clearest thing in the world is made by that means disputable, and truth being once brought in question, the king may then take advantage to expound the law for his own profit; while the judges that stand out will be brought over, either through fear or modesty; and they being thus gained, all of them may be sent to the Bench to give sentence boldly as the king would have it; for fair pretences will never be wanting when sentence is to be given in the prince’s favour.  It will either be said that equity lies of his side, or some words in the law will be found sounding that way, or some forced sense will be put on them; and, when all other things fail, the king’s undoubted prerogative will be pretended, as that which is above all law, and to which a religious judge ought to have a special regard.  Thus all consent to that maxim of Crassus, that a prince cannot have treasure enough, since he must maintain his armies out of it; that a king, even though he would, can do nothing unjustly; that all property is in him, not excepting the very persons of his subjects; and that no man has any other property but that which the king, out of his goodness, thinks fit to leave him.  And they think it is the prince’s interest that there be as little of this left as may be, as if it were his advantage that his people should have neither riches nor liberty, since these things make them less easy and willing to submit to a cruel and unjust government.  Whereas necessity and poverty blunts them, makes them patient, beats them down, and breaks that height of spirit that might otherwise dispose them to rebel.  Now what if, after all these propositions were made, I should rise up and assert that such counsels were both unbecoming a king and mischievous to him; and that not only his honour, but his safety, consisted more in his people’s wealth than in his own; if I should show that they choose a king for their own sake, and not for his; that, by his care and endeavours, they may be both easy and safe; and that, therefore, a prince ought to take more care of his people’s happiness than of his own, as a shepherd is to take more care of his flock than of himself?  It is also certain that they are much mistaken that think the poverty of a nation is a mean of the public safety.  Who quarrel more than beggars? who does more earnestly long for a change than he that is uneasy in his present circumstances? and who run to create confusions with so desperate a boldness as those who, having nothing to lose, hope to gain by them?  If a king should fall under such contempt or envy that he could not keep his subjects in their duty but by oppression and ill usage, and by rendering them poor and miserable, it were certainly better for him to quit his kingdom than to retain it by such methods as make him, while he keeps the name of authority, lose the majesty due to it.  Nor is it so becoming the dignity of a king to reign over beggars as over rich and happy subjects.  And therefore Fabricius, a man of a noble and exalted temper, said ‘he would rather govern rich men than be rich himself; since for one man to abound in wealth and pleasure when all about him are mourning and groaning, is to be a gaoler and not a king.’  He is an unskilful physician that cannot cure one disease without casting his patient into another.  So he that can find no other way for correcting the errors of his people but by taking from them the conveniences of life, shows that he knows not what it is to govern a free nation.  He himself ought rather to shake off his sloth, or to lay down his pride, for the contempt or hatred that his people have for him takes its rise from the vices in himself.  Let him live upon what belongs to him without wronging others, and accommodate his expense to his revenue.  Let him punish crimes, and, by his wise conduct, let him endeavour to prevent them, rather than be severe when he has suffered them to be too common.  Let him not rashly revive laws that are abrogated by disuse, especially if they have been long forgotten and never wanted.  And let him never take any penalty for the breach of them to which a judge would not give way in a private man, but would look on him as a crafty and unjust person for pretending to it.  To these things I would add that law among the Macarians—a people that live not far from Utopia—by which their king, on the day on which he began to reign, is tied by an oath, confirmed by solemn sacrifices, never to have at once above a thousand pounds of gold in his treasures, or so much silver as is equal to that in value.  This law, they tell us, was made by an excellent king who had more regard to the riches of his country than to his own wealth, and therefore provided against the heaping up of so much treasure as might impoverish the people.  He thought that moderate sum might be sufficient for any accident, if either the king had occasion for it against the rebels, or the kingdom against the invasion of an enemy; but that it was not enough to encourage a prince to invade other men’s rights—a circumstance that was the chief cause of his making that law.  He also thought that it was a good provision for that free circulation of money so necessary for the course of commerce and exchange.  And when a king must distribute all those extraordinary accessions that increase treasure beyond the due pitch, it makes him less disposed to oppress his subjects.  Such a king as this will be the terror of ill men, and will be beloved by all the good.
“If, I say, I should talk of these or such-like things to men that had taken their bias another way, how deaf would they be to all I could say!”  “No doubt, very deaf,” answered I; “and no wonder, for one is never to offer propositions or advice that we are certain will not be entertained.  Discourses so much out of the road could not avail anything, nor have any effect on men whose minds were prepossessed with different sentiments.  This philosophical way of speculation is not unpleasant among friends in a free conversation; but there is no room for it in the courts of princes, where great affairs are carried on by authority.”  “That is what I was saying,” replied he, “that there is no room for philosophy in the courts of princes.”  “Yes, there is,” said I, “but not for this speculative philosophy, that makes everything to be alike fitting at all times; but there is another philosophy that is more pliable, that knows its proper scene, accommodates itself to it, and teaches a man with propriety and decency to act that part which has fallen to his share.  If when one of Plautus’ comedies is upon the stage, and a company of servants are acting their parts, you should come out in the garb of a philosopher, and repeat, out of Octavia, a discourse of Seneca’s to Nero, would it not be better for you to say nothing than by mixing things of such different natures to make an impertinent tragi-comedy? for you spoil and corrupt the play that is in hand when you mix with it things of an opposite nature, even though they are much better.  Therefore go through with the play that is acting the best you can, and do not confound it because another that is pleasanter comes into your thoughts.  It is even so in a commonwealth and in the councils of princes; if ill opinions cannot be quite rooted out, and you cannot cure some received vice according to your wishes, you must not, therefore, abandon the commonwealth, for the same reasons as you should not forsake the ship in a storm because you cannot command the winds.  You are not obliged to assault people with discourses that are out of their road, when you see that their received notions must prevent your making an impression upon them: you ought rather to cast about and to manage things with all the dexterity in your power, so that, if you are not able to make them go well, they may be as little ill as possible; for, except all men were good, everything cannot be right, and that is a blessing that I do not at present hope to see.”  “According to your argument,” answered he, “all that I could be able to do would be to preserve myself from being mad while I endeavoured to cure the madness of others; for, if I speak with, I must repeat what I have said to you; and as for lying, whether a philosopher can do it or not I cannot tell: I am sure I cannot do it.  But though these discourses may be uneasy and ungrateful to them, I do not see why they should seem foolish or extravagant; indeed, if I should either propose such things as Plato has contrived in his ‘Commonwealth,’ or as the Utopians practise in theirs, though they might seem better, as certainly they are, yet they are so different from our establishment, which is founded on property (there being no such thing among them), that I could not expect that it would have any effect on them.  But such discourses as mine, which only call past evils to mind and give warning of what may follow, leave nothing in them that is so absurd that they may not be used at any time, for they can only be unpleasant to those who are resolved to run headlong the contrary way; and if we must let alone everything as absurd or extravagant—which, by reason of the wicked lives of many, may seem uncouth—we must, even among Christians, give over pressing the greatest part of those things that Christ hath taught us, though He has commanded us not to conceal them, but to proclaim on the housetops that which He taught in secret.  The greatest parts of His precepts are more opposite to the lives of the men of this age than any part of my discourse has been, but the preachers seem to have learned that craft to which you advise me: for they, observing that the world would not willingly suit their lives to the rules that Christ has given, have fitted His doctrine, as if it had been a leaden rule, to their lives, that so, some way or other, they might agree with one another.  But I see no other effect of this compliance except it be that men become more secure in their wickedness by it; and this is all the success that I can have in a court, for I must always differ from the rest, and then I shall signify nothing; or, if I agree with them, I shall then only help forward their madness.  I do not comprehend what you mean by your ‘casting about,’ or by ‘the bending and handling things so dexterously that, if they go not well, they may go as little ill as may be;’ for in courts they will not bear with a man’s holding his peace or conniving at what others do: a man must barefacedly approve of the worst counsels and consent to the blackest designs, so that he would pass for a spy, or, possibly, for a traitor, that did but coldly approve of such wicked practices; and therefore when a man is engaged in such a society, he will be so far from being able to mend matters by his ‘casting about,’ as you call it, that he will find no occasions of doing any good—the ill company will sooner corrupt him than be the better for him; or if, notwithstanding all their ill company, he still remains steady and innocent, yet their follies and knavery will be imputed to him; and, by mixing counsels with them, he must bear his share of all the blame that belongs wholly to others.
“It was no ill simile by which Plato set forth the unreasonableness of a philosopher’s meddling with government.  ‘If a man,’ says he, ‘were to see a great company run out every day into the rain and take delight in being wet—if he knew that it would be to no purpose for him to go and persuade them to return to their houses in order to avoid the storm, and that all that could be expected by his going to speak to them would be that he himself should be as wet as they, it would be best for him to keep within doors, and, since he had not influence enough to correct other people’s folly, to take care to preserve himself.’
“Though, to speak plainly my real sentiments, I must freely own that as long as there is any property, and while money is the standard of all other things, I cannot think that a nation can be governed either justly or happily: not justly, because the best things will fall to the share of the worst men; nor happily, because all things will be divided among a few (and even these are not in all respects happy), the rest being left to be absolutely miserable.  Therefore, when I reflect on the wise and good constitution of the Utopians, among whom all things are so well governed and with so few laws, where virtue hath its due reward, and yet there is such an equality that every man lives in plenty—when I compare with them so many other nations that are still making new laws, and yet can never bring their constitution to a right regulation; where, notwithstanding every one has his property, yet all the laws that they can invent have not the power either to obtain or preserve it, or even to enable men certainly to distinguish what is their own from what is another’s, of which the many lawsuits that every day break out, and are eternally depending, give too plain a demonstration—when, I say, I balance all these things in my thoughts, I grow more favourable to Plato, and do not wonder that he resolved not to make any laws for such as would not submit to a community of all things; for so wise a man could not but foresee that the setting all upon a level was the only way to make a nation happy; which cannot be obtained so long as there is property, for when every man draws to himself all that he can compass, by one title or another, it must needs follow that, how plentiful soever a nation may be, yet a few dividing the wealth of it among themselves, the rest must fall into indigence.  So that there will be two sorts of people among them, who deserve that their fortunes should be interchanged—the former useless, but wicked and ravenous; and the latter, who by their constant industry serve the public more than themselves, sincere and modest men—from whence I am persuaded that till property is taken away, there can be no equitable or just distribution of things, nor can the world be happily governed; for as long as that is maintained, the greatest and the far best part of mankind, will be still oppressed with a load of cares and anxieties.  I confess, without taking it quite away, those pressures that lie on a great part of mankind may be made lighter, but they can never be quite removed; for if laws were made to determine at how great an extent in soil, and at how much money, every man must stop—to limit the prince, that he might not grow too great; and to restrain the people, that they might not become too insolent—and that none might factiously aspire to public employments, which ought neither to be sold nor made burdensome by a great expense, since otherwise those that serve in them would be tempted to reimburse themselves by cheats and violence, and it would become necessary to find out rich men for undergoing those employments, which ought rather to be trusted to the wise.  These laws, I say, might have such effect as good diet and care might have on a sick man whose recovery is desperate; they might allay and mitigate the disease, but it could never be quite healed, nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit as long as property remains; and it will fall out, as in a complication of diseases, that by applying a remedy to one sore you will provoke another, and that which removes the one ill symptom produces others, while the strengthening one part of the body weakens the rest.”  “On the contrary,” answered I, “it seems to me that men cannot live conveniently where all things are common.  How can there be any plenty where every man will excuse himself from labour? for as the hope of gain doth not excite him, so the confidence that he has in other men’s industry may make him slothful.  If people come to be pinched with want, and yet cannot dispose of anything as their own, what can follow upon this but perpetual sedition and bloodshed, especially when the reverence and authority due to magistrates falls to the ground? for I cannot imagine how that can be kept up among those that are in all things equal to one another.”  “I do not wonder,” said he, “that it appears so to you, since you have no notion, or at least no right one, of such a constitution; but if you had been in Utopia with me, and had seen their laws and rules, as I did, for the space of five years, in which I lived among them, and during which time I was so delighted with them that indeed I should never have left them if it had not been to make the discovery of that new world to the Europeans, you would then confess that you had never seen a people so well constituted as they.”  “You will not easily persuade me,” said Peter, “that any nation in that new world is better governed than those among us; for as our understandings are not worse than theirs, so our government (if I mistake not) being more ancient, a long practice has helped us to find out many conveniences of life, and some happy chances have discovered other things to us which no man’s understanding could ever have invented.”  “As for the antiquity either of their government or of ours,” said he, “you cannot pass a true judgment of it unless you had read their histories; for, if they are to be believed, they had towns among them before these parts were so much as inhabited; and as for those discoveries that have been either hit on by chance or made by ingenious men, these might have happened there as well as here.  I do not deny but we are more ingenious than they are, but they exceed us much in industry and application.  They knew little concerning us before our arrival among them.  They call us all by a general name of ‘The nations that lie beyond the equinoctial line;’ for their chronicle mentions a shipwreck that was made on their coast twelve hundred years ago, and that some Romans and Egyptians that were in the ship, getting safe ashore, spent the rest of their days amongst them; and such was their ingenuity that from this single opportunity they drew the advantage of learning from those unlooked-for guests, and acquired all the useful arts that were then among the Romans, and which were known to these shipwrecked men; and by the hints that they gave them they themselves found out even some of those arts which they could not fully explain, so happily did they improve that accident of having some of our people cast upon their shore.  But if such an accident has at any time brought any from thence into Europe, we have been so far from improving it that we do not so much as remember it, as, in aftertimes perhaps, it will be forgot by our people that I was ever there; for though they, from one such accident, made themselves masters of all the good inventions that were among us, yet I believe it would be long before we should learn or put in practice any of the good institutions that are among them.  And this is the true cause of their being better governed and living happier than we, though we come not short of them in point of understanding or outward advantages.”  Upon this I said to him, “I earnestly beg you would describe that island very particularly to us; be not too short, but set out in order all things relating to their soil, their rivers, their towns, their people, their manners, constitution, laws, and, in a word, all that you imagine we desire to know; and you may well imagine that we desire to know everything concerning them of which we are hitherto ignorant.”  “I will do it very willingly,” said he, “for I have digested the whole matter carefully, but it will take up some time.”  “Let us go, then,” said I, “first and dine, and then we shall have leisure enough.”  He consented; we went in and dined, and after dinner came back and sat down in the same place.  I ordered my servants to take care that none might come and interrupt us, and both Peter and I desired Raphael to be as good as his word.  When he
saw that we were very intent upon it he paused a little to recollect himself, and began in this manner:—
“The island of Utopia is in the middle two hundred miles broad, and holds almost at the same breadth over a great part of it, but it grows narrower towards both ends.  Its figure is not unlike a crescent.  Between its horns the sea comes in eleven miles broad, and spreads itself into a great bay, which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles, and is well secured from winds.  In this bay there is no great current; the whole coast is, as it were, one continued harbour, which gives all that live in the island great convenience for mutual commerce.  But the entry into the bay, occasioned by rocks on the one hand and shallows on the other, is very dangerous.  In the middle of it there is one single rock which appears above water, and may, therefore, easily be avoided; and on the top of it there is a tower, in which a garrison is kept; the other rocks lie under water, and are very dangerous.  The channel is known only to the natives; so that if any stranger should enter into the bay without one of their pilots he would run great danger of shipwreck.  For even they themselves could not pass it safe if some marks that are on the coast did not direct their way; and if these should be but a little shifted, any fleet that might come against them, how great soever it were, would be certainly lost.  On the other side of the island there are likewise many harbours; and the coast is so fortified, both by nature and art, that a small number of men can hinder the descent of a great army.  But they report (and there remains good marks of it to make it credible) that this was no island at first, but a part of the continent.  Utopus, that conquered it (whose name it still carries, for Abraxa was its first name), brought the rude and uncivilised inhabitants into such a good government, and to that measure of politeness, that they now far excel all the rest of mankind.  Having soon subdued them, he designed to separate them from the continent, and to bring the sea quite round them.  To accomplish this he ordered a deep channel to be dug, fifteen miles long; and that the natives might not think he treated them like slaves, he not only forced the inhabitants, but also his own soldiers, to labour in carrying it on.  As he set a vast number of men to work, he, beyond all men’s expectations, brought it to a speedy conclusion.  And his neighbours, who at first laughed at the folly of the undertaking, no sooner saw it brought to perfection than they were struck with admiration and terror.
“There are fifty-four cities in the island, all large and well built, the manners, customs, and laws of which are the same, and they are all contrived as near in the same manner as the ground on which they stand will allow.  The nearest lie at least twenty-four miles’ distance from one another, and the most remote are not so far distant but that a man can go on foot in one day from it to that which lies next it.  Every city sends three of their wisest senators once a year to Amaurot, to consult about their common concerns; for that is the chief town of the island, being situated near the centre of it, so that it is the most convenient place for their assemblies.  The jurisdiction of every city extends at least twenty miles, and, where the towns lie wider, they have much more ground.  No town desires to enlarge its bounds, for the people consider themselves rather as tenants than landlords.  They have built, over all the country, farmhouses for husbandmen, which are well contrived, and furnished with all things necessary for country labour.  Inhabitants are sent, by turns, from the cities to dwell in them; no country family has fewer than forty men and women in it, besides two slaves.  There is a master and a mistress set over every family, and over thirty families there is a magistrate.  Every year twenty of this family come back to the town after they have stayed two years in the country, and in their room there are other twenty sent from the town, that they may learn country work from those that have been already one year in the country, as they must teach those that come to them the next from the town.  By this means such as dwell in those country farms are never ignorant of agriculture, and so commit no errors which might otherwise be fatal and bring them under a scarcity of corn.  But though there is every year such a shifting of the husbandmen to prevent any man being forced against his will to follow that hard course of life too long, yet many among them take such pleasure in it that they desire leave to continue in it many years.  These husbandmen till the ground, breed cattle, hew wood, and convey it to the towns either by land or water, as is most convenient.  They breed an infinite multitude of chickens in a very curious manner; for the hens do not sit and hatch them, but a vast number of eggs are laid in a gentle and equal heat in order to be hatched, and they are no sooner out of the shell, and able to stir about, but they seem to consider those that feed them as their mothers, and follow them as other chickens do the hen that hatched them.  They breed very few horses, but those they have are full of mettle, and are kept only for exercising their youth in the art of sitting and riding them; for they do not put them to any work, either of ploughing or carriage, in which they employ oxen.  For though their horses are stronger, yet they find oxen can hold out longer; and as they are not subject to so many diseases, so they are kept upon a less charge and with less trouble.  And even when they are so worn out that they are no more fit for labour, they are good meat at last.  They sow no corn but that which is to be their bread; for they drink either wine, cider or perry, and often water, sometimes boiled with honey or liquorice, with which they abound; and though they know exactly how much corn will serve every town and all that tract of country which belongs to it, yet they sow much more and breed more cattle than are necessary for their consumption, and they give that overplus of which they make no use to their neighbours.  When they want anything in the country which it does not produce, they fetch that from the town, without carrying anything in exchange for it.  And the magistrates of the town take care to see it given them; for they meet generally in the town once a month, upon a festival day.  When the time of harvest comes, the magistrates in the country send to those in the towns and let them know how many hands they will need for reaping the harvest; and the number they call for being sent to them, they commonly despatch it all in one day.
OF THEIR TOWNS, PARTICULARLY OF AMAUROT
“He that knows one of their towns knows them all—they are so like one another, except where the situation makes some difference.  I shall therefore describe one of them, and none is so proper as Amaurot; for as none is more eminent (all the rest yielding in precedence to this, because it is the seat of their supreme council), so there was none of them better known to me, I having lived five years all together in it.
“It lies upon the side of a hill, or, rather, a rising ground.  Its figure is almost square, for from the one side of it, which shoots up almost to the top of the hill, it runs down, in a descent for two miles, to the river Anider; but it is a little broader the other way that runs along by the bank of that river.  The Anider rises about eighty miles above Amaurot, in a small spring at first.  But other brooks falling into it, of which two are more considerable than the rest, as it runs by Amaurot it is grown half a mile broad; but, it still grows larger and larger, till, after sixty miles’ course below it, it is lost in the ocean.  Between the town and the sea, and for some miles above the town, it ebbs and flows every six hours with a strong current.  The tide comes up about thirty miles so full that there is nothing but salt water in the river, the fresh water being driven back with its force; and above that, for some miles, the water is brackish; but a little higher, as it runs by the town, it is quite fresh; and when the tide ebbs, it continues fresh all along to the sea.  There is a bridge cast over the river, not of timber, but of fair stone, consisting of many stately arches; it lies at that part of the town which is farthest from the sea, so that the ships, without any hindrance, lie all along the side of the town.  There is, likewise, another river that runs by it, which, though it is not great, yet it runs pleasantly, for it rises out of the same hill on which the town stands, and so runs down through it and falls into the Anider.  The inhabitants have fortified the fountain-head of this river, which springs a little without the towns; that so, if they should happen to be besieged, the enemy might not be able to stop or divert the course of the water, nor poison it; from thence it is carried, in earthen pipes, to the lower streets.  And for those places of the town to which the water of that small river cannot be conveyed, they have great cisterns for receiving the rain-water, which supplies the want of the other.  The town is compassed with a high and thick wall, in which there are many towers and forts; there is also a broad and deep dry ditch, set thick with thorns, cast round three sides of the town, and the river is instead of a ditch on the fourth side.  The streets are very convenient for all carriage, and are well sheltered from the winds.  Their buildings are good, and are so uniform that a whole side of a street looks like one house.  The streets are twenty feet broad; there lie gardens behind all their houses.  These are large, but enclosed with buildings, that on all hands face the streets, so that every house has both a door to the street and a back door to the garden.  Their doors have all two leaves, which, as they are easily opened, so they shut of their own accord; and, there being no property among them, every man may freely enter into any house whatsoever.  At every ten years’ end they shift their houses by lots.  They cultivate their gardens with great care, so that they have both vines, fruits, herbs, and flowers in them; and all is so well ordered and so finely kept that I never saw gardens anywhere that were both so fruitful and so beautiful as theirs.  And this humour of ordering their gardens so well is not only kept up by the pleasure they find in it, but also by an emulation between the inhabitants of the several streets, who vie with each other.  And there is, indeed, nothing belonging to the whole town that is both more useful and more pleasant.  So that he who founded the town seems to have taken care of nothing more than of their gardens; for they say the whole scheme of the town was designed at first by Utopus, but he left all that belonged to the ornament and improvement of it to be added by those that should come after him, that being too much for one man to bring to perfection.  Their records, that contain the history of their town and State, are preserved with an exact care, and run backwards seventeen hundred and sixty years.  From these it appears that their houses were at first low and mean, like cottages, made of any sort of timber, and were built with mud walls and thatched with straw.  But now their houses are three storeys high, the fronts of them are faced either with stone, plastering, or brick, and between the facings of their walls they throw in their rubbish.  Their roofs are flat, and on them they lay a sort of plaster, which costs very little, and yet is so tempered that it is not apt to take fire, and yet resists the weather more than lead.  They have great quantities of glass among them, with which they glaze their windows; they use also in their windows a thin linen cloth, that is so oiled or gummed that it both keeps out the wind and gives free admission to the light.
OF THEIR MAGISTRATES
“Thirty families choose every year a magistrate, who was anciently called the Syphogrant, but is now called the Philarch; and over every ten Syphogrants, with the families subject to them, there is another magistrate, who was anciently called the Tranibore, but of late the Archphilarch.  All the Syphogrants, who are in number two hundred, choose the Prince out of a list of four who are named by the people of the four divisions of the city; but they take an oath, before they proceed to an election, that they will choose him whom they think most fit for the office: they give him their voices secretly, so that it is not known for whom every one gives his suffrage.  The Prince is for life, unless he is removed upon suspicion of some design to enslave the people.  The Tranibors are new chosen every year, but yet they are, for the most part, continued; all their other magistrates are only annual.  The Tranibors meet every third day, and oftener if necessary, and consult with the Prince either concerning the affairs of the State in general, or such private differences as may arise sometimes among the people, though that falls out but seldom.  There are always two Syphogrants called into the council chamber, and these are changed every day.  It is a fundamental rule of their government, that no conclusion can be made in anything that relates to the public till it has been first debated three several days in their council.  It is death for any to meet and consult concerning the State, unless it be either in their ordinary council, or in the assembly of the whole body of the people.
“These things have been so provided among them that the Prince and the Tranibors may not conspire together to change the government and enslave the people; and therefore when anything of great importance is set on foot, it is sent to the Syphogrants, who, after they have communicated it to the families that belong to their divisions, and have considered it among themselves, make report to the senate; and, upon great occasions, the matter is referred to the council of the whole island.  One rule observed in their council is, never to debate a thing on the same day in which it is first proposed; for that is always referred to the next meeting, that so men may not rashly and in the heat of discourse engage themselves too soon, which might bias them so much that, instead of consulting the good of the public, they might rather study to support their first opinions, and by a perverse and preposterous sort of shame hazard their country rather than endanger their own reputation, or venture the being suspected to have wanted foresight in the expedients that they at first proposed; and therefore, to prevent this, they take care that they may rather be deliberate than sudden in their motions.
OF THEIR TRADES, AND MANNER OF LIFE
“Agriculture is that which is so universally understood among them that no person, either man or woman, is ignorant of it; they are instructed in it from their childhood, partly by what they learn at school, and partly by practice, they being led out often into the fields about the town, where they not only see others at work but are likewise exercised in it themselves.  Besides agriculture, which is so common to them all, every man has some peculiar trade to which he applies himself; such as the manufacture of wool or flax, masonry, smith’s work, or carpenter’s work; for there is no sort of trade that is in great esteem among them.  Throughout the island they wear the same sort of clothes, without any other distinction except what is necessary to distinguish the two sexes and the married and unmarried.  The fashion never alters, and as it is neither disagreeable nor uneasy, so it is suited to the climate, and calculated both for their summers and winters.  Every family makes their own clothes; but all among them, women as well as men, learn one or other of the trades formerly mentioned.  Women, for the most part, deal in wool and flax, which suit best with their weakness, leaving the ruder trades to the men.  The same trade generally passes down from father to son, inclinations often following descent: but if any man’s genius lies another way he is, by adoption, translated into a family that deals in the trade to which he is inclined; and when that is to be done, care is taken, not only by his father, but by the magistrate, that he may be put to a discreet and good man: and if, after a person has learned one trade, he desires to acquire another, that is also allowed, and is managed in the same manner as the former.  When he has learned both, he follows that which he likes best, unless the public has more occasion for the other.
The chief, and almost the only, business of the Syphogrants is to take care that no man may live idle, but that every one may follow his trade diligently; yet they do not wear themselves out with perpetual toil from morning to night, as if they were beasts of burden, which as it is indeed a heavy slavery, so it is everywhere the common course of life amongst all mechanics except the Utopians: but they, dividing the day and night into twenty-four hours, appoint six of these for work, three of which are before dinner and three after; they then sup, and at eight o’clock, counting from noon, go to bed and sleep eight hours: the rest of their time, besides that taken up in work, eating, and sleeping, is left to every man’s discretion; yet they are not to abuse that interval to luxury and idleness, but must employ it in some proper exercise, according to their various inclinations, which is, for the most part, reading.  It is ordinary to have public lectures every morning before daybreak, at which none are obliged to appear but those who are marked out for literature; yet a great many, both men and women, of all ranks, go to hear lectures of one sort or other, according to their inclinations: but if others that are not made for contemplation, choose rather to employ themselves at that time in their trades, as many of them do, they are not hindered, but are rather commended, as men that take care to serve their country.  After supper they spend an hour in some diversion, in summer in their gardens, and in winter in the halls where they eat, where they entertain each other either with music or discourse.  They do not so much as know dice, or any such foolish and mischievous games.  They have, however, two sorts of games not unlike our chess; the one is between several numbers, in which one number, as it were, consumes another; the other resembles a battle between the virtues and the vices, in which the enmity in the vices among themselves, and their agreement against virtue, is not unpleasantly represented; together with the special opposition between the particular virtues and vices; as also the methods by which vice either openly assaults or secretly undermines virtue; and virtue, on the other hand, resists it.  But the time appointed for labour is to be narrowly examined, otherwise you may imagine that since there are only six hours appointed for work, they may fall under a scarcity of necessary provisions: but it is so far from being true that this time is not sufficient for supplying them with plenty of all things, either necessary or convenient, that it is rather too much; and this you will easily apprehend if you consider how great a part of all other nations is quite idle.  First, women generally do little, who are the half of mankind; and if some few women are diligent, their husbands are idle: then consider the great company of idle priests, and of those that are called religious men; add to these all rich men, chiefly those that have estates in land, who are called noblemen and gentlemen, together with their families, made up of idle persons, that are kept more for show than use; add to these all those strong and lusty beggars that go about pretending some disease in excuse for their begging; and upon the whole account you will find that the number of those by whose labours mankind is supplied is much less than you perhaps imagined: then consider how few of those that work are employed in labours that are of real service, for we, who measure all things by money, give rise to many trades that are both vain and superfluous, and serve only to support riot and luxury: for if those who work were employed only in such things as the conveniences of life require, there would be such an abundance of them that the prices of them would so sink that tradesmen could not be maintained by their gains; if all those who labour about useless things were set to more profitable employments, and if all they that languish out their lives in sloth and idleness (every one of whom consumes as much as any two of the men that are at work) were forced to labour, you may easily imagine that a small proportion of time would serve for doing all that is either necessary, profitable, or pleasant to mankind, especially while pleasure is kept within its due bounds: this appears very plainly in Utopia; for there, in a great city, and in all the territory that lies round it, you can scarce find five hundred, either men or women, by their age and strength capable of labour, that are not engaged in it.  Even the Syphogrants, though excused by the law, yet do not excuse themselves, but work, that by their examples they may excite the industry of the rest of the people; the like exemption is allowed to those who, being recommended to the people by the priests, are, by the secret suffrages of the Syphogrants, privileged from labour, that they may apply themselves wholly to study; and if any of these fall short of those hopes that they seemed at first to give, they are obliged to return to work; and sometimes a mechanic that so employs his leisure hours as to make a considerable advancement in learning is eased from being a tradesman and ranked among their learned men.  Out of these they choose their ambassadors, their priests, their Tranibors, and the Prince himself, anciently called their Barzenes, but is called of late their Ademus.
“And thus from the great numbers among them that are neither suffered to be idle nor to be employed in any fruitless labour, you may easily make the estimate how much may be done in those few hours in which they are obliged to labour.  But, besides all that has been already said, it is to be considered that the needful arts among them are managed with less labour than anywhere else.  The building or the repairing of houses among us employ many hands, because often a thriftless heir suffers a house that his father built to fall into decay, so that his successor must, at a great cost, repair that which he might have kept up with a small charge; it frequently happens that the same house which one person built at a vast expense is neglected by another, who thinks he has a more delicate sense of the beauties of architecture, and he, suffering it to fall to ruin, builds another at no less charge.  But among the Utopians all things are so regulated that men very seldom build upon a new piece of ground, and are not only very quick in repairing their houses, but show their foresight in preventing their decay, so that their buildings are preserved very long with but very little labour, and thus the builders, to whom that care belongs, are often without employment, except the hewing of timber and the squaring of stones, that the materials may be in readiness for raising a building very suddenly when there is any occasion for it.  As to their clothes, observe how little work is spent in them; while they are at labour they are clothed with leather and skins, cut carelessly about them, which will last seven years, and when they appear in public they put on an upper garment which hides the other; and these are all of one colour, and that is the natural colour of the wool.  As they need less woollen cloth than is used anywhere else, so that which they make use of is much less costly; they use linen cloth more, but that is prepared with less labour, and they value cloth only by the whiteness of the linen or the cleanness of the wool, without much regard to the fineness of the thread.  While in other places four or five upper garments of woollen cloth of different colours, and as many vests of silk, will scarce serve one man, and while those that are nicer think ten too few, every man there is content with one, which very often serves him two years; nor is there anything that can tempt a man to desire more, for if he had them he would neither be the, warmer nor would he make one jot the better appearance for it.  And thus, since they are all employed in some useful labour, and since they content themselves with fewer things, it falls out that there is a great abundance of all things among them; so that it frequently happens that, for want of other work, vast numbers are sent out to mend the highways; but when no public undertaking is to be performed, the hours of working are lessened.  The magistrates never engage the people in unnecessary labour, since the chief end of the constitution is to regulate labour by the necessities of the public, and to allow the people as much time as is necessary for the improvement of their minds, in which they think the happiness of life consists.
OF THEIR TRAFFIC
“But it is now time to explain to you the mutual intercourse of this people, their commerce, and the rules by which all things are distributed among them.
“As their cities are composed of families, so their families are made up of those that are nearly related to one another.  Their women, when they grow up, are married out, but all the males, both children and grand-children, live still in the same house, in great obedience to their common parent, unless age has weakened his understanding, and in that case he that is next to him in age comes in his room; but lest any city should become either too great, or by any accident be dispeopled, provision is made that none of their cities may contain above six thousand families, besides those of the country around it.  No family may have less than ten and more than sixteen persons in it, but there can be no determined number for the children under age; this rule is easily observed by removing some of the children of a more fruitful couple to any other family that does not abound so much in them.  By the same rule they supply cities that do not increase so fast from others that breed faster; and if there is any increase over the whole island, then they draw out a number of their citizens out of the several towns and send them over to the neighbouring continent, where, if they find that the inhabitants have more soil than they can well cultivate, they fix a colony, taking the inhabitants into their society if they are willing to live with them; and where they do that of their own accord, they quickly enter into their method of life and conform to their rules, and this proves a happiness to both nations; for, according to their constitution, such care is taken of the soil that it becomes fruitful enough for both, though it might be otherwise too narrow and barren for any one of them.  But if the natives refuse to conform themselves to their laws they drive them out of those bounds which they mark out for themselves, and use force if they resist, for they account it a very just cause of war for a nation to hinder others from possessing a part of that soil of which they make no use, but which is suffered to lie idle and uncultivated, since every man has, by the law of nature, a right to such a waste portion of the earth as is necessary for his subsistence.  If an accident has so lessened the number of the inhabitants of any of their towns that it cannot be made up from the other towns of the island without diminishing them too much (which is said to have fallen out but twice since they were first a people, when great numbers were carried off by the plague), the loss is then supplied by recalling as many as are wanted from their colonies, for they will abandon these rather than suffer the towns in the island to sink too low.
“But to return to their manner of living in society: the oldest man of every family, as has been already said, is its governor; wives serve their husbands, and children their parents, and always the younger serves the elder.  Every city is divided into four equal parts, and in the middle of each there is a market-place.  What is brought thither, and manufactured by the several families, is carried from thence to houses appointed for that purpose, in which all things of a sort are laid by themselves; and thither every father goes, and takes whatsoever he or his family stand in need of, without either paying for it or leaving anything in exchange.  There is no reason for giving a denial to any person, since there is such plenty of everything among them; and there is no danger of a man’s asking for more than he needs; they have no inducements to do this, since they are sure they shall always be supplied: it is the fear of want that makes any of the whole race of animals either greedy or ravenous; but, besides fear, there is in man a pride that makes him fancy it a particular glory to excel others in pomp and excess; but by the laws of the Utopians, there is no room for this.  Near these markets there are others for all sorts of provisions, where there are not only herbs, fruits, and bread, but also fish, fowl, and cattle.  There are also, without their towns, places appointed near some running water for killing their beasts and for washing away their filth, which is done by their slaves; for they suffer none of their citizens to kill their cattle, because they think that pity and good-nature, which are among the best of those affections that are born with us, are much impaired by the butchering of animals; nor do they suffer anything that is foul or unclean to be brought within their towns, lest the air should be infected by ill-smells, which might prejudice their health.  In every street there are great halls, that lie at an equal distance from each other, distinguished by particular names.  The Syphogrants dwell in those that are set over thirty families, fifteen lying on one side of it, and as many on the other.  In these halls they all meet and have their repasts; the stewards of every one of them come to the market-place at an appointed hour, and according to the number of those that belong to the hall they carry home provisions.  But they take more care of their sick than of any others; these are lodged and provided for in public hospitals.  They have belonging to every town four hospitals, that are built without their walls, and are so large that they may pass for little towns; by this means, if they had ever such a number of sick persons, they could lodge them conveniently, and at such a distance that such of them as are sick of infectious diseases may be kept so far from the rest that there can be no danger of contagion.  The hospitals are furnished and stored with all things that are convenient for the ease and recovery of the sick; and those that are put in them are looked after with such tender and watchful care, and are so constantly attended by their skilful physicians, that as none is sent to them against their will, so there is scarce one in a whole town that, if he should fall ill, would not choose rather to go thither than lie sick at home.
“After the steward of the hospitals has taken for the sick whatsoever the physician prescribes, then the best things that are left in the market are distributed equally among the halls in proportion to their numbers; only, in the first place, they serve the Prince, the Chief Priest, the Tranibors, the Ambassadors, and strangers, if there are any, which, indeed, falls out but seldom, and for whom there are houses, well furnished, particularly appointed for their reception when they come among them.  At the hours of dinner and supper the whole Syphogranty being called together by sound of trumpet, they meet and eat together, except only such as are in the hospitals or lie sick at home.  Yet, after the halls are served, no man is hindered to carry provisions home from the market-place, for they know that none does that but for some good reason; for though any that will may eat at home, yet none does it willingly, since it is both ridiculous and foolish for any to give themselves the trouble to make ready an ill dinner at home when there is a much more plentiful one made ready for him so near hand.  All the uneasy and sordid services about these halls are performed by their slaves; but the dressing and cooking their meat, and the ordering their tables, belong only to the women, all those of every family taking it by turns.  They sit at three or more tables, according to their number; the men sit towards the wall, and the women sit on the other side, that if any of them should be taken suddenly ill, which is no uncommon case amongst women with child, she may, without disturbing the rest, rise and go to the nurses’ room (who are there with the sucking children), where there is always clean water at hand and cradles, in which they may lay the young children if there is occasion for it, and a fire, that they may shift and dress them before it.  Every child is nursed by its own mother if death or sickness does not intervene; and in that case the Syphogrants’ wives find out a nurse quickly, which is no hard matter, for any one that can do it offers herself cheerfully; for as they are much inclined to that piece of mercy, so the child whom they nurse considers the nurse as its mother.  All the children under five years old sit among the nurses; the rest of the younger sort of both sexes, till they are fit for marriage, either serve those that sit at table, or, if they are not strong enough for that, stand by them in great silence and eat what is given them; nor have they any other formality of dining.  In the middle of the first table, which stands across the upper end of the hall, sit the Syphogrant and his wife, for that is the chief and most conspicuous place; next to him sit two of the most ancient, for there go always four to a mess.  If there is a temple within the Syphogranty, the Priest and his wife sit with the Syphogrant above all the rest; next them there is a mixture of old and young, who are so placed that as the young are set near others, so they are mixed with the more ancient; which, they say, was appointed on this account: that the gravity of the old people, and the reverence that is due to them, might restrain the younger from all indecent words and gestures.  Dishes are not served up to the whole table at first, but the best are first set before the old, whose seats are distinguished from the young, and, after them, all the rest are served alike.  The old men distribute to the younger any curious meats that happen to be set before them, if there is not such an abundance of them that the whole company may be served alike.
“Thus old men are honoured with a particular respect, yet all the rest fare as well as they.  Both dinner and supper are begun with some lecture of morality that is read to them; but it is so short that it is not tedious nor uneasy to them to hear it.  From hence the old men take occasion to entertain those about them with some useful and pleasant enlargements; but they do not engross the whole discourse so to themselves during their meals that the younger may not put in for a share; on the contrary, they engage them to talk, that so they may, in that free way of conversation, find out the force of every one’s spirit and observe his temper.  They despatch their dinners quickly, but sit long at supper, because they go to work after the one, and are to sleep after the other, during which they think the stomach carries on the concoction more vigorously.  They never sup without music, and there is always fruit served up after meat; while they are at table some burn perfumes and sprinkle about fragrant ointments and sweet waters—in short, they want nothing that may cheer up their spirits; they give themselves a large allowance that way, and indulge themselves in all such pleasures as are attended with no inconvenience.  Thus do those that are in the towns live together; but in the country, where they live at a great distance, every one eats at home, and no family wants any necessary sort of provision, for it is from them that provisions are sent unto those that live in the towns.
OF THE TRAVELLING OF THE UTOPIANS
If any man has a mind to visit his friends that live in some other town, or desires to travel and see the rest of the country, he obtains leave very easily from the Syphogrant and Tranibors, when there is no particular occasion for him at home.  Such as travel carry with them a passport from the Prince, which both certifies the licence that is granted for travelling, and limits the time of their return.  They are furnished with a waggon and a slave, who drives the oxen and looks after them; but, unless there are women in the company, the waggon is sent back at the end of the journey as a needless encumbrance.  While they are on the road they carry no provisions with them, yet they want for nothing, but are everywhere treated as if they were at home.  If they stay in any place longer than a night, every one follows his proper occupation, and is very well used by those of his own trade; but if any man goes out of the city to which he belongs without leave, and is found rambling without a passport, he is severely treated, he is punished as a fugitive, and sent home disgracefully; and, if he falls again into the like fault, is condemned to slavery.  If any man has a mind to travel only over the precinct of his own city, he may freely do it, with his father’s permission and his wife’s consent; but when he comes into any of the country houses, if he expects to be entertained by them, he must labour with them and conform to their rules; and if he does this, he may freely go over the whole precinct, being then as useful to the city to which he belongs as if he were still within it.  Thus you see that there are no idle persons among them, nor pretences of excusing any from labour.  There are no taverns, no ale-houses, nor stews among them, nor any other occasions of corrupting each other, of getting into corners, or forming themselves into parties; all men live in full view, so that all are obliged both to perform their ordinary task and to employ themselves well in their spare hours; and it is certain that a people thus ordered must live in great abundance of all things, and these being equally distributed among them, no man can want or be obliged to beg.
“In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.  When they have thus taken care of their whole country, and laid up stores for two years (which they do to prevent the ill consequences of an unfavourable season), they order an exportation of the overplus, both of corn, honey, wool, flax, wood, wax, tallow, leather, and cattle, which they send out, commonly in great quantities, to other nations.  They order a seventh part of all these goods to be freely given to the poor of the countries to which they send them, and sell the rest at moderate rates; and by this exchange they not only bring back those few things that they need at home (for, indeed, they scarce need anything but iron), but likewise a great deal of gold and silver; and by their driving this trade so long, it is not to be imagined how vast a treasure they have got among them, so that now they do not much care whether they sell off their merchandise for money in hand or upon trust.  A great part of their treasure is now in bonds; but in all their contracts no private man stands bound, but the writing runs in the name of the town; and the towns that owe them money raise it from those private hands that owe it to them, lay it up in their public chamber, or enjoy the profit of it till the Utopians call for it; and they choose rather to let the greatest part of it lie in their hands, who make advantage by it, than to call for it themselves; but if they see that any of their other neighbours stand more in need of it, then they call it in and lend it to them.  Whenever they are engaged in war, which is the only occasion in which their treasure can be usefully employed, they make use of it themselves; in great extremities or sudden accidents they employ it in hiring foreign troops, whom they more willingly expose to danger than their own people; they give them great pay, knowing well that this will work even on their enemies; that it will engage them either to betray their own side, or, at least, to desert it; and that it is the best means of raising mutual jealousies among them.  For this end they have an incredible treasure; but they do not keep it as a treasure, but in such a manner as I am almost afraid to tell, lest you think it so extravagant as to be hardly credible.  This I have the more reason to apprehend because, if I had not seen it myself, I could not have been easily persuaded to have believed it upon any man’s report.
“It is certain that all things appear incredible to us in proportion as they differ from known customs; but one who can judge aright will not wonder to find that, since their constitution differs so much from ours, their value of gold and silver should be measured by a very different standard; for since they have no use for money among themselves, but keep it as a provision against events which seldom happen, and between which there are generally long intervening intervals, they value it no farther than it deserves—that is, in proportion to its use.  So that it is plain they must prefer iron either to gold or silver, for men can no more live without iron than without fire or water; but Nature has marked out no use for the other metals so essential as not easily to be dispensed with.  The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.
“If these metals were laid up in any tower in the kingdom it would raise a jealousy of the Prince and Senate, and give birth to that foolish mistrust into which the people are apt to fall—a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their own private advantage.  If they should work it into vessels, or any sort of plate, they fear that the people might grow too fond of it, and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down, if a war made it necessary, to employ it in paying their soldiers.  To prevent all these inconveniences they have fallen upon an expedient which, as it agrees with their other policy, so is it very different from ours, and will scarce gain belief among us who value gold so much, and lay it up so carefully.  They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses.  Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal; and thus they take care by all possible means to render gold and silver of no esteem; and from hence it is that while other nations part with their gold and silver as unwillingly as if one tore out their bowels, those of Utopia would look on their giving in all they possess of those metals (when there were any use for them) but as the parting with a trifle, or as we would esteem the loss of a penny!  They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them, and glory in them during their childhood; but when they grow to years, and see that none but children use such baubles, they of their own accord, without being bid by their parents, lay them aside, and would be as much ashamed to use them afterwards as children among us, when they come to years, are of their puppets and other toys.
“I never saw a clearer instance of the opposite impressions that different customs make on people than I observed in the ambassadors of the Anemolians, who came to Amaurot when I was there.  As they came to treat of affairs of great consequence, the deputies from several towns met together to wait for their coming.  The ambassadors of the nations that lie near Utopia, knowing their customs, and that fine clothes are in no esteem among them, that silk is despised, and gold is a badge of infamy, used to come very modestly clothed; but the Anemolians, lying more remote, and having had little commerce with them, understanding that they were coarsely clothed, and all in the same manner, took it for granted that they had none of those fine things among them of which they made no use; and they, being a vainglorious rather than a wise people, resolved to set themselves out with so much pomp that they should look like gods, and strike the eyes of the poor Utopians with their splendour.  Thus three ambassadors made their entry with a hundred attendants, all clad in garments of different colours, and the greater part in silk; the ambassadors themselves, who were of the nobility of their country, were in cloth-of-gold, and adorned with massy chains, earrings and rings of gold; their caps were covered with bracelets set full of pearls and other gems—in a word, they were set out with all those things that among the Utopians were either the badges of slavery, the marks of infamy, or the playthings of children.  It was not unpleasant to see, on the one side, how they looked big, when they compared their rich habits with the plain clothes of the Utopians, who were come out in great numbers to see them make their entry; and, on the other, to observe how much they were mistaken in the impression which they hoped this pomp would have made on them.  It appeared so ridiculous a show to all that had never stirred out of their country, and had not seen the customs of other nations, that though they paid some reverence to those that were the most meanly clad, as if they had been the ambassadors, yet when they saw the ambassadors themselves so full of gold and chains, they looked upon them as slaves, and forbore to treat them with reverence.  You might have seen the children who were grown big enough to despise their playthings, and who had thrown away their jewels, call to their mothers, push them gently, and cry out, ‘See that great fool, that wears pearls and gems as if he were yet a child!’ while their mothers very innocently replied, ‘Hold your peace! this, I believe, is one of the ambassadors’ fools.’  Others censured the fashion of their chains, and observed, ‘That they were of no use, for they were too slight to bind their slaves, who could easily break them; and, besides, hung so loose about them that they thought it easy to throw their away, and so get from them.”  But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them, and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses (which was as much despised by them as it was esteemed in other nations), and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to, their plumes fell, and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formed valued themselves, and accordingly laid it aside—a resolution that they immediately took when, on their engaging in some free discourse with the Utopians, they discovered their sense of such things and their other customs.  The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it.  They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal; that a man of lead, who has no more sense than a log of wood, and is as bad as he is foolish, should have many wise and good men to serve him, only because he has a great heap of that metal; and that if it should happen that by some accident or trick of law (which, sometimes produces as great changes as chance itself) all this wealth should pass from the master to the meanest varlet of his whole family, he himself would very soon become one of his servants, as if he were a thing that belonged to his wealth, and so were bound to follow its fortune!  But they much more admire and detest the folly of those who, when they see a rich man, though they neither owe him anything, nor are in any sort dependent on his bounty, yet, merely because he is rich, give him little less than divine honours, even though they know him to be so covetous and base-minded that, notwithstanding all his wealth, he will not part with one farthing of it to them as long as he lives!
“These and such like notions have that people imbibed, partly from their education, being bred in a country whose customs and laws are opposite to all such foolish maxims, and partly from their learning and studies—for though there are but few in any town that are so wholly excused from labour as to give themselves entirely up to their studies (these being only such persons as discover from their childhood an extraordinary capacity and disposition for letters), yet their children and a great part of the nation, both men and women, are taught to spend those hours in which they are not obliged to work in reading; and this they do through the whole progress of life.  They have all their learning in their own tongue, which is both a copious and pleasant language, and in which a man can fully express his mind; it runs over a great tract of many countries, but it is not equally pure in all places.  They had never so much as heard of the names of any of those philosophers that are so famous in these parts of the world, before we went among them; and yet they had made the same discoveries as the Greeks, both in music, logic, arithmetic, and geometry.  But as they are almost in everything equal to the ancient philosophers, so they far exceed our modern logicians for they have never yet fallen upon the barbarous niceties that our youth are forced to learn in those trifling logical schools that are among us.  They are so far from minding chimeras and fantastical images made in the mind that none of them could comprehend what we meant when we talked to them of a man in the abstract as common to all men in particular (so that though we spoke of him as a thing that we could point at with our fingers, yet none of them could perceive him) and yet distinct from every one, as if he were some monstrous Colossus or giant; yet, for all this ignorance of these empty notions, they knew astronomy, and were perfectly acquainted with the motions of the heavenly bodies; and have many instruments, well contrived and divided, by which they very accurately compute the course and positions of the sun, moon, and stars.  But for the cheat of divining by the stars, by their oppositions or conjunctions, it has not so much as entered into their thoughts.  They have a particular sagacity, founded upon much observation, in judging of the weather, by which they know when they may look for rain, wind, or other alterations in the air; but as to the philosophy of these things, the cause of the saltness of the sea, of its ebbing and flowing, and of the original and nature both of the heavens and the earth, they dispute of them partly as our ancient philosophers have done, and partly upon some new hypothesis, in which, as they differ from them, so they do not in all things agree among themselves.
“As to moral philosophy, they have the same disputes among them as we have here.  They examine what are properly good, both for the body and the mind; and whether any outward thing can be called truly good, or if that term belong only to the endowments of the soul.  They inquire, likewise, into the nature of virtue and pleasure.  But their chief dispute is concerning the happiness of a man, and wherein it consists—whether in some one thing or in a great many.  They seem, indeed, more inclinable to that opinion that places, if not the whole, yet the chief part, of a man’s happiness in pleasure; and, what may seem more strange, they make use of arguments even from religion, notwithstanding its severity and roughness, for the support of that opinion so indulgent to pleasure; for they never dispute concerning happiness without fetching some arguments from the principles of religion as well as from natural reason, since without the former they reckon that all our inquiries after happiness must be but conjectural and defective.
“These are their religious principles:—That the soul of man is immortal, and that God of His goodness has designed that it should be happy; and that He has, therefore, appointed rewards for good and virtuous actions, and punishments for vice, to be distributed after this life.  Though these principles of religion are conveyed down among them by tradition, they think that even reason itself determines a man to believe and acknowledge them; and freely confess that if these were taken away, no man would be so insensible as not to seek after pleasure by all possible means, lawful or unlawful, using only this caution—that a lesser pleasure might not stand in the way of a greater, and that no pleasure ought to be pursued that should draw a great deal of pain after it; for they think it the maddest thing in the world to pursue virtue, that is a sour and difficult thing, and not only to renounce the pleasures of life, but willingly to undergo much pain and trouble, if a man has no prospect of a reward.  And what reward can there be for one that has passed his whole life, not only without pleasure, but in pain, if there is nothing to be expected after death?  Yet they do not place happiness in all sorts of pleasures, but only in those that in themselves are good and honest.  There is a party among them who place happiness in bare virtue; others think that our natures are conducted by virtue to happiness, as that which is the chief good of man.  They define virtue thus—that it is a living according to Nature, and think that we are made by God for that end; they believe that a man then follows the dictates of Nature when he pursues or avoids things according to the direction of reason.  They say that the first dictate of reason is the kindling in us a love and reverence for the Divine Majesty, to whom we owe both all that we have and, all that we can ever hope for.  In the next place, reason directs us to keep our minds as free from passion and as cheerful as we can, and that we should consider ourselves as bound by the ties of good-nature and humanity to use our utmost endeavours to help forward the happiness of all other persons; for there never was any man such a morose and severe pursuer of virtue, such an enemy to pleasure, that though he set hard rules for men to undergo, much pain, many watchings, and other rigors, yet did not at the same time advise them to do all they could in order to relieve and ease the miserable, and who did not represent gentleness and good-nature as amiable dispositions.  And from thence they infer that if a man ought to advance the welfare and comfort of the rest of mankind (there being no virtue more proper and peculiar to our nature than to ease the miseries of others, to free from trouble and anxiety, in furnishing them with the comforts of life, in which pleasure consists) Nature much more vigorously leads them to do all this for himself.  A life of pleasure is either a real evil, and in that case we ought not to assist others in their pursuit of it, but, on the contrary, to keep them from it all we can, as from that which is most hurtful and deadly; or if it is a good thing, so that we not only may but ought to help others to it, why, then, ought not a man to begin with himself? since no man can be more bound to look after the good of another than after his own; for Nature cannot direct us to be good and kind to others, and yet at the same time to be unmerciful and cruel to ourselves.  Thus as they define virtue to be living according to Nature, so they imagine that Nature prompts all people on to seek after pleasure as the end of all they do.  They also observe that in order to our supporting the pleasures of life, Nature inclines us to enter into society; for there is no man so much raised above the rest of mankind as to be the only favourite of Nature, who, on the contrary, seems to have placed on a level all those that belong to the same species.  Upon this they infer that no man ought to seek his own conveniences so eagerly as to prejudice others; and therefore they think that not only all agreements between private persons ought to be observed, but likewise that all those laws ought to be kept which either a good prince has published in due form, or to which a people that is neither oppressed with tyranny nor circumvented by fraud has consented, for distributing those conveniences of life which afford us all our pleasures.
“They think it is an evidence of true wisdom for a man to pursue his own advantage as far as the laws allow it, they account it piety to prefer the public good to one’s private concerns, but they think it unjust for a man to seek for pleasure by snatching another man’s pleasures from him; and, on the contrary, they think it a sign of a gentle and good soul for a man to dispense with his own advantage for the good of others, and that by this means a good man finds as much pleasure one way as he parts with another; for as he may expect the like from others when he may come to need it, so, if that should fail him, yet the sense of a good action, and the reflections that he makes on the love and gratitude of those whom he has so obliged, gives the mind more pleasure than the body could have found in that from which it had restrained itself.  They are also persuaded that God will make up the loss of those small pleasures with a vast and endless joy, of which religion easily convinces a good soul.
“Thus, upon an inquiry into the whole matter, they reckon that all our actions, and even all our virtues, terminate in pleasure, as in our chief end and greatest happiness; and they call every motion or state, either of body or mind, in which Nature teaches us to delight, a pleasure.  Thus they cautiously limit pleasure only to those appetites to which Nature leads us; for they say that Nature leads us only to those delights to which reason, as well as sense, carries us, and by which we neither injure any other person nor lose the possession of greater pleasures, and of such as draw no troubles after them.  But they look upon those delights which men by a foolish, though common, mistake call pleasure, as if they could change as easily the nature of things as the use of words, as things that greatly obstruct their real happiness, instead of advancing it, because they so entirely possess the minds of those that are once captivated by them with a false notion of pleasure that there is no room left for pleasures of a truer or purer kind.
“There are many things that in themselves have nothing that is truly delightful; on the contrary, they have a good deal of bitterness in them; and yet, from our perverse appetites after forbidden objects, are not only ranked among the pleasures, but are made even the greatest designs, of life.  Among those who pursue these sophisticated pleasures they reckon such as I mentioned before, who think themselves really the better for having fine clothes; in which they think they are doubly mistaken, both in the opinion they have of their clothes, and in that they have of themselves.  For if you consider the use of clothes, why should a fine thread be thought better than a coarse one?  And yet these men, as if they had some real advantages beyond others, and did not owe them wholly to their mistakes, look big, seem to fancy themselves to be more valuable, and imagine that a respect is due to them for the sake of a rich garment, to which they would not have pretended if they had been more meanly clothed, and even resent it as an affront if that respect is not paid them.  It is also a great folly to be taken with outward marks of respect, which signify nothing; for what true or real pleasure can one man find in another’s standing bare or making legs to him?  Will the bending another man’s knees give ease to yours? and will the head’s being bare cure the madness of yours?  And yet it is wonderful to see how this false notion of pleasure bewitches many who delight themselves with the fancy of their nobility, and are pleased with this conceit—that they are descended from ancestors who have been held for some successions rich, and who have had great possessions; for this is all that makes nobility at present.  Yet they do not think themselves a whit the less noble, though their immediate parents have left none of this wealth to them, or though they themselves have squandered it away.  The Utopians have no better opinion of those who are much taken with gems and precious stones, and who account it a degree of happiness next to a divine one if they can purchase one that is very extraordinary, especially if it be of that sort of stones that is then in greatest request, for the same sort is not at all times universally of the same value, nor will men buy it unless it be dismounted and taken out of the gold.  The jeweller is then made to give good security, and required solemnly to swear that the stone is true, that, by such an exact caution, a false one might not be bought instead of a true; though, if you were to examine it, your eye could find no difference between the counterfeit and that which is true; so that they are all one to you, as much as if you were blind.  Or can it be thought that they who heap up a useless mass of wealth, not for any use that it is to bring them, but merely to please themselves with the contemplation of it, enjoy any true pleasure in it?  The delight they find is only a false shadow of joy.  Those are no better whose error is somewhat different from the former, and who hide it out of their fear of losing it; for what other name can fit the hiding it in the earth, or, rather, the restoring it to it again, it being thus cut off from being useful either to its owner or to the rest of mankind?  And yet the owner, having hid it carefully, is glad, because he thinks he is now sure of it.  If it should be stole, the owner, though he might live perhaps ten years after the theft, of which he knew nothing, would find no difference between his having or losing it, for both ways it was equally useless to him.
“Among those foolish pursuers of pleasure they reckon all that delight in hunting, in fowling, or gaming, of whose madness they have only heard, for they have no such things among them.  But they have asked us, ‘What sort of pleasure is it that men can find in throwing the dice?’ (for if there were any pleasure in it, they think the doing it so often should give one a surfeit of it); ‘and what pleasure can one find in hearing the barking and howling of dogs, which seem rather odious than pleasant sounds?’  Nor can they comprehend the pleasure of seeing dogs run after a hare, more than of seeing one dog run after another; for if the seeing them run is that which gives the pleasure, you have the same entertainment to the eye on both these occasions, since that is the same in both cases.  But if the pleasure lies in seeing the hare killed and torn by the dogs, this ought rather to stir pity, that a weak, harmless, and fearful hare should be devoured by strong, fierce, and cruel dogs.  Therefore all this business of hunting is, among the Utopians, turned over to their butchers, and those, as has been already said, are all slaves, and they look on hunting as one of the basest parts of a butcher’s work, for they account it both more profitable and more decent to kill those beasts that are more necessary and useful to mankind, whereas the killing and tearing of so small and miserable an animal can only attract the huntsman with a false show of pleasure, from which he can reap but small advantage.  They look on the desire of the bloodshed, even of beasts, as a mark of a mind that is already corrupted with cruelty, or that at least, by too frequent returns of so brutal a pleasure, must degenerate into it.
“Thus though the rabble of mankind look upon these, and on innumerable other things of the same nature, as pleasures, the Utopians, on the contrary, observing that there is nothing in them truly pleasant, conclude that they are not to be reckoned among pleasures; for though these things may create some tickling in the senses (which seems to be a true notion of pleasure), yet they imagine that this does not arise from the thing itself, but from a depraved custom, which may so vitiate a man’s taste that bitter things may pass for sweet, as women with child think pitch or tallow taste sweeter than honey; but as a man’s sense, when corrupted either by a disease or some ill habit, does not change the nature of other things, so neither can it change the nature of pleasure.
“They reckon up several sorts of pleasures, which they call true ones; some belong to the body, and others to the mind.  The pleasures of the mind lie in knowledge, and in that delight which the contemplation of truth carries with it; to which they add the joyful reflections on a well-spent life, and the assured hopes of a future happiness.  They divide the pleasures of the body into two sorts—the one is that which gives our senses some real delight, and is performed either by recruiting Nature and supplying those parts which feed the internal heat of life by eating and drinking, or when Nature is eased of any surcharge that oppresses it, when we are relieved from sudden pain, or that which arises from satisfying the appetite which Nature has wisely given to lead us to the propagation of the species.  There is another kind of pleasure that arises neither from our receiving what the body requires, nor its being relieved when overcharged, and yet, by a secret unseen virtue, affects the senses, raises the passions, and strikes the mind with generous impressions—this is, the pleasure that arises from music.  Another kind of bodily pleasure is that which results from an undisturbed and vigorous constitution of body, when life and active spirits seem to actuate every part.  This lively health, when entirely free from all mixture of pain, of itself gives an inward pleasure, independent of all external objects of delight; and though this pleasure does not so powerfully affect us, nor act so strongly on the senses as some of the others, yet it may be esteemed as the greatest of all pleasures; and almost all the Utopians reckon it the foundation and basis of all the other joys of life, since this alone makes the state of life easy and desirable, and when this is wanting, a man is really capable of no other pleasure.  They look upon freedom from pain, if it does not rise from perfect health, to be a state of stupidity rather than of pleasure.  This subject has been very narrowly canvassed among them, and it has been debated whether a firm and entire health could be called a pleasure or not.  Some have thought that there was no pleasure but what was ‘excited’ by some sensible motion in the body.  But this opinion has been long ago excluded from among them; so that now they almost universally agree that health is the greatest of all bodily pleasures; and that as there is a pain in sickness which is as opposite in its nature to pleasure as sickness itself is to health, so they hold that health is accompanied with pleasure.  And if any should say that sickness is not really pain, but that it only carries pain along with it, they look upon that as a fetch of subtlety that does not much alter the matter.  It is all one, in their opinion, whether it be said that health is in itself a pleasure, or that it begets a pleasure, as fire gives heat, so it be granted that all those whose health is entire have a true pleasure in the enjoyment of it.  And they reason thus:—‘What is the pleasure of eating, but that a man’s health, which had been weakened, does, with the assistance of food, drive away hunger, and so recruiting itself, recovers its former vigour?  And being thus refreshed it finds a pleasure in that conflict; and if the conflict is pleasure, the victory must yet breed a greater pleasure, except we fancy that it becomes stupid as soon as it has obtained that which it pursued, and so neither knows nor rejoices in its own welfare.’  If it is said that health cannot be felt, they absolutely deny it; for what man is in health, that does not perceive it when he is awake?  Is there any man that is so dull and stupid as not to acknowledge that he feels a delight in health?  And what is delight but another name for pleasure?
“But, of all pleasures, they esteem those to be most valuable that lie in the mind, the chief of which arise out of true virtue and the witness of a good conscience.  They account health the chief pleasure that belongs to the body; for they think that the pleasure of eating and drinking, and all the other delights of sense, are only so far desirable as they give or maintain health; but they are not pleasant in themselves otherwise than as they resist those impressions that our natural infirmities are still making upon us.  For as a wise man desires rather to avoid diseases than to take physic, and to be freed from pain rather than to find ease by remedies, so it is more desirable not to need this sort of pleasure than to be obliged to indulge it.  If any man imagines that there is a real happiness in these enjoyments, he must then confess that he would be the happiest of all men if he were to lead his life in perpetual hunger, thirst, and itching, and, by consequence, in perpetual eating, drinking, and scratching himself; which any one may easily see would be not only a base, but a miserable, state of a life.  These are, indeed, the lowest of pleasures, and the least pure, for we can never relish them but when they are mixed with the contrary pains.  The pain of hunger must give us the pleasure of eating, and here the pain out-balances the pleasure.  And as the pain is more vehement, so it lasts much longer; for as it begins before the pleasure, so it does not cease but with the pleasure that extinguishes it, and both expire together.  They think, therefore, none of those pleasures are to be valued any further than as they are necessary; yet they rejoice in them, and with due gratitude acknowledge the tenderness of the great Author of Nature, who has planted in us appetites, by which those things that are necessary for our preservation are likewise made pleasant to us.  For how miserable a thing would life be if those daily diseases of hunger and thirst were to be carried off by such bitter drugs as we must use for those diseases that return seldomer upon us!  And thus these pleasant, as well as proper, gifts of Nature maintain the strength and the sprightliness of our bodies.
“They also entertain themselves with the other delights let in at their eyes, their ears, and their nostrils as the pleasant relishes and seasoning of life, which Nature seems to have marked out peculiarly for man, since no other sort of animals contemplates the figure and beauty of the universe, nor is delighted with smells any further than as they distinguish meats by them; nor do they apprehend the concords or discords of sound.  Yet, in all pleasures whatsoever, they take care that a lesser joy does not hinder a greater, and that pleasure may never breed pain, which they think always follows dishonest pleasures.  But they think it madness for a man to wear out the beauty of his face or the force of his natural strength, to corrupt the sprightliness of his body by sloth and laziness, or to waste it by fasting; that it is madness to weaken the strength of his constitution and reject the other delights of life, unless by renouncing his own satisfaction he can either serve the public or promote the happiness of others, for which he expects a greater recompense from God.  So that they look on such a course of life as the mark of a mind that is both cruel to itself and ungrateful to the Author of Nature, as if we would not be beholden to Him for His favours, and therefore rejects all His blessings; as one who should afflict himself for the empty shadow of virtue, or for no better end than to render himself capable of bearing those misfortunes which possibly will never happen.
“This is their notion of virtue and of pleasure: they think that no man’s reason can carry him to a truer idea of them unless some discovery from heaven should inspire him with sublimer notions.  I have not now the leisure to examine whether they think right or wrong in this matter; nor do I judge it necessary, for I have only undertaken to give you an account of their constitution, but not to defend all their principles.  I am sure that whatever may be said of their notions, there is not in the whole world either a better people or a happier government.  Their bodies are vigorous and lively; and though they are but of a middle stature, and have neither the fruitfullest soil nor the purest air in the world; yet they fortify themselves so well, by their temperate course of life, against the unhealthiness of their air, and by their industry they so cultivate their soil, that there is nowhere to be seen a greater increase, both of corn and cattle, nor are there anywhere healthier men and freer from diseases; for one may there see reduced to practice not only all the art that the husbandman employs in manuring and improving an ill soil, but whole woods plucked up by the roots, and in other places new ones planted, where there were none before.  Their principal motive for this is the convenience of carriage, that their timber may be either near their towns or growing on the banks of the sea, or of some rivers, so as to be floated to them; for it is a harder work to carry wood at any distance over land than corn.  The people are industrious, apt to learn, as well as cheerful and pleasant, and none can endure more labour when it is necessary; but, except in that case, they love their ease.  They are unwearied pursuers of knowledge; for when we had given them some hints of the learning and discipline of the Greeks, concerning whom we only instructed them (for we know that there was nothing among the Romans, except their historians and their poets, that they would value much), it was strange to see how eagerly they were set on learning that language: we began to read a little of it to them, rather in compliance with their importunity than out of any hopes of their reaping from it any great advantage: but, after a very short trial, we found they made such progress, that we saw our labour was like to be more successful than we could have expected: they learned to write their characters and to pronounce their language so exactly, had so quick an apprehension, they remembered it so faithfully, and became so ready and correct in the use of it, that it would have looked like a miracle if the greater part of those whom we taught had not been men both of extraordinary capacity and of a fit age for instruction: they were, for the greatest part, chosen from among their learned men by their chief council, though some studied it of their own accord.  In three years’ time they became masters of the whole language, so that they read the best of the Greek authors very exactly.  I am, indeed, apt to think that they learned that language the more easily from its having some relation to their own.  I believe that they were a colony of the Greeks; for though their language comes nearer the Persian, yet they retain many names, both for their towns and magistrates, that are of Greek derivation.  I happened to carry a great many books with me, instead of merchandise, when I sailed my fourth voyage; for I was so far from thinking of soon coming back, that I rather thought never to have returned at all, and I gave them all my books, among which were many of Plato’s and some of Aristotle’s works: I had also Theophrastus on Plants, which, to my great regret, was imperfect; for having laid it carelessly by, while we were at sea, a monkey had seized upon it, and in many places torn out the leaves.  They have no books of grammar but Lascares, for I did not carry Theodorus with me; nor have they any dictionaries but Hesichius and Dioscerides.  They esteem Plutarch highly, and were much taken with Lucian’s wit and with his pleasant way of writing.  As for the poets, they have Aristophanes, Homer, Euripides, and Sophocles of Aldus’s edition; and for historians, Thucydides, Herodotus, and Herodian.  One of my companions, Thricius Apinatus, happened to carry with him some of Hippocrates’s works and Galen’s Microtechne, which they hold in great estimation; for though there is no nation in the world that needs physic so little as they do, yet there is not any that honours it so much; they reckon the knowledge of it one of the pleasantest and most profitable parts of philosophy, by which, as they search into the secrets of nature, so they not only find this study highly agreeable, but think that such inquiries are very acceptable to the Author of nature; and imagine, that as He, like the inventors of curious engines amongst mankind, has exposed this great machine of the universe to the view of the only creatures capable of contemplating it, so an exact and curious observer, who admires His workmanship, is much more acceptable to Him than one of the herd, who, like a beast incapable of reason, looks on this glorious scene with the eyes of a dull and unconcerned spectator.
“The minds of the Utopians, when fenced with a love for learning, are very ingenious in discovering all such arts as are necessary to carry it to perfection.  Two things they owe to us, the manufacture of paper and the art of printing; yet they are not so entirely indebted to us for these discoveries but that a great part of the invention was their own.  We showed them some books printed by Aldus, we explained to them the way of making paper and the mystery of printing; but, as we had never practised these arts, we described them in a crude and superficial manner.  They seized the hints we gave them; and though at first they could not arrive at perfection, yet by making many essays they at last found out and corrected all their errors and conquered every difficulty.  Before this they only wrote on parchment, on reeds, or on the barks of trees; but now they have established the manufactures of paper and set up printing presses, so that, if they had but a good number of Greek authors, they would be quickly supplied with many copies of them: at present, though they have no more than those I have mentioned, yet, by several impressions, they have multiplied them into many thousands.  If any man was to go among them that had some extraordinary talent, or that by much travelling had observed the customs of many nations (which made us to be so well received), he would receive a hearty welcome, for they are very desirous to know the state of the whole world.  Very few go among them on the account of traffic; for what can a man carry to them but iron, or gold, or silver? which merchants desire rather to export than import to a strange country: and as for their exportation, they think it better to manage that themselves than to leave it to foreigners, for by this means, as they understand the state of the neighbouring countries better, so they keep up the art of navigation which cannot be maintained but by much practice.
OF THEIR SLAVES, AND OF THEIR MARRIAGES
“They do not make slaves of prisoners of war, except those that are taken in battle, nor of the sons of their slaves, nor of those of other nations: the slaves among them are only such as are condemned to that state of life for the commission of some crime, or, which is more common, such as their merchants find condemned to die in those parts to which they trade, whom they sometimes redeem at low rates, and in other places have them for nothing.  They are kept at perpetual labour, and are always chained, but with this difference, that their own natives are treated much worse than others: they are considered as more profligate than the rest, and since they could not be restrained by the advantages of so excellent an education, are judged worthy of harder usage.  Another sort of slaves are the poor of the neighbouring countries, who offer of their own accord to come and serve them: they treat these better, and use them in all other respects as well as their own countrymen, except their imposing more labour upon them, which is no hard task to those that have been accustomed to it; and if any of these have a mind to go back to their own country, which, indeed, falls out but seldom, as they do not force them to stay, so they do not send them away empty-handed.
“I have already told you with what care they look after their sick, so that nothing is left undone that can contribute either to their case or health; and for those who are taken with fixed and incurable diseases, they use all possible ways to cherish them and to make their lives as comfortable as possible.  They visit them often and take great pains to make their time pass off easily; but when any is taken with a torturing and lingering pain, so that there is no hope either of recovery or ease, the priests and magistrates come and exhort them, that, since they are now unable to go on with the business of life, are become a burden to themselves and to all about them, and they have really out-lived themselves, they should no longer nourish such a rooted distemper, but choose rather to die since they cannot live but in much misery; being assured that if they thus deliver themselves from torture, or are willing that others should do it, they shall be happy after death: since, by their acting thus, they lose none of the pleasures, but only the troubles of life, they think they behave not only reasonably but in a manner consistent with religion and piety; because they follow the advice given them by their priests, who are the expounders of the will of God.  Such as are wrought on by these persuasions either starve themselves of their own accord, or take opium, and by that means die without pain.  But no man is forced on this way of ending his life; and if they cannot be persuaded to it, this does not induce them to fail in their attendance and care of them: but as they believe that a voluntary death, when it is chosen upon such an authority, is very honourable, so if any man takes away his own life without the approbation of the priests and the senate, they give him none of the honours of a decent funeral, but throw his body into a ditch.
“Their women are not married before eighteen nor their men before two-and-twenty, and if any of them run into forbidden embraces before marriage they are severely punished, and the privilege of marriage is denied them unless they can obtain a special warrant from the Prince.  Such disorders cast a great reproach upon the master and mistress of the family in which they happen, for it is supposed that they have failed in their duty.  The reason of punishing this so severely is, because they think that if they were not strictly restrained from all vagrant appetites, very few would engage in a state in which they venture the quiet of their whole lives, by being confined to one person, and are obliged to endure all the inconveniences with which it is accompanied.  In choosing their wives they use a method that would appear to us very absurd and ridiculous, but it is constantly observed among them, and is accounted perfectly consistent with wisdom.  Before marriage some grave matron presents the bride, naked, whether she is a virgin or a widow, to the bridegroom, and after that some grave man presents the bridegroom, naked, to the bride.  We, indeed, both laughed at this, and condemned it as very indecent.  But they, on the other hand, wondered at the folly of the men of all other nations, who, if they are but to buy a horse of a small value, are so cautious that they will see every part of him, and take off both his saddle and all his other tackle, that there may be no secret ulcer hid under any of them, and that yet in the choice of a wife, on which depends the happiness or unhappiness of the rest of his life, a man should venture upon trust, and only see about a handsbreadth of the face, all the rest of the body being covered, under which may lie hid what may be contagious as well as loathsome.  All men are not so wise as to choose a woman only for her good qualities, and even wise men consider the body as that which adds not a little to the mind, and it is certain there may be some such deformity covered with clothes as may totally alienate a man from his wife, when it is too late to part with her; if such a thing is discovered after marriage a man has no remedy but patience; they, therefore, think it is reasonable that there should be good provision made against such mischievous frauds.
“There was so much the more reason for them to make a regulation in this matter, because they are the only people of those parts that neither allow of polygamy nor of divorces, except in the case of adultery or insufferable perverseness, for in these cases the Senate dissolves the marriage and grants the injured person leave to marry again; but the guilty are made infamous and are never allowed the privilege of a second marriage.  None are suffered to put away their wives against their wills, from any great calamity that may have fallen on their persons, for they look on it as the height of cruelty and treachery to abandon either of the married persons when they need most the tender care of their consort, and that chiefly in the case of old age, which, as it carries many diseases along with it, so it is a disease of itself.  But it frequently falls out that when a married couple do not well agree, they, by mutual consent, separate, and find out other persons with whom they hope they may live more happily; yet this is not done without obtaining leave of the Senate, which never admits of a divorce but upon a strict inquiry made, both by the senators and their wives, into the grounds upon which it is desired, and even when they are satisfied concerning the reasons of it they go on but slowly, for they imagine that too great easiness in granting leave for new marriages would very much shake the kindness of married people.  They punish severely those that defile the marriage bed; if both parties are married they are divorced, and the injured persons may marry one another, or whom they please, but the adulterer and the adulteress are condemned to slavery, yet if either of the injured persons cannot shake off the love of the married person they may live with them still in that state, but they must follow them to that labour to which the slaves are condemned, and sometimes the repentance of the condemned, together with the unshaken kindness of the innocent and injured person, has prevailed so far with the Prince that he has taken off the sentence; but those that relapse after they are once pardoned are punished with death.
“Their law does not determine the punishment for other crimes, but that is left to the Senate, to temper it according to the circumstances of the fact.  Husbands have power to correct their wives and parents to chastise their children, unless the fault is so great that a public punishment is thought necessary for striking terror into others.  For the most part slavery is the punishment even of the greatest crimes, for as that is no less terrible to the criminals themselves than death, so they think the preserving them in a state of servitude is more for the interest of the commonwealth than killing them, since, as their labour is a greater benefit to the public than their death could be, so the sight of their misery is a more lasting terror to other men than that which would be given by their death.  If their slaves rebel, and will not bear their yoke and submit to the labour that is enjoined them, they are treated as wild beasts that cannot be kept in order, neither by a prison nor by their chains, and are at last put to death.  But those who bear their punishment patiently, and are so much wrought on by that pressure that lies so hard on them, that it appears they are really more troubled for the crimes they have committed than for the miseries they suffer, are not out of hope, but that, at last, either the Prince will, by his prerogative, or the people, by their intercession, restore them again to their liberty, or, at least, very much mitigate their slavery.  He that tempts a married woman to adultery is no less severely punished than he that commits it, for they believe that a deliberate design to commit a crime is equal to the fact itself, since its not taking effect does not make the person that miscarried in his attempt at all the less guilty.
“They take great pleasure in fools, and as it is thought a base and unbecoming thing to use them ill, so they do not think it amiss for people to divert themselves with their folly; and, in their opinion, this is a great advantage to the fools themselves; for if men were so sullen and severe as not at all to please themselves with their ridiculous behaviour and foolish sayings, which is all that they can do to recommend themselves to others, it could not be expected that they would be so well provided for nor so tenderly used as they must otherwise be.  If any man should reproach another for his being misshaped or imperfect in any part of his body, it would not at all be thought a reflection on the person so treated, but it would be accounted scandalous in him that had upbraided another with what he could not help.  It is thought a sign of a sluggish and sordid mind not to preserve carefully one’s natural beauty; but it is likewise infamous among them to use paint.  They all see that no beauty recommends a wife so much to her husband as the probity of her life and her obedience; for as some few are caught and held only by beauty, so all are attracted by the other excellences which charm all the world.
“As they fright men from committing crimes by punishments, so they invite them to the love of virtue by public honours; therefore they erect statues to the memories of such worthy men as have deserved well of their country, and set these in their market-places, both to perpetuate the remembrance of their actions and to be an incitement to their posterity to follow their example.
“If any man aspires to any office he is sure never to compass it.  They all live easily together, for none of the magistrates are either insolent or cruel to the people; they affect rather to be called fathers, and, by being really so, they well deserve the name; and the people pay them all the marks of honour the more freely because none are exacted from them.  The Prince himself has no distinction, either of garments or of a crown; but is only distinguished by a sheaf of corn carried before him; as the High Priest is also known by his being preceded by a person carrying a wax light.
“They have but few laws, and such is their constitution that they need not many.  They very much condemn other nations whose laws, together with the commentaries on them, swell up to so many volumes; for they think it an unreasonable thing to oblige men to obey a body of laws that are both of such a bulk, and so dark as not to be read and understood by every one of the subjects.
“They have no lawyers among them, for they consider them as a sort of people whose profession it is to disguise matters and to wrest the laws, and, therefore, they think it is much better that every man should plead his own cause, and trust it to the judge, as in other places the client trusts it to a counsellor; by this means they both cut off many delays and find out truth more certainly; for after the parties have laid open the merits of the cause, without those artifices which lawyers are apt to suggest, the judge examines the whole matter, and supports the simplicity of such well-meaning persons, whom otherwise crafty men would be sure to run down; and thus they avoid those evils which appear very remarkably among all those nations that labour under a vast load of laws.  Every one of them is skilled in their law; for, as it is a very short study, so the plainest meaning of which words are capable is always the sense of their laws; and they argue thus: all laws are promulgated for this end, that every man may know his duty; and, therefore, the plainest and most obvious sense of the words is that which ought to be put upon them, since a more refined exposition cannot be easily comprehended, and would only serve to make the laws become useless to the greater part of mankind, and especially to those who need most the direction of them; for it is all one not to make a law at all or to couch it in such terms that, without a quick apprehension and much study, a man cannot find out the true meaning of it, since the generality of mankind are both so dull, and so much employed in their several trades, that they have neither the leisure nor the capacity requisite for such an inquiry.
“Some of their neighbours, who are masters of their own liberties (having long ago, by the assistance of the Utopians, shaken off the yoke of tyranny, and being much taken with those virtues which they observe among them), have come to desire that they would send magistrates to govern them, some changing them every year, and others every five years; at the end of their government they bring them back to Utopia, with great expressions of honour and esteem, and carry away others to govern in their stead.  In this they seem to have fallen upon a very good expedient for their own happiness and safety; for since the good or ill condition of a nation depends so much upon their magistrates, they could not have made a better choice than by pitching on men whom no advantages can bias; for wealth is of no use to them, since they must so soon go back to their own country, and they, being strangers among them, are not engaged in any of their heats or animosities; and it is certain that when public judicatories are swayed, either by avarice or partial affections, there must follow a dissolution of justice, the chief sinew of society.
“The Utopians call those nations that come and ask magistrates from them Neighbours; but those to whom they have been of more particular service, Friends; and as all other nations are perpetually either making leagues or breaking them, they never enter into an alliance with any state.  They think leagues are useless things, and believe that if the common ties of humanity do not knit men together, the faith of promises will have no great effect; and they are the more confirmed in this by what they see among the nations round about them, who are no strict observers of leagues and treaties.  We know how religiously they are observed in Europe, more particularly where the Christian doctrine is received, among whom they are sacred and inviolable! which is partly owing to the justice and goodness of the princes themselves, and partly to the reverence they pay to the popes, who, as they are the most religious observers of their own promises, so they exhort all other princes to perform theirs, and, when fainter methods do not prevail, they compel them to it by the severity of the pastoral censure, and think that it would be the most indecent thing possible if men who are particularly distinguished by the title of ‘The Faithful’ should not religiously keep the faith of their treaties.  But in that new-found world, which is not more distant from us in situation than the people are in their manners and course of life, there is no trusting to leagues, even though they were made with all the pomp of the most sacred ceremonies; on the contrary, they are on this account the sooner broken, some slight pretence being found in the words of the treaties, which are purposely couched in such ambiguous terms that they can never be so strictly bound but they will always find some loophole to escape at, and thus they break both their leagues and their faith; and this is done with such impudence, that those very men who value themselves on having suggested these expedients to their princes would, with a haughty scorn, declaim against such craft; or, to speak plainer, such fraud and deceit, if they found private men make use of it in their bargains, and would readily say that they deserved to be hanged.
“By this means it is that all sort of justice passes in the world for a low-spirited and vulgar virtue, far below the dignity of royal greatness—or at least there are set up two sorts of justice; the one is mean and creeps on the ground, and, therefore, becomes none but the lower part of mankind, and so must be kept in severely by many restraints, that it may not break out beyond the bounds that are set to it; the other is the peculiar virtue of princes, which, as it is more majestic than that which becomes the rabble, so takes a freer compass, and thus lawful and unlawful are only measured by pleasure and interest.  These practices of the princes that lie about Utopia, who make so little account of their faith, seem to be the reasons that determine them to engage in no confederacy.  Perhaps they would change their mind if they lived among us; but yet, though treaties were more religiously observed, they would still dislike the custom of making them, since the world has taken up a false maxim upon it, as if there were no tie of nature uniting one nation to another, only separated perhaps by a mountain or a river, and that all were born in a state of hostility, and so might lawfully do all that mischief to their neighbours against which there is no provision made by treaties; and that when treaties are made they do not cut off the enmity or restrain the licence of preying upon each other, if, by the unskilfulness of wording them, there are not effectual provisoes made against them; they, on the other hand, judge that no man is to be esteemed our enemy that has never injured us, and that the partnership of human nature is instead of a league; and that kindness and good nature unite men more effectually and with greater strength than any agreements whatsoever, since thereby the engagements of men’s hearts become stronger than the bond and obligation of words.
OF THEIR MILITARY DISCIPLINE
They detest war as a very brutal thing, and which, to the reproach of human nature, is more practised by men than by any sort of beasts.  They, in opposition to the sentiments of almost all other nations, think that there is nothing more inglorious than that glory that is gained by war; and therefore, though they accustom themselves daily to military exercises and the discipline of war, in which not only their men, but their women likewise, are trained up, that, in cases of necessity, they may not be quite useless, yet they do not rashly engage in war, unless it be either to defend themselves or their friends from any unjust aggressors, or, out of good nature or in compassion, assist an oppressed nation in shaking off the yoke of tyranny.  They, indeed, help their friends not only in defensive but also in offensive wars; but they never do that unless they had been consulted before the breach was made, and, being satisfied with the grounds on which they went, they had found that all demands of reparation were rejected, so that a war was unavoidable.  This they think to be not only just when one neighbour makes an inroad on another by public order, and carries away the spoils, but when the merchants of one country are oppressed in another, either under pretence of some unjust laws, or by the perverse wresting of good ones.  This they count a juster cause of war than the other, because those injuries are done under some colour of laws.  This was the only ground of that war in which they engaged with the Nephelogetes against the Aleopolitanes, a little before our time; for the merchants of the former having, as they thought, met with great injustice among the latter, which (whether it was in itself right or wrong) drew on a terrible war, in which many of their neighbours were engaged; and their keenness in carrying it on being supported by their strength in maintaining it, it not only shook some very flourishing states and very much afflicted others, but, after a series of much mischief ended in the entire conquest and slavery of the Aleopolitanes, who, though before the war they were in all respects much superior to the Nephelogetes, were yet subdued; but, though the Utopians had assisted them in the war, yet they pretended to no share of the spoil.
“But, though they so vigorously assist their friends in obtaining reparation for the injuries they have received in affairs of this nature, yet, if any such frauds were committed against themselves, provided no violence was done to their persons, they would only, on their being refused satisfaction, forbear trading with such a people.  This is not because they consider their neighbours more than their own citizens; but, since their neighbours trade every one upon his own stock, fraud is a more sensible injury to them than it is to the Utopians, among whom the public, in such a case, only suffers, as they expect no thing in return for the merchandise they export but that in which they so much abound, and is of little use to them, the loss does not much affect them.  They think, therefore, it would be too severe to revenge a loss attended with so little inconvenience, either to their lives or their subsistence, with the death of many persons; but if any of their people are either killed or wounded wrongfully, whether it be done by public authority, or only by private men, as soon as they hear of it they send ambassadors, and demand that the guilty persons may be delivered up to them, and if that is denied, they declare war; but if it be complied with, the offenders are condemned either to death or slavery.
“They would be both troubled and ashamed of a bloody victory over their enemies; and think it would be as foolish a purchase as to buy the most valuable goods at too high a rate.  And in no victory do they glory so much as in that which is gained by dexterity and good conduct without bloodshed.  In such cases they appoint public triumphs, and erect trophies to the honour of those who have succeeded; for then do they reckon that a man acts suitably to his nature, when he conquers his enemy in such a way as that no other creature but a man could be capable of, and that is by the strength of his understanding.  Bears, lions, boars, wolves, and dogs, and all other animals, employ their bodily force one against another, in which, as many of them are superior to men, both in strength and fierceness, so they are all subdued by his reason and understanding.
“The only design of the Utopians in war is to obtain that by force which, if it had been granted them in time, would have prevented the war; or, if that cannot be done, to take so severe a revenge on those that have injured them that they may be terrified from doing the like for the time to come.  By these ends they measure all their designs, and manage them so, that it is visible that the appetite of fame or vainglory does not work so much on there as a just care of their own security.
“As soon as they declare war, they take care to have a great many schedules, that are sealed with their common seal, affixed in the most conspicuous places of their enemies’ country.  This is carried secretly, and done in many places all at once.  In these they promise great rewards to such as shall kill the prince, and lesser in proportion to such as shall kill any other persons who are those on whom, next to the prince himself, they cast the chief balance of the war.  And they double the sum to him that, instead of killing the person so marked out, shall take him alive, and put him in their hands.  They offer not only indemnity, but rewards, to such of the persons themselves that are so marked, if they will act against their countrymen.  By this means those that are named in their schedules become not only distrustful of their fellow-citizens, but are jealous of one another, and are much distracted by fear and danger; for it has often fallen out that many of them, and even the prince himself, have been betrayed, by those in whom they have trusted most; for the rewards that the Utopians offer are so immeasurably great, that there is no sort of crime to which men cannot be drawn by them.  They consider the risk that those run who undertake such services, and offer a recompense proportioned to the danger—not only a vast deal of gold, but great revenues in lands, that lie among other nations that are their friends, where they may go and enjoy them very securely; and they observe the promises they make of their kind most religiously.  They very much approve of this way of corrupting their enemies, though it appears to others to be base and cruel; but they look on it as a wise course, to make an end of what would be otherwise a long war, without so much as hazarding one battle to decide it.  They think it likewise an act of mercy and love to mankind to prevent the great slaughter of those that must otherwise be killed in the progress of the war, both on their own side and on that of their enemies, by the death of a few that are most guilty; and that in so doing they are kind even to their enemies, and pity them no less than their own people, as knowing that the greater part of them do not engage in the war of their own accord, but are driven into it by the passions of their prince.
“If this method does not succeed with them, then they sow seeds of contention among their enemies, and animate the prince’s brother, or some of the nobility, to aspire to the crown.  If they cannot disunite them by domestic broils, then they engage their neighbours against them, and make them set on foot some old pretensions, which are never wanting to princes when they have occasion for them.  These they plentifully supply with money, though but very sparingly with any auxiliary troops; for they are so tender of their own people that they would not willingly exchange one of them, even with the prince of their enemies’ country.
“But as they keep their gold and silver only for such an occasion, so, when that offers itself, they easily part with it; since it would be no convenience to them, though they should reserve nothing of it to themselves.  For besides the wealth that they have among them at home, they have a vast treasure abroad; many nations round about them being deep in their debt: so that they hire soldiers from all places for carrying on their wars; but chiefly from the Zapolets, who live five hundred miles east of Utopia.  They are a rude, wild, and fierce nation, who delight in the woods and rocks, among which they were born and bred up.  They are hardened both against heat, cold, and labour, and know nothing of the delicacies of life.  They do not apply themselves to agriculture, nor do they care either for their houses or their clothes: cattle is all that they look after; and for the greatest part they live either by hunting or upon rapine; and are made, as it were, only for war.  They watch all opportunities of engaging in it, and very readily embrace such as are offered them.  Great numbers of them will frequently go out, and offer themselves for a very low pay, to serve any that will employ them: they know none of the arts of life, but those that lead to the taking it away; they serve those that hire them, both with much courage and great fidelity; but will not engage to serve for any determined time, and agree upon such terms, that the next day they may go over to the enemies of those whom they serve if they offer them a greater encouragement; and will, perhaps, return to them the day after that upon a higher advance of their pay.  There are few wars in which they make not a considerable part of the armies of both sides: so it often falls out that they who are related, and were hired in the same country, and so have lived long and familiarly together, forgetting both their relations and former friendship, kill one another upon no other consideration than that of being hired to it for a little money by princes of different interests; and such a regard have they for money that they are easily wrought on by the difference of one penny a day to change sides.  So entirely does their avarice influence them; and yet this money, which they value so highly, is of little use to them; for what they purchase thus with their blood they quickly waste on luxury, which among them is but of a poor and miserable form.
“This nation serves the Utopians against all people whatsoever, for they pay higher than any other.  The Utopians hold this for a maxim, that as they seek out the best sort of men for their own use at home, so they make use of this worst sort of men for the consumption of war; and therefore they hire them with the offers of vast rewards to expose themselves to all sorts of hazards, out of which the greater part never returns to claim their promises; yet they make them good most religiously to such as escape.  This animates them to adventure again, whenever there is occasion for it; for the Utopians are not at all troubled how many of these happen to be killed, and reckon it a service done to mankind if they could be a means to deliver the world from such a lewd and vicious sort of people, that seem to have run together, as to the drain of human nature.  Next to these, they are served in their wars with those upon whose account they undertake them, and with the auxiliary troops of their other friends, to whom they join a few of their own people, and send some man of eminent and approved virtue to command in chief.  There are two sent with him, who, during his command, are but private men, but the first is to succeed him if he should happen to be either killed or taken; and, in case of the like misfortune to him, the third comes in his place; and thus they provide against all events, that such accidents as may befall their generals may not endanger their armies.  When they draw out troops of their own people, they take such out of every city as freely offer themselves, for none are forced to go against their wills, since they think that if any man is pressed that wants courage, he will not only act faintly, but by his cowardice dishearten others.  But if an invasion is made on their country, they make use of such men, if they have good bodies, though they are not brave; and either put them aboard their ships, or place them on the walls of their towns, that being so posted, they may find no opportunity of flying away; and thus either shame, the heat of action, or the impossibility of flying, bears down their cowardice; they often make a virtue of necessity, and behave themselves well, because nothing else is left them.  But as they force no man to go into any foreign war against his will, so they do not hinder those women who are willing to go along with their husbands; on the contrary, they encourage and praise them, and they stand often next their husbands in the front of the army.  They also place together those who are related, parents, and children, kindred, and those that are mutually allied, near one another; that those whom nature has inspired with the greatest zeal for assisting one another may be the nearest and readiest to do it; and it is matter of great reproach if husband or wife survive one another, or if a child survives his parent, and therefore when they come to be engaged in action, they continue to fight to the last man, if their enemies stand before them: and as they use all prudent methods to avoid the endangering their own men, and if it is possible let all the action and danger fall upon the troops that they hire, so if it becomes necessary for themselves to engage, they then charge with as much courage as they avoided it before with prudence: nor is it a fierce charge at first, but it increases by degrees; and as they continue in action, they grow more obstinate, and press harder upon the enemy, insomuch that they will much sooner die than give ground; for the certainty that their children will be well looked after when they are dead frees them from all that anxiety concerning them which often masters men of great courage; and thus they are animated by a noble and invincible resolution.  Their skill in military affairs increases their courage: and the wise sentiments which, according to the laws of their country, are instilled into them in their education, give additional vigour to their minds: for as they do not undervalue life so as prodigally to throw it away, they are not so indecently fond of it as to preserve it by base and unbecoming methods.  In the greatest heat of action the bravest of their youth, who have devoted themselves to that service, single out the general of their enemies, set on him either openly or by ambuscade; pursue him everywhere, and when spent and wearied out, are relieved by others, who never give over the pursuit, either attacking him with close weapons when they can get near him, or with those which wound at a distance, when others get in between them.  So that, unless he secures himself by flight, they seldom fail at last to kill or to take him prisoner.  When they have obtained a victory, they kill as few as possible, and are much more bent on taking many prisoners than on killing those that fly before them.  Nor do they ever let their men so loose in the pursuit of their enemies as not to retain an entire body still in order; so that if they have been forced to engage the last of their battalions before they could gain the day, they will rather let their enemies all escape than pursue them when their own army is in disorder; remembering well what has often fallen out to themselves, that when the main body of their army has been quite defeated and broken, when their enemies, imagining the victory obtained, have let themselves loose into an irregular pursuit, a few of them that lay for a reserve, waiting a fit opportunity, have fallen on them in their chase, and when straggling in disorder, and apprehensive of no danger, but counting the day their own, have turned the whole action, and, wresting out of their hands a victory that seemed certain and undoubted, while the vanquished have suddenly become victorious.
“It is hard to tell whether they are more dexterous in laying or avoiding ambushes.  They sometimes seem to fly when it is far from their thoughts; and when they intend to give ground, they do it so that it is very hard to find out their design.  If they see they are ill posted, or are like to be overpowered by numbers, they then either march off in the night with great silence, or by some stratagem delude their enemies.  If they retire in the day-time, they do it in such order that it is no less dangerous to fall upon them in a retreat than in a march.  They fortify their camps with a deep and large trench; and throw up the earth that is dug out of it for a wall; nor do they employ only their slaves in this, but the whole army works at it, except those that are then upon the guard; so that when so many hands are at work, a great line and a strong fortification is finished in so short a time that it is scarce credible.  Their armour is very strong for defence, and yet is not so heavy as to make them uneasy in their marches; they can even swim with it.  All that are trained up to war practise swimming.  Both horse and foot make great use of arrows, and are very expert.  They have no swords, but fight with a pole-axe that is both sharp and heavy, by which they thrust or strike down an enemy.  They are very good at finding out warlike machines, and disguise them so well that the enemy does not perceive them till he feels the use of them; so that he cannot prepare such a defence as would render them useless; the chief consideration had in the making them is that they may be easily carried and managed.
“If they agree to a truce, they observe it so religiously that no provocations will make them break it.  They never lay their enemies’ country waste nor burn their corn, and even in their marches they take all possible care that neither horse nor foot may tread it down, for they do not know but that they may have use for it themselves.  They hurt no man whom they find disarmed, unless he is a spy.  When a town is surrendered to them, they take it into their protection; and when they carry a place by storm they never plunder it, but put those only to the sword that oppose the rendering of it up, and make the rest of the garrison slaves, but for the other inhabitants, they do them no hurt; and if any of them had advised a surrender, they give them good rewards out of the estates of those that they condemn, and distribute the rest among their auxiliary troops, but they themselves take no share of the spoil.
“When a war is ended, they do not oblige their friends to reimburse their expenses; but they obtain them of the conquered, either in money, which they keep for the next occasion, or in lands, out of which a constant revenue is to be paid them; by many increases the revenue which they draw out from several countries on such occasions is now risen to above 700,000 ducats a year.  They send some of their own people to receive these revenues, who have orders to live magnificently and like princes, by which means they consume much of it upon the place; and either bring over the rest to Utopia or lend it to that nation in which it lies.  This they most commonly do, unless some great occasion, which falls out but very seldom, should oblige them to call for it all.  It is out of these lands that they assign rewards to such as they encourage to adventure on desperate attempts.  If any prince that engages in war with them is making preparations for invading their country, they prevent him, and make his country the seat of the war; for they do not willingly suffer any war to break in upon their island; and if that should happen, they would only defend themselves by their own people; but would not call for auxiliary troops to their assistance.
OF THE RELIGIONS OF THE UTOPIANS
“There are several sorts of religions, not only in different parts of the island, but even in every town; some worshipping the sun, others the moon or one of the planets.  Some worship such men as have been eminent in former times for virtue or glory, not only as ordinary deities, but as the supreme god.  Yet the greater and wiser sort of them worship none of these, but adore one eternal, invisible, infinite, and incomprehensible Deity; as a Being that is far above all our apprehensions, that is spread over the whole universe, not by His bulk, but by His power and virtue; Him they call the Father of All, and acknowledge that the beginnings, the increase, the progress, the vicissitudes, and the end of all things come only from Him; nor do they offer divine honours to any but to Him alone.  And, indeed, though they differ concerning other things, yet all agree in this: that they think there is one Supreme Being that made and governs the world, whom they call, in the language of their country, Mithras.  They differ in this: that one thinks the god whom he worships is this Supreme Being, and another thinks that his idol is that god; but they all agree in one principle, that whoever is this Supreme Being, He is also that great essence to whose glory and majesty all honours are ascribed by the consent of all nations.
“By degrees they fall off from the various superstitions that are among them, and grow up to that one religion that is the best and most in request; and there is no doubt to be made, but that all the others had vanished long ago, if some of those who advised them to lay aside their superstitions had not met with some unhappy accidents, which, being considered as inflicted by heaven, made them afraid that the god whose worship had like to have been abandoned had interposed and revenged themselves on those who despised their authority.
“After they had heard from us an account of the doctrine, the course of life, and the miracles of Christ, and of the wonderful constancy of so many martyrs, whose blood, so willingly offered up by them, was the chief occasion of spreading their religion over a vast number of nations, it is not to be imagined how inclined they were to receive it.  I shall not determine whether this proceeded from any secret inspiration of God, or whether it was because it seemed so favourable to that community of goods, which is an opinion so particular as well as so dear to them; since they perceived that Christ and His followers lived by that rule, and that it was still kept up in some communities among the sincerest sort of Christians.  From whichsoever of these motives it might be, true it is, that many of them came over to our religion, and were initiated into it by baptism.  But as two of our number were dead, so none of the four that survived were in priests’ orders, we, therefore, could only baptise them, so that, to our great regret, they could not partake of the other sacraments, that can only be administered by priests, but they are instructed concerning them and long most vehemently for them.  They have had great disputes among themselves, whether one chosen by them to be a priest would not be thereby qualified to do all the things that belong to that character, even though he had no authority derived from the Pope, and they seemed to be resolved to choose some for that employment, but they had not done it when I left them.
“Those among them that have not received our religion do not fright any from it, and use none ill that goes over to it, so that all the while I was there one man was only punished on this occasion.  He being newly baptised did, notwithstanding all that we could say to the contrary, dispute publicly concerning the Christian religion, with more zeal than discretion, and with so much heat, that he not only preferred our worship to theirs, but condemned all their rites as profane, and cried out against all that adhered to them as impious and sacrilegious persons, that were to be damned to everlasting burnings.  Upon his having frequently preached in this manner he was seized, and after trial he was condemned to banishment, not for having disparaged their religion, but for his inflaming the people to sedition; for this is one of their most ancient laws, that no man ought to be punished for his religion.  At the first constitution of their government, Utopus having understood that before his coming among them the old inhabitants had been engaged in great quarrels concerning religion, by which they were so divided among themselves, that he found it an easy thing to conquer them, since, instead of uniting their forces against him, every different party in religion fought by themselves.  After he had subdued them he made a law that every man might be of what religion he pleased, and might endeavour to draw others to it by the force of argument and by amicable and modest ways, but without bitterness against those of other opinions; but that he ought to use no other force but that of persuasion, and was neither to mix with it reproaches nor violence; and such as did otherwise were to be condemned to banishment or slavery.
“This law was made by Utopus, not only for preserving the public peace, which he saw suffered much by daily contentions and irreconcilable heats, but because he thought the interest of religion itself required it.  He judged it not fit to determine anything rashly; and seemed to doubt whether those different forms of religion might not all come from God, who might inspire man in a different manner, and be pleased with this variety; he therefore thought it indecent and foolish for any man to threaten and terrify another to make him believe what did not appear to him to be true.  And supposing that only one religion was really true, and the rest false, he imagined that the native force of truth would at last break forth and shine bright, if supported only by the strength of argument, and attended to with a gentle and unprejudiced mind; while, on the other hand, if such debates were carried on with violence and tumults, as the most wicked are always the most obstinate, so the best and most holy religion might be choked with superstition, as corn is with briars and thorns; he therefore left men wholly to their liberty, that they might be free to believe as they should see cause; only he made a solemn and severe law against such as should so far degenerate from the dignity of human nature, as to think that our souls died with our bodies, or that the world was governed by chance, without a wise overruling Providence: for they all formerly believed that there was a state of rewards and punishments to the good and bad after this life; and they now look on those that think otherwise as scarce fit to be counted men, since they degrade so noble a being as the soul, and reckon it no better than a beast’s: thus they are far from looking on such men as fit for human society, or to be citizens of a well-ordered commonwealth; since a man of such principles must needs, as oft as he dares do it, despise all their laws and customs: for there is no doubt to be made, that a man who is afraid of nothing but the law, and apprehends nothing after death, will not scruple to break through all the laws of his country, either by fraud or force, when by this means he may satisfy his appetites.  They never raise any that hold these maxims, either to honours or offices, nor employ them in any public trust, but despise them, as men of base and sordid minds.  Yet they do not punish them, because they lay this down as a maxim, that a man cannot make himself believe anything he pleases; nor do they drive any to dissemble their thoughts by threatenings, so that men are not tempted to lie or disguise their opinions; which being a sort of fraud, is abhorred by the Utopians: they take care indeed to prevent their disputing in defence of these opinions, especially before the common people: but they suffer, and even encourage them to dispute concerning them in private with their priest, and other grave men, being confident that they will be cured of those mad opinions by having reason laid before them.  There are many among them that run far to the other extreme, though it is neither thought an ill nor unreasonable opinion, and therefore is not at all discouraged.  They think that the souls of beasts are immortal, though far inferior to the dignity of the human soul, and not capable of so great a happiness.  They are almost all of them very firmly persuaded that good men will be infinitely happy in another state: so that though they are compassionate to all that are sick, yet they lament no man’s death, except they see him loath to part with life; for they look on this as a very ill presage, as if the soul, conscious to itself of guilt, and quite hopeless, was afraid to leave the body, from some secret hints of approaching misery.  They think that such a man’s appearance before God cannot be acceptable to Him, who being called on, does not go out cheerfully, but is backward and unwilling, and is as it were dragged to it.  They are struck with horror when they see any die in this manner, and carry them out in silence and with sorrow, and praying God that He would be merciful to the errors of the departed soul, they lay the body in the ground: but when any die cheerfully, and full of hope, they do not mourn for them, but sing hymns when they carry out their bodies, and commending their souls very earnestly to God: their whole behaviour is then rather grave than sad, they burn the body, and set up a pillar where the pile was made, with an inscription to the honour of the deceased.  When they come from the funeral, they discourse of his good life, and worthy actions, but speak of nothing oftener and with more pleasure than of his serenity at the hour of death.  They think such respect paid to the memory of good men is both the greatest incitement to engage others to follow their example, and the most acceptable worship that can be offered them; for they believe that though by the imperfection of human sight they are invisible to us, yet they are present among us, and hear those discourses that pass concerning themselves.  They believe it inconsistent with the happiness of departed souls not to be at liberty to be where they will: and do not imagine them capable of the ingratitude of not desiring to see those friends with whom they lived on earth in the strictest bonds of love and kindness: besides, they are persuaded that good men, after death, have these affections; and all other good dispositions increased rather than diminished, and therefore conclude that they are still among the living, and observe all they say or do.  From hence they engage in all their affairs with the greater confidence of success, as trusting to their protection; while this opinion of the presence of their ancestors is a restraint that prevents their engaging in ill designs.
“They despise and laugh at auguries, and the other vain and superstitious ways of divination, so much observed among other nations; but have great reverence for such miracles as cannot flow from any of the powers of nature, and look on them as effects and indications of the presence of the Supreme Being, of which they say many instances have occurred among them; and that sometimes their public prayers, which upon great and dangerous occasions they have solemnly put up to God, with assured confidence of being heard, have been answered in a miraculous manner.
“They think the contemplating God in His works, and the adoring Him for them, is a very acceptable piece of worship to Him.
“There are many among them that upon a motive of religion neglect learning, and apply themselves to no sort of study; nor do they allow themselves any leisure time, but are perpetually employed, believing that by the good things that a man does he secures to himself that happiness that comes after death.  Some of these visit the sick; others mend highways, cleanse ditches, repair bridges, or dig turf, gravel, or stone.  Others fell and cleave timber, and bring wood, corn, and other necessaries, on carts, into their towns; nor do these only serve the public, but they serve even private men, more than the slaves themselves do: for if there is anywhere a rough, hard, and sordid piece of work to be done, from which many are frightened by the labour and loathsomeness of it, if not the despair of accomplishing it, they cheerfully, and of their own accord, take that to their share; and by that means, as they ease others very much, so they afflict themselves, and spend their whole life in hard labour: and yet they do not value themselves upon this, nor lessen other people’s credit to raise their own; but by their stooping to such servile employments they are so far from being despised, that they are so much the more esteemed by the whole nation.
“Of these there are two sorts: some live unmarried and chaste, and abstain from eating any sort of flesh; and thus weaning themselves from all the pleasures of the present life, which they account hurtful, they pursue, even by the hardest and painfullest methods possible, that blessedness which they hope for hereafter; and the nearer they approach to it, they are the more cheerful and earnest in their endeavours after it.  Another sort of them is less willing to put themselves to much toil, and therefore prefer a married state to a single one; and as they do not deny themselves the pleasure of it, so they think the begetting of children is a debt which they owe to human nature, and to their country; nor do they avoid any pleasure that does not hinder labour; and therefore eat flesh so much the more willingly, as they find that by this means they are the more able to work: the Utopians look upon these as the wiser sect, but they esteem the others as the most holy.  They would indeed laugh at any man who, from the principles of reason, would prefer an unmarried state to a married, or a life of labour to an easy life: but they reverence and admire such as do it from the motives of religion.  There is nothing in which they are more cautious than in giving their opinion positively concerning any sort of religion.  The men that lead those severe lives are called in the language of their country Brutheskas, which answers to those we call Religious Orders.
“Their priests are men of eminent piety, and therefore they are but few, for there are only thirteen in every town, one for every temple; but when they go to war, seven of these go out with their forces, and seven others are chosen to supply their room in their absence; but these enter again upon their employments when they return; and those who served in their absence, attend upon the high priest, till vacancies fall by death; for there is one set over the rest.  They are chosen by the people as the other magistrates are, by suffrages given in secret, for preventing of factions: and when they are chosen, they are consecrated by the college of priests.  The care of all sacred things, the worship of God, and an inspection into the manners of the people, are committed to them.  It is a reproach to a man to be sent for by any of them, or for them to speak to him in secret, for that always gives some suspicion: all that is incumbent on them is only to exhort and admonish the people; for the power of correcting and punishing ill men belongs wholly to the Prince, and to the other magistrates: the severest thing that the priest does is the excluding those that are desperately wicked from joining in their worship: there is not any sort of punishment more dreaded by them than this, for as it loads them with infamy, so it fills them with secret horrors, such is their reverence to their religion; nor will their bodies be long exempted from their share of trouble; for if they do not very quickly satisfy the priests of the truth of their repentance, they are seized on by the Senate, and punished for their impiety.  The education of youth belongs to the priests, yet they do not take so much care of instructing them in letters, as in forming their minds and manners aright; they use all possible methods to infuse, very early, into the tender and flexible minds of children, such opinions as are both good in themselves and will be useful to their country, for when deep impressions of these things are made at that age, they follow men through the whole course of their lives, and conduce much to preserve the peace of the government, which suffers by nothing more than by vices that rise out of ill opinions.  The wives of their priests are the most extraordinary women of the whole country; sometimes the women themselves are made priests, though that falls out but seldom, nor are any but ancient widows chosen into that order.
“None of the magistrates have greater honour paid them than is paid the priests; and if they should happen to commit any crime, they would not be questioned for it; their punishment is left to God, and to their own consciences; for they do not think it lawful to lay hands on any man, how wicked soever he is, that has been in a peculiar manner dedicated to God; nor do they find any great inconvenience in this, both because they have so few priests, and because these are chosen with much caution, so that it must be a very unusual thing to find one who, merely out of regard to his virtue, and for his being esteemed a singularly good man, was raised up to so great a dignity, degenerate into corruption and vice; and if such a thing should fall out, for man is a changeable creature, yet, there being few priests, and these having no authority but what rises out of the respect that is paid them, nothing of great consequence to the public can proceed from the indemnity that the priests enjoy.
“They have, indeed, very few of them, lest greater numbers sharing in the same honour might make the dignity of that order, which they esteem so highly, to sink in its reputation; they also think it difficult to find out many of such an exalted pitch of goodness as to be equal to that dignity, which demands the exercise of more than ordinary virtues.  Nor are the priests in greater veneration among them than they are among their neighbouring nations, as you may imagine by that which I think gives occasion for it.
“When the Utopians engage in battle, the priests who accompany them to the war, apparelled in their sacred vestments, kneel down during the action (in a place not far from the field), and, lifting up their hands to heaven, pray, first for peace, and then for victory to their own side, and particularly that it may be gained without the effusion of much blood on either side; and when the victory turns to their side, they run in among their own men to restrain their fury; and if any of their enemies see them or call to them, they are preserved by that means; and such as can come so near them as to touch their garments have not only their lives, but their fortunes secured to them; it is upon this account that all the nations round about consider them so much, and treat them with such reverence, that they have been often no less able to preserve their own people from the fury of their enemies than to save their enemies from their rage; for it has sometimes fallen out, that when their armies have been in disorder and forced to fly, so that their enemies were running upon the slaughter and spoil, the priests by interposing have separated them from one another, and stopped the effusion of more blood; so that, by their mediation, a peace has been concluded on very reasonable terms; nor is there any nation about them so fierce, cruel, or barbarous, as not to look upon their persons as sacred and inviolable.
“The first and the last day of the month, and of the year, is a festival; they measure their months by the course of the moon, and their years by the course of the sun: the first days are called in their language the Cynemernes, and the last the Trapemernes, which answers in our language, to the festival that begins or ends the season.
“They have magnificent temples, that are not only nobly built, but extremely spacious, which is the more necessary as they have so few of them; they are a little dark within, which proceeds not from any error in the architecture, but is done with design; for their priests think that too much light dissipates the thoughts, and that a more moderate degree of it both recollects the mind and raises devotion.  Though there are many different forms of religion among them, yet all these, how various soever, agree in the main point, which is the worshipping the Divine Essence; and, therefore, there is nothing to be seen or heard in their temples in which the several persuasions among them may not agree; for every sect performs those rites that are peculiar to it in their private houses, nor is there anything in the public worship that contradicts the particular ways of those different sects.  There are no images for God in their temples, so that every one may represent Him to his thoughts according to the way of his religion; nor do they call this one God by any other name but that of Mithras, which is the common name by which they all express the Divine Essence, whatsoever otherwise they think it to be; nor are there any prayers among them but such as every one of them may use without prejudice to his own opinion.
“They meet in their temples on the evening of the festival that concludes a season, and not having yet broke their fast, they thank God for their good success during that year or month which is then at an end; and the next day, being that which begins the new season, they meet early in their temples, to pray for the happy progress of all their affairs during that period upon which they then enter.  In the festival which concludes the period, before they go to the temple, both wives and children fall on their knees before their husbands or parents and confess everything in which they have either erred or failed in their duty, and beg pardon for it.  Thus all little discontents in families are removed, that they may offer up their devotions with a pure and serene mind; for they hold it a great impiety to enter upon them with disturbed thoughts, or with a consciousness of their bearing hatred or anger in their hearts to any person whatsoever; and think that they should become liable to severe punishments if they presumed to offer sacrifices without cleansing their hearts, and reconciling all their differences.  In the temples the two sexes are separated, the men go to the right hand, and the women to the left; and the males and females all place themselves before the head and master or mistress of the family to which they belong, so that those who have the government of them at home may see their deportment in public.  And they intermingle them so, that the younger and the older may be set by one another; for if the younger sort were all set together, they would, perhaps, trifle away that time too much in which they ought to beget in themselves that religious dread of the Supreme Being which is the greatest and almost the only incitement to virtue.
“They offer up no living creature in sacrifice, nor do they think it suitable to the Divine Being, from whose bounty it is that these creatures have derived their lives, to take pleasure in their deaths, or the offering up their blood.  They burn incense and other sweet odours, and have a great number of wax lights during their worship, not out of any imagination that such oblations can add anything to the divine nature (which even prayers cannot do), but as it is a harmless and pure way of worshipping God; so they think those sweet savours and lights, together with some other ceremonies, by a secret and unaccountable virtue, elevate men’s souls, and inflame them with greater energy and cheerfulness during the divine worship.
“All the people appear in the temples in white garments; but the priest’s vestments are parti-coloured, and both the work and colours are wonderful.  They are made of no rich materials, for they are neither embroidered nor set with precious stones; but are composed of the plumes of several birds, laid together with so much art, and so neatly, that the true value of them is far beyond the costliest materials.  They say, that in the ordering and placing those plumes some dark mysteries are represented, which pass down among their priests in a secret tradition concerning them; and that they are as hieroglyphics, putting them in mind of the blessing that they have received from God, and of their duties, both to Him and to their neighbours.  As soon as the priest appears in those ornaments, they all fall prostrate on the ground, with so much reverence and so deep a silence, that such as look on cannot but be struck with it, as if it were the effect of the appearance of a deity.  After they have been for some time in this posture, they all stand up, upon a sign given by the priest, and sing hymns to the honour of God, some musical instruments playing all the while.  These are quite of another form than those used among us; but, as many of them are much sweeter than ours, so others are made use of by us.  Yet in one thing they very much exceed us: all their music, both vocal and instrumental, is adapted to imitate and express the passions, and is so happily suited to every occasion, that, whether the subject of the hymn be cheerful, or formed to soothe or trouble the mind, or to express grief or remorse, the music takes the impression of whatever is represented, affects and kindles the passions, and works the sentiments deep into the hearts of the hearers.  When this is done, both priests and people offer up very solemn prayers to God in a set form of words; and these are so composed, that whatsoever is pronounced by the whole assembly may be likewise applied by every man in particular to his own condition.  In these they acknowledge God to be the author and governor of the world, and the fountain of all the good they receive, and therefore offer up to him their thanksgiving; and, in particular, bless him for His goodness in ordering it so, that they are born under the happiest government in the world, and are of a religion which they hope is the truest of all others; but, if they are mistaken, and if there is either a better government, or a religion more acceptable to God, they implore His goodness to let them know it, vowing that they resolve to follow him whithersoever he leads them; but if their government is the best, and their religion the truest, then they pray that He may fortify them in it, and bring all the world both to the same rules of life, and to the same opinions concerning Himself, unless, according to the unsearchableness of His mind, He is pleased with a variety of religions.  Then they pray that God may give them an easy passage at last to Himself, not presuming to set limits to Him, how early or late it should be; but, if it may be wished for without derogating from His supreme authority, they desire to be quickly delivered, and to be taken to Himself, though by the most terrible kind of death, rather than to be detained long from seeing Him by the most prosperous course of life.  When this prayer is ended, they all fall down again upon the ground; and, after a little while, they rise up, go home to dinner, and spend the rest of the day in diversion or military exercises.
“Thus have I described to you, as particularly as I could, the Constitution of that commonwealth, which I do not only think the best in the world, but indeed the only commonwealth that truly deserves that name.  In all other places it is visible that, while people talk of a commonwealth, every man only seeks his own wealth; but there, where no man has any property, all men zealously pursue the good of the public, and, indeed, it is no wonder to see men act so differently, for in other commonwealths every man knows that, unless he provides for himself, how flourishing soever the commonwealth may be, he must die of hunger, so that he sees the necessity of preferring his own concerns to the public; but in Utopia, where every man has a right to everything, they all know that if care is taken to keep the public stores full no private man can want anything; for among them there is no unequal distribution, so that no man is poor, none in necessity, and though no man has anything, yet they are all rich; for what can make a man so rich as to lead a serene and cheerful life, free from anxieties; neither apprehending want himself, nor vexed with the endless complaints of his wife?  He is not afraid of the misery of his children, nor is he contriving how to raise a portion for his daughters; but is secure in this, that both he and his wife, his children and grand-children, to as many generations as he can fancy, will all live both plentifully and happily; since, among them, there is no less care taken of those who were once engaged in labour, but grow afterwards unable to follow it, than there is, elsewhere, of these that continue still employed.  I would gladly hear any man compare the justice that is among them with that of all other nations; among whom, may I perish, if I see anything that looks either like justice or equity; for what justice is there in this: that a nobleman, a goldsmith, a banker, or any other man, that either does nothing at all, or, at best, is employed in things that are of no use to the public, should live in great luxury and splendour upon what is so ill acquired, and a mean man, a carter, a smith, or a ploughman, that works harder even than the beasts themselves, and is employed in labours so necessary, that no commonwealth could hold out a year without them, can only earn so poor a livelihood and must lead so miserable a life, that the condition of the beasts is much better than theirs?  For as the beasts do not work so constantly, so they feed almost as well, and with more pleasure, and have no anxiety about what is to come, whilst these men are depressed by a barren and fruitless employment, and tormented with the apprehensions of want in their old age; since that which they get by their daily labour does but maintain them at present, and is consumed as fast as it comes in, there is no overplus left to lay up for old age.
“Is not that government both unjust and ungrateful, that is so prodigal of its favours to those that are called gentlemen, or goldsmiths, or such others who are idle, or live either by flattery or by contriving the arts of vain pleasure, and, on the other hand, takes no care of those of a meaner sort, such as ploughmen, colliers, and smiths, without whom it could not subsist?  But after the public has reaped all the advantage of their service, and they come to be oppressed with age, sickness, and want, all their labours and the good they have done is forgotten, and all the recompense given them is that they are left to die in great misery.  The richer sort are often endeavouring to bring the hire of labourers lower, not only by their fraudulent practices, but by the laws which they procure to be made to that effect, so that though it is a thing most unjust in itself to give such small rewards to those who deserve so well of the public, yet they have given those hardships the name and colour of justice, by procuring laws to be made for regulating them.
“Therefore I must say that, as I hope for mercy, I can have no other notion of all the other governments that I see or know, than that they are a conspiracy of the rich, who, on pretence of managing the public, only pursue their private ends, and devise all the ways and arts they can find out; first, that they may, without danger, preserve all that they have so ill-acquired, and then, that they may engage the poor to toil and labour for them at as low rates as possible, and oppress them as much as they please; and if they can but prevail to get these contrivances established by the show of public authority, which is considered as the representative of the whole people, then they are accounted laws; yet these wicked men, after they have, by a most insatiable covetousness, divided that among themselves with which all the rest might have been well supplied, are far from that happiness that is enjoyed among the Utopians; for the use as well as the desire of money being extinguished, much anxiety and great occasions of mischief is cut off with it, and who does not see that the frauds, thefts, robberies, quarrels, tumults, contentions, seditions, murders, treacheries, and witchcrafts, which are, indeed, rather punished than restrained by the seventies of law, would all fall off, if money were not any more valued by the world?  Men’s fears, solicitudes, cares, labours, and watchings would all perish in the same moment with the value of money; even poverty itself, for the relief of which money seems most necessary, would fall.  But, in order to the apprehending this aright, take one instance:—
“Consider any year, that has been so unfruitful that many thousands have died of hunger; and yet if, at the end of that year, a survey was made of the granaries of all the rich men that have hoarded up the corn, it would be found that there was enough among them to have prevented all that consumption of men that perished in misery; and that, if it had been distributed among them, none would have felt the terrible effects of that scarcity: so easy a thing would it be to supply all the necessities of life, if that blessed thing called money, which is pretended to be invented for procuring them was not really the only thing that obstructed their being procured!
“I do not doubt but rich men are sensible of this, and that they well know how much a greater happiness it is to want nothing necessary, than to abound in many superfluities; and to be rescued out of so much misery, than to abound with so much wealth: and I cannot think but the sense of every man’s interest, added to the authority of Christ’s commands, who, as He was infinitely wise, knew what was best, and was not less good in discovering it to us, would have drawn all the world over to the laws of the Utopians, if pride, that plague of human nature, that source of so much misery, did not hinder it; for this vice does not measure happiness so much by its own conveniences, as by the miseries of others; and would not be satisfied with being thought a goddess, if none were left that were miserable, over whom she might insult.  Pride thinks its own happiness shines the brighter, by comparing it with the misfortunes of other persons; that by displaying its own wealth they may feel their poverty the more sensibly.  This is that infernal serpent that creeps into the breasts of mortals, and possesses them too much to be easily drawn out; and, therefore, I am glad that the Utopians have fallen upon this form of government, in which I wish that all the world could be so wise as to imitate them; for they have, indeed, laid down such a scheme and foundation of policy, that as men live happily under it, so it is like to be of great continuance; for they having rooted out of the minds of their people all the seeds, both of ambition and faction, there is no danger of any commotions at home; which alone has been the ruin of many states that seemed otherwise to be well secured; but as long as they live in peace at home, and are governed by such good laws, the envy of all their neighbouring princes, who have often, though in vain, attempted their ruin, will never be able to put their state into any commotion or disorder.”
When Raphael had thus made an end of speaking, though many things occurred to me, both concerning the manners and laws of that people, that seemed very absurd, as well in their way of making war, as in their notions of religion and divine matters—together with several other particulars, but chiefly what seemed the foundation of all the rest, their living in common, without the use of money, by which all nobility, magnificence, splendour, and majesty, which, according to the common opinion, are the true ornaments of a nation, would be quite taken away—yet since I perceived that Raphael was weary, and was not sure whether he could easily bear contradiction, remembering that he had taken notice of some, who seemed to think they were bound in honour to support the credit of their own wisdom, by finding out something to censure in all other men’s inventions, besides their own, I only commended their Constitution, and the account he had given of it in general; and so, taking him by the hand, carried him to supper, and told him I would find out some other time for examining this subject more particularly, and for discoursing more copiously upon it.  And, indeed, I shall be glad to embrace an opportunity of doing it.  In the meanwhile, though it must be confessed that he is both a very learned man and a person who has obtained a great knowledge of the world, I cannot perfectly agree to everything he has related.  However, there are many things in the commonwealth of Utopia that I rather wish, than hope, to see followed in our governments.
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FIlm Review on the movie Jezebel Made in 1938 Starring Bette Davis and Henry Fonda

FIlm Review on the movie Jezebel Made in 1938 Starring Bette Davis and Henry Fonda
Here is the synopsis: In New Orleans, in 1850, Julie Marsden, a strong-willed Southern belle, is engaged to marry Preston Dillard, a prominent New Orleans banker with an equally strong mind. Their struggle for supremacy in the relationship comes to a head the night of a traditional ball to which unmarried women are expected to wear white, but Julie defiantly insists on wearing red. Pres is shocked, but ultimately agrees to escort her. At the ball, Julie begins to regret her decision, but Pres forces her to dance, and afterward ends their engagement. In disbelief, Julie waits for Pres to apologize, but he stands his ground, leaving for the North on business. When he returns, she humbles herself in front of him, begging for forgiveness, but it is too late. Pres has married a Yankee, Amy Bradford, and asks Julie to accept his wife without bitterness. The growing threat of yellow fever in New Orleans has forced Julie and her Aunt Belle to move to their country plantation. There they entertain the Dillards, Pres’s younger brother Ted, and one of Julie’s persistent suitors, the rebellious Buck Cantrell. At dinner, Pres and Buck argue politics, but Pres is called to town and it is Ted who finishes the argument in a duel with Buck. Buck is killed, and Pres is struck down with fever. Julie sneaks through the fever line with the help of her servant, Gros Bat. In town, Dr. Livingstone tells Julie that Pres must go to the leper colony for quarantine. Amy, accompanied by Ted and Aunt Belle, follows Julie, and as Pres’s wife, she insists on attending to him. In a final confrontation, Julie convinces Amy that her ignorance of Southern ways means certain death for them both. Amy acquiesces, and Julie rides into the night at Pres’s side.

Explaining a Concept Research Paper (3) – Assignment

Explaining a Concept Research Paper (3) – Assignment
Unit 11: Explaining a Concept Research Paper (1) – Assignment
Major Paper #4–Explaining a Concept Research Paper
We will be working on the Explaining a Concept Paper for the next four units, as this is the longest paper you will write for this class.  The Explaining a Concept Paper will be due at the end of Unit 14.
In the Explaining a Concept Paper, you will simply want to explain a concept of your choice, using research to support your explanations/definitions.  This paper should be at least 4-6 pages long, it should include at least two sources, and it should accomplish the following:
*Inform your particular audience about a specific subject.
*Present information confidently and efficiently.
*Use established information for support, as well as personal “evidence” (if applicable) such as short anecdotes and examples from your own experience, or the experience of others.
*Maintain an informative tone (not an argumentative tone, as this is not an argumentative or persuasive paper).
Unit 11 is designed to familiarize you with the Explaining a Concept paper, and to help you choose a topic.  I would like each of you to discuss your topic ideas on the discussion board this unit.
Looking ahead, Unit 12 will discuss strategies to consider in terms of your approach to this paper, and Unit 13 will explain the basic structure of papers such as this.  Unit 14 is designed to give you time to revise.
* abortion
* capital punishment
* euthanasia
These topics are far too controversial for the Explaining a Concept Research Paper, which should be informative (not persuasive) in its purpose.  Also, I’ve already read more papers on these topics than anyone should in an entire lifetime, so I won’t read anymore. I encourage you to be more creative in selecting your topic.
***
Please be sure to review the Submitting Your Assignment of Unit #14 section for specific instructions on how you should turn in your work for grading. The Explaining a Concept Research Paper is due at the end of Unit #14.
Unit 12: Explaining a Concept Research Paper (2) – Assignment
Complete pages 166-168 in the 9th edition textbook, “Considering Explanatory Strategies,” “Defining Your Purpose for your Readers,” and “Formulating a Tentative Thesis Statement.”  You do not need to turn this assignment in to me; it is for your reference only.
(If you have the 8th edition textbook, please complete pages 173-174.  If you have the 7th edition, please complete pages 241-242.)
Please be sure to review the Submitting Your Assignment of Unit #14 section for specific instructions on how you should turn in your work for grading. The Explaining a Concept Research Paper is due at the end of Unit #14.
***
REMINDER: Papers on the following topics will not be accepted:
* abortion
* capital punishment
* euthanasia
These topics are far too controversial for the Explaining a Concept Research Paper, which should be informative (not persuasive) in its purpose. Also, I’ve already read more papers on these topics than anyone should in an entire lifetime, so I won’t read anymore. I encourage you to be more creative in selecting your topic.
***
Unit 13: Explaining a Concept Research Paper (3) – Assignment
Complete a full draft of your Explaining a Concept Paper with Research.  See this unit’s lesson for specific requirements.
Please be sure to review the Submitting Your Assignment of Unit #14 section for specific instructions on how you should turn in your work for grading. The Explaining a Concept Research Paper is due at the end of Unit #14.
***
REMINDER: Papers on the following topics will not be accepted:
* abortion
* capital punishment
* euthanasia
These topics are far too controversial for the Explaining a Concept Research Paper, which should be informative (not persuasive) in its purpose. Also, I’ve already read more papers on these topics than anyone should in an entire lifetime, so I won’t read anymore. I encourage you to be more creative in selecting your topic.
In this unit, you will want to revise your own work to the best possible quality.  I strongly recommend that in addition to reviewing your work yourself, you find yourself an outside reader—someone who will read your work and offer you suggestions for revisions.
You have two options in choosing an outside reader:
1.)  You can find someone on your own to read your work (ie. your spouse, one of your kids, a friend, a neighbor).
2.) You can sign up for the Peer Review Option by emailing me.  (I’ll set up an email list, so that you and 2-3 of your classmates can email each other your drafts and get feedback.)
Please be sure to review the Submitting Your Assignment of Unit #14 section for specific instructions on how you should turn in your work for grading. The Explaining a Concept Research Paper is due at the end of Unit #14.
2.
Tariffs and Import duties
make 10 slides of PPT. You have to make sure the PPT slide should be well organized, attractive, relate to the topic. To do so you have to use related picture, charts, tables or any other tools to make it good looking. You might need to review the speech to do any adjustments if needed.

Administrative Assistant (OA) GS-303-07

Administrative Assistant (OA) GS-303-07
A.  INTRODUCTION
This position is located in the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).  The employee provides administrative support and office management services for the assigned office and subordinate teams and/or staff.
B.  MAJOR DUTIES
Administrative Support
1.         Performs a variety of administrative duties involving preparation of a wide variety of forms, requests, and reports; communication and coordination with various administrative management divisions (e.g., Human Resources, Management Services, etc.) within the Agency; and, maintenance of control and tracking mechanisms to ensure timely delivery of services. Tasks include preparation of personnel requests, training forms, new employee forms, time and attendance reports, supply and equipment requisitions and inventory reports, and other logistical and management services requests and any associated justifications and/or reports as necessary.  Conducts process reviews of administrative work tasks to
ensure efficiency and effectiveness.
2.     Makes arrangements for domestic, international, and/or invitational travel.  Coordinates schedules of visits, transportation and hotel reservations.  As necessary, keeps in contact with the supervisor en route and submits travel vouchers upon completion of trip.
3.     Makes arrangements for meetings and conferences; including gathering background materials, and notifying participants.
Records and File Management
4.     Manages files and records:  establishes and maintains office records, procedures, reference materials and technical subject matter files and is responsible for records disposal and disposition.  Stays abreast of new and revised Agency and/or Departmental records management policies and procedures, including those for classified materials, and circulates such material concerning procedural changes and policy matters that affect program operations.  Ensures the confidentiality of personnel and other confidential records as appropriate.
5.         Searches for, locates, assembles and summarizes material from the files or other sources for use by management in solving problems, for use in meetings and conferences, in replying to requests for information, in preparation of reports, and the development, and in coordination and general administration of office functions.
Office Management
6.     Relieves the supervisor and/or subordinate team leaders of as many details as possible by referring phone calls, visitors and mail to the appropriate employee or disposing of them personally, bringing to the supervisor’s  attention only matters requiring personal attention or which are of major importance.  Follows up on suspense items and project deadlines.
7.     Receives, reviews and distributes incoming correspondence requiring technical consideration(s) by the supervisor and/or staff member based upon content and knowledge of program functions and staff assignments.  Independently or based on brief oral instructions, drafts a variety of non-technical correspondence.  Reviews outgoing correspondence for clarity, procedural and grammatical accuracy and conformance to
policy.  When necessary, tactfully returns correspondence to writers explaining the nature of the discrepancy or makes the correction independently.  Takes necessary action to ensure that reports and replies are completed on schedule.
Office Automation
8.         Uses various office automation hardware and software to prepare memoranda, letters and reports in fmal form or in rough draft as requested by originators.  Works independently in accordance with a variety of standard procedures to create, edit, store, retrieve, transmit and print a variety of standard and nonstandard documents.  Keeps abreast of changing hardware/software advancements.
9.     Provides a variety of assistance and guidance to subordinate support staff.
C. FACTORS
Factor 1: Knowledge Required by the Position
Detailed knowledge of various administrative policies and procedures to prepare correspondence, request personnel services and training, arrange travel, prepare and maintain leave records, requisition office supplies, and maintain subject matter records and files.
General knowledge of the mission and functions ofthe office as related to the administrative support functions to ensure adequate administrative support and thus facilitate the timely completion of work assignments by office personnel.
Knowledge of the functions of other offices within FHWA and the Department of Transportation. Knowledge of proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, correspondence procedures and required
formats sufficient to recognize and correct errors in correspondence and reports.
Skill in operating a word processor and/or personal computer with standard keyboard and function keys and associated peripherals, including printers and disk drives.  Uses this skill to produce
work accurately and efficiently.  A fully qualified typist with knowledge of relevant office
automation systems is required. Factor 2: Supervisory Controls
Performs the major portion of tasks on the basis of own initiative and judgment.  Guidance furnished by the supervisor is confmed for the most part to methods of approach on new and complex problems and tasks.  Work performed is accomplished on the basis on knowledge acquired by the employee of the programs and objectives of the organization, office policies and procedures, applicable regulations and guidelines, and the supervisor’s view concerning administrative matters and work operations.  The employee’s contact work is reviewed for presentation, coverage and compliance with basic office policies and procedures.  The overall effectiveness of the work is reviewed primarily to ensure office efficiency and effectiveness.
Factor 3: Guidelines
Guidelines typically include dictionaries; style manuals; Agency directives concerning matters such as correspondence, the handling of classified materials, requests for personnel services and training, time and attendance records, records maintenance and various regulations; and unwritten operating policies and practices of the office and the Agency.  The employee is required to interpret and adapt guidelines in order to resolve administrative operating problems, and to provide instructions and assistance to other support employees.
Factor 4: Complexity
The employee must possess a good working knowledge of the basic program functions of the office and general knowledge of key action items and activities of other organizations of the Agency as they affect the work of the office.
The employee performs a full range of administrative support functions.  As such, the work involves many different and unrelated processes and methods and planning for the delivery of services.  Decisions regarding what needs to be done and actions to be taken generally involve choosing among established alternatives, but many also include the assessment of unusual circumstances, variations in approach, and incomplete or conflicting data.  Decisions are based on knowledge of the assignments, assessment of data and any unusual circumstances, procedural requirements, and the functions of the office.
Factor 5: Scope and Effect
The employee relieves the supervisor of matters not requiring his/her attention.  The services provided by the employee affect the adequacy of the work environment and operations and thus contribute to successful mission accomplishment. Employee handles numerous contacts with other FHWA offices on behalf of the supervisor concerning requests for service, and advice and assistance, thus impacting the relationship of the office with other organizations.  Employee’s contact work with external entities and the public could impact public/external opinion of the Agency.
Factor 6: Personal Contacts
Personal contacts are with employees of the immediate office, office managers and/or team leadersand staff specialists at higher echelons.  Employee also may interact with other Federal
and non-Federal agencies, Congressional offices, and the general public, who deal with the office on a broad range of matters.
Factor 7: Purpose of Contacts
The purpose of the contacts is to plan, coordinate or advise on administrative services, to exchange information, or to resolve operating problems.  This includes ensuring that reports and responses
to correspondence are submitted by staff members on time and in the proper format, and making domestic and/or international travel arrangements and scheduling conferences.
Factor 8: Physical Demands
The work is primarily sedentary in nature.  However, there is a moderate level of bending, lifting/carrying of light office items (e.g., manuals, folders, etc.)
Factor 9: Work Environment
The work is performed in an office setting.
COMPETENCIES
Sections A-Care the basis for the classification of this position.  The competency section is included to provide information on the relationship of Professional/Discipline,  Corporate, and Leadership competencies to the position and does not directly impact the title, series, or grade.  Proficiency level designations are based on the FHWA 5-point scale as follows:  1=Awareness; 2=Basic;
3=Intermediate; 4=Advanced; and 5=Expert.  The default proficiency levels are listed below. Managers may need to make adjustments to a higher or lower proficiency level, depending on the specific needs of the job.
Administrative Competencies    Duty Requiring
Competency    Proficiency Level
1.  Customer Service    All    3
2.   Internal  Controls    1    2
3.   Learning and Development
Coordination    1    2
4.   Time and Attendance    1    2
5.   Travel Management    2,3    3
6.   Property  Management    1    2
7.   Correspondence Management    4,5,6,7    3
8.   Time Management    All    3
9.   Project  Management    All    3
10. Human Resources    1    2

FIlm Review on the movie Jezebel Made in 1938 Starring Bette Davis and Henry Fonda

FIlm Review on the movie Jezebel Made in 1938 Starring Bette Davis and Henry Fonda
Here is the synopsis: In New Orleans, in 1850, Julie Marsden, a strong-willed Southern belle, is engaged to marry Preston Dillard, a prominent New Orleans banker with an equally strong mind. Their struggle for supremacy in the relationship comes to a head the night of a traditional ball to which unmarried women are expected to wear white, but Julie defiantly insists on wearing red. Pres is shocked, but ultimately agrees to escort her. At the ball, Julie begins to regret her decision, but Pres forces her to dance, and afterward ends their engagement. In disbelief, Julie waits for Pres to apologize, but he stands his ground, leaving for the North on business. When he returns, she humbles herself in front of him, begging for forgiveness, but it is too late. Pres has married a Yankee, Amy Bradford, and asks Julie to accept his wife without bitterness. The growing threat of yellow fever in New Orleans has forced Julie and her Aunt Belle to move to their country plantation. There they entertain the Dillards, Pres’s younger brother Ted, and one of Julie’s persistent suitors, the rebellious Buck Cantrell. At dinner, Pres and Buck argue politics, but Pres is called to town and it is Ted who finishes the argument in a duel with Buck. Buck is killed, and Pres is struck down with fever. Julie sneaks through the fever line with the help of her servant, Gros Bat. In town, Dr. Livingstone tells Julie that Pres must go to the leper colony for quarantine. Amy, accompanied by Ted and Aunt Belle, follows Julie, and as Pres’s wife, she insists on attending to him. In a final confrontation, Julie convinces Amy that her ignorance of Southern ways means certain death for them both. Amy acquiesces, and Julie rides into the night at Pres’s side.

Nursing Education

Nursing Education
1.  READ the following:
•    Chapter 10: Child Health
•    Chapter 11: Communicable Diseases
2.  READ the following four (4) articles related to nursing education systems around the globe (Ireland, Kenya, Poland, China). CLICK on the PDF files.
•    O’Dwyer, P.  (2007). The educational preparation of nurses in Ireland. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(3), 136-139. [PDF file]
•    Mule, G.K.  (1986). Nursing education in Kenya: Trends and innovations.  International Nursing Review, 33(3), 83-86. [PDF file]
•    Sztembis, B.  (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities. International Nursing Review, 53(2), 102-109. [PDF file]
•    Xu, Y., Xu, Z., & Zhang, J.  (2000). The nursing education system in the People’s Republic of China: Evolution, structure and reform. International Nursing Review, 47(4), 207-217. [PDF file]
3.   WRITE a 750 word paper CCOMPARE the nursing education systems of the two (2) of the countries in the above journal articles.  See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements and answering the following:
•    HEADING: Political History and Development of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Describe how the political history of the country influenced nursing education in your selected (2) countries. How did nursing education develop?
•    HEADING: Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Which government agency(ies) or organizations influenced the training of nurses and how did the agency(ies) do that?  Did nursing organizations play a role?
•    HEADING: Current System of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    According to the article, what is the current system for educating nurses in the selected counties?  Are there diploma (hospital-based) schools?  Has nursing education moved into university settings?  Is there a combination of nursing education programs (similar to U.S. system) to train nurses?
•    HEADING:  Post-Graduate (Masters) Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Is post-graduate (masters) education for nurses available?
•    HEADING: Reflections on Nursing Education in [Selected Countries]
o    In conclusion, what surprised you about nursing education in the countries that you selected?

Compare and Contrast 2 Museum Websites

Compare and Contrast 2 Museum Websites
I need an essay comparing/contrasting 2 Museum websites. One is the Frist Center for Visual Arts http://www.fristcenter.com and the Second is The National Gallery of Art http://www.nga.gov This essay must have a point to its comparison/contrast; do not just list details for each website. I need a works cited page that cites the websited you visited. This must be at LEAST 5 paragraphs. You do not have to include quotations in this essay, just stick to making your own observation instead of quoting material from the website.

Stone, Deborah. 2012. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. Third Edition. W.W. Norton and Company

Stone, Deborah. 2012. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. Third Edition. W.W. Norton and Company
Read the book “Stone, Deborah. 2012. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. Third Edition. W.W. Norton and Company.” Analyse it an apply it to the hearing provided. The book is the primary source and use the hearing as an example of how the policies in the book are applied there.
1. Organize the paper into the following four sections: Goals, Problems, Solutions, and Conclusions.
2.  Remember to write an introductory paragraph.
The structure of your introductory paragraph should look very similar to the following:
The impact of illegal immigration on the US has led to a renewed interest in the topic of immigration reform.  The following paper uses a recent Senate hearing entitled (hearing title) to analyze different policy positions addressing this topic.  Using Stone’s policy analysis categories, the paper analyzes how hearing witnesses define goals, construct problems, and promote solutions.  The paper is organized into four sections that use Stone’s theory to understand the problem.  The first section analyzes how the goals of immigration reform are shaped by the policy goals of (insert Stone goal) and (insert Stone goal).  The second section explains how the problems of (insert Stone problem) and (insert Stone problem) shape the discussion of immigration.  The third section illustrates how the solutions of (insert Stone solution) and (insert Stone solution) relate to the problems and goals discussed in the hearing.  In the final section, the previous examples are used to explain how Stone’s, Polis model fits the policymaking process better than the marketplace model.
3.  In the section on goals use the testimony from the hearing participants (try to include both Senators and witnesses) to find examples of two of the four types of goals discussed by Stone (equity, efficiency, security, liberty).  The section should identify the goal, give an example, and explain how the example illustrates Stone’s ideas.
4. Using Stone’s example of tradeoffs find one example of how the witnesses refer to tradeoffs and explain how it illustrates Stone’s ideas..
5. In the section on problems, use the testimony from the witnesses to find examples of two types of problem definition strategies discussed by Stone (Symbols, Numbers, Causes, Interests, Decisions).  The section should identify the problem, give an example of how the witness uses the strategy to define the problem, and explain how the example illustrates Stone’s ideas.
6. In the section on solutions use the testimony from the hearing to find examples of two types of solutions discussed by Stone (inducements, rules, facts, rights, powers).  The section should identify the solution, give an example of how witnesses construct the solution, and explain how the example illustrates Stone’s ideas.
7.  In the conclusion, you need to explain how the examples from the sections support Stone’s idea of policymaking in the Polis.
8. Please provide references in your paper by giving me Stone’s name and page number in parentheses or the hearing page number at the end of the section in which you used the reference (eg. Stone, 92) .  If you use outside materials please include a reference page with bibliographical information (author, year, title, publishing information, and page numbers).
9.  Remember one of the main goals of the paper is to demonstrate that you understand Stone.  This means that you need to use Stone’s language when you are explaining the strengths and weaknesses of the positions provided in the reading.
10.  If you have any questions please contact me.
Checklist:
1. Introductory paragraph
2. Four Sections addressing the following:  a) two of Stone’s goals and one tradeoff, b) three of Stones causes, c) two of Stone’s Solutions, and  d) conclusion discussing Polis.
3. References (when in doubt quote it and reference it)
Example of an analytical paragraph from a past student’s paper:
Another problem Dr. Batten alludes to is described through numbers.  He states: “The United States possesses only 2-3 percent of the estimated world oil reserves, but it consumes 25 percent of the world’s oil, and U.S.’s oil production has dropped relentlessly for the past 20 years.”  This statement is loaded with numbers and statistics.  Rather than simply say, “The United States owns a small margin of the world’s oil while consuming a great amount,” Batten paints a very vivid picture and describes a very compelling story.  The numbers signify our lack of control and dominance in the energy sphere and our reliance on others, not only in the present but in the past.  He also implies that unless our ways our augmented, such as reducing our demand, then things will continue to worsen.  This supports Stone’s theory that numbers “…are the premier language for stories of decline and decay.  Figures are invoked to show that a problem is getting bigger and worse, or to project present trends into the future to demonstrate that decline is just around the bend.

Legal Questions

Legal Questions
Read the following facts. Using only principles, concepts and law discussed in BUSN1019 (including the Partnership Act 1891 (SA)), answer each question:
Re-read the “Notes on Answering Legal Questions” commencing on page 14 of the Topic
Guide and Barron pages xxii – xxiv (7th Ed). Conciseness of expression is important in
answering this assignment, so please do not exceed the word limit! Answer all questions.
Clearly number each answer to each question. All assignments must contain full
acknowledgement of sources and failure to adequately reference sources via footnotes, and
include a Bibliography at the end of the paper, amounts to plagiarism and will result in a
“Fail” grade for this part of the assessment. Use the “Business Law Style Guide”
commencing        on     page     60      of     the    Topic       Guide     or      see:
http://mulr.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/AGLC3.
If you wish to submit your assignment answer as part of a group:
(maximum of 3 students per group)
You have the OPTION of submitting your assignments on a group basis. Group work can
allow for the benefit of shared understandings and many people (but certainly not all), learn
better if they work with others. However, this is an option: if you do not wish to work in a
group, or have trouble organising a group to work with, you may simply submit your own
work for individual assessment.
If you wish to submit your assignment answer as part of a group:
1. Select your own group of 2 or 3 people (no more!).
2. All members of the group should sign their own cover sheet (including the word
count) and all cover sheets should be stapled (in family name alphabetical
order) to the front of the assignment.
3. Lodge ONE COPY ONLY of the assignment with 2 or 3 coversheets (depending
on the size of the group) attached in family name alphabetical order.
4. One mark will be allocated for the assignment and this will be the mark assigned
to each group member.
5. Group management issues are the responsibility of the members of the group and
not the teaching staff. Remember: whatever one member contributes to the
assignment, and any consequences that flow from that contribution, is the
responsibility of the group and all members must bear the consequences.
6. If you have difficulty locating others who might like to work in a group with you,
use BUSN1019’s FLO’s discussion board to nominate your interest and locate
others who might live near you or otherwise be likely candidates to work with you.
Read the following facts. Using only principles, concepts and law discussed in BUSN1019
(including the Partnership Act 1891 (SA)), answer each question:
Helen Wong is atalented fashion designer who has recently wona number of awards in fashion design in Australia.She has  been dreaming of setting up her ownline.Her Former design  teacher  Mario,being impressed by the recent achievement of his starstudent,suggests that they set up a business together. Mario’s idea is that Helen should assist him in designing luxurious clothing for a niche market, the target  being young famous movie stars and  young top models who need exquisitely designed clothes for special occasions. Helen should be mainlyresponsible For approaching potential clients to find out what they need and make sketches  to  be approvedby Mario  and to be produced upon Mario’s approval. Mario suggests  that the as the scale  of the business will probably  be  mall,  they  should  hire Mario’s  friend  Peter to  be in charge of the    accounting      and administration  work. The proposed  business  will  be run out of  Mario’s    property  which is in a      commercial building      .
1.
Helen asks you for advice on  the most  appropriate form of  business  structure for the proposed  business. Advise  Helen  on the  options  in  respect  of     business structures, the advantages and  disadvantages of     each structure and your Recommendations.Helen and Mario have finally decided to set up their  business  as  a  general  partnership and  would  like  to call  their  business  “chic couture”. Helen and Mario  have  decided that Helen  will  be  responsible for  buying  the office equipment and  equipment  for  sketching designs while    Mario will be  responsible  for  sourcing  and     buying  fabrics and all the  necessary accessories for  producing clothing  for  clients. It  was agreed  that     neither  of them  could make  any  single  purchase  above  $3,000  without     the  other’s  consent.
2.Advise Helenon what she needs to do to establish this partnership.THe  business is a success and continues      to flourish. Helen and  Mario decide to go on a business trip to Europe to watch fashion  shows and get to know      more fashion icons in the hope of expanding their clientele. As Peterhas to leave Hong Kong to take care      of ome important family affairs he will    also  be away from office.Helen and Mario Thereforedecides  to entrust      their neighbor  Mr. Lee     with the keys    of the    office and ask him to keep watch  of their Office while      they      are away.  While they are gonethere is a fierce typhoon and  the windows in the    office  is broken by the wind      when  the typhoon signal no. 8 is  hoisted. Mr. Lee sees the broken Window and tries to    call Helen and      Mario      to let them know about it. He is unable To get through to either Helen or Mario on their Mobile     phone so      he arranges for    one of his friends, who    is a local contractor, to put a    board over the window and seal it to      ensure no more  water can getinto the office.Unfortunately this work occurred on a  public  holiday  so      the  builder      charged  twice his usual rate. He gives Mr. Lee an invoice of $2,000. Helen returns from the business      trip a    few days before Mario.When she    returns,Mr.Lee    Gives her the Invoice from the    Contractor  . While     thankful that  Mr. Lee    helped to make arrangement to protect the office, she is shocked at the large amount  of
the invoice  and  believes she    should not have to pay it.
3. Advise Helen    whether the partnership    needs to pay the amountstated on the invoice from the contractor.    While Mariois stillin Europe, Helen receives a    large order for    dresses    from a generous    client and Helen needs      to purchase a high performance computerand  the appropriatesoftware from High Tec Supplies  Pty Ltd. to do ketches
for  this client  within a short period     of time. The high performance computer and the    software will Costs  more    than $3,000. As     the client has    set Helen a deadline formaking the sketches and    Helen wants to show them  to Mario    for approval when he comes back    in a few days, Helen proceeds to purchase he computer and software for$3,500  without  consulting Mario.Subsequently  the  order  from the generous client  falls through  and Helen and  Mario    do not want to pay the bill from High Tec Pty Ltd.
4.  Advise on the position ofHelen, Mario and Mar Mario Art in relation     to the    2,500 bill from     Art Supplies Pty      Ltd.On her business trip to Da Fen,Mario  discovered  that high quality artworks could be produced  by  Chinese  artists      at significantly less cost than the artworks produced  byHelen.  Mario therefore stablished a business producing reproduction artworks paintedby Chinese artists. Mario felt that Helen did not have anything tocontribute to this new business, and she did not want    to hurt Helen’s    feelings, so she did not mention
This  new business venture to Helen.  However,  Helen  subsequently discovers Mario’s  involvement in the new    business. She also discovers that it was Mario’s  new business that ultimately won the contract to supply  the    artworks  for  the  large  new office  building.
5. Advise Helen what, if any,rights she may  have arising from the above.Following the difficulties between Helen and Mario discussed above, they decide that they can no longer continue in Business  together. They  agree  to end the MarMario Art partnership. Mario leaves all the art supplies with Helen but takes all the office pplies.
In addition, over the period of    the partnership, the art studio apartment has increased    in value due to a property boom.Mario  argues  that she is entitled to a    share of that increased    alue.
6.  Advise Helen on the distribution of    assets upon the    dissolution of Mar Mario  Art.

How have the tough austerity policies adopted in response to the European debt crisis affecting the economy and society of Greece?

How have the tough austerity policies adopted in response to the European debt crisis affecting the economy and society of Greece?
http://www.globalresearch.ca/strong-economic-medicine-the-imfs-mistakes-on-greece-are-nothing-new/5338454
http://politicalaffairs.net/auster
ity-and-the-economic-crisis/
http://www.smh.com.au/business/world-business/austerity-bill-approved-as-athens-burns-20120213-1tO7t.html
http:search.proquest.com.ezproxy.une.edu.au/docview/927127095?accountid=17227
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/31/greece-debt-crisis-anti-austerity
http://www.smh.com.au/photogallery/world/protests-in-greece-20120213-1t1vw.html?selectedlmage=O
Choose your sources that fit best with yourtype of analysis, but include at least one
source with opposing views so that you have some counter-argument. Make notes on the key ideas and include the page numbers to use for the
in-text citations. Use your own words. Find details that will make good support for your claims. Analyzing Causes and Effects
1. What are you analyzing?
Is it an event that happened once?
Is it a phenomenon, affecting large numbers ofpeople?
Is it a trend with a changing pattern?
(Consider how you want to frame your analysis. How can you categorize yourtopic?)
2. Consider the type of causal relationships: causal chain,contributory causes with one main effect,interactive causes,single cause with multiple effects
3. Beware of any logical problems or causal fallacies: True causes vs. necessary conditions. For example, oxygen in the air causes spontaneous fires. (Solution: oxygen in the air is a necessary condition for starting a fire, but the true cause of starting a fire is a spark, like we get when we strike a match.)
Focus on immediate ratherthan remote causes.
Avoid faulty post hoc reasoning: (A precedes B; therefore, A causes B.) For example, ifthe sun comes up at 7:00 am and I eat breakfast at 7:15 am, then I eat breakfast because the sun comes up. (Solution: a time correlation is not the same as a cause/effect relationship.)
Ouestionable cause. For example, the plague in the Middle Ages was caused by the Jews who poisoned the Christians’wells. (Solution: make sure you have enough evidence for your claims.)
A correlation does not necessarily mean a cause/effect relationship. For example, violent video games and
movies caused the Columbine shootings. (Solution: Thousands ofteenagers have been exposed to violence on video games and movies without resorting to shooting their classmates. A genuine cause will have the same effect in the majority of cases.)
Slippery slope (false predictions). For example, if you fail the first quiz in this unit at UNE, you will be a failure for life.
(Solution: the domino effect/causal chain does not automatically apply.)
5. Make an outline with a thesis statement and topic sentences for the body paragraphs.
What is your purpose for each paragraph? Make sure that you have detailed support to go in each body paragraph. Include some counterargument to answer readers’ possible objections. Plan the introduction and conclusion last.

Summries

Summries
http://www.sendspace.com/file/sly5u0 . write this book (On killing ) CHapter 2 summary

interest rate risk

interest rate risk
IBM has an existing loan of $20 million at LIBOR +0.25%, repriced every six months, for the next five years. The firm worries that the interest rates, particularly LIBOR, might go up in the years ahead. It decides to swap the loan into a fixed rate one. It contacts Citibank and receives the following quotes:
Bid        Offer
6.47%        6.51%
for a five-year interest rate swap. The quotes are against six-month LIBOR. (When the bank pays LIBOR, it receives the offer rate; when the bank receives LIBOR, it pays the bid rate)
(1)    Please help IBM make an arrangement with Citibank.
(2)  Please evaluate the result for IBM after the swap.

Supply chain Manangement

Supply chain Manangement
This report must include not only the research but also the observation ofthe real shop.
write the company internal supply chain, the external suppliers are no need to discuss in the report.

Sun Journal

Sun Journal
Observe the location on the horizon of the rising or setting sun everyday for two weeks. To do this, make a sketch of your eastern or western horizon and show on the sketch where the sun is rising and setting. Make sure to indicate the dates and times of your observations. (To make it more accurate, you could take a picture of the horizon with a digital camera, blow it up, and print it off. Then you can make the observations on the picture)?
Write up a summary of your findings, and discuss what they have to do with the length of the day, and what season we are in.

The Debate on what caused Rome to fall the most

The Debate on what caused Rome to fall the most
Explore an Issue
In this assignment, you are asked to explore an issue— any matter important to the communities in which you live, about which people disagree, and on which it is possible to take several positions. This exploration should enlarge an audience’s understanding of how the problem is perceived by the people who are involved in its discussion. It should also help your audience to evaluate the various positions taken by persons who are concerned with the issue.
Your response to this assignment should consider one of the two types of rhetorical situations described below:
You can enlarge someone’s understanding about a controversy. Such an audience would already have some knowledge of at least some aspects of the issue. For example, a suburban friend sees gun control as necessary to curb violence, but you as a hunter understand it somewhat differently: enlarge her understanding of what is at issue when discussing gun control. Or, some people in your community oppose sex education in the public schools because they believe parents are responsible for such teaching; you as a member of a younger generation have a different point of view. Show those who are opposed to sex education that different points of view are available about this issue.
You can examine an issue that is unfamiliar to your audience, but which they have some need to understand. For instance, you might define the problems involving old growth forests or logging or clean streams so that a group interested in supporting environmental issues would better understand the available positions on these issues. Or you might define the controversy surrounding human cloning for an audience that lacks knowledge about this issue. You could imagine that you are an aide for a state legislator. Your job is to provide comprehensive information about the available positions on charter schools in the event that your legislator may be questioned by constituents. Finally, as a student at San Francisco State University, you might choose a problem at the university that the audience of the student newspaper would read about, such as hate speech or racism, grade inflation or cheating, and explore the available positions on that issue.
Invention
Thoroughly explore the issue you have selected using the stases of conjecture, definition, value, and procedure. Which stasis seems most crucial to resolving the problem? At which stasis is there greatest lack of agreement? Will stases of conjecture or definition reveal aspects of the issue that may resolve questions of value or policy?
The next step in your thinking will be to lay out possible arguments for resolution of these disagreements. The common topics will help you discover arguments for the various positions you have identified. Do the situations addressed by these positions exist? Do these positions correctly evaluate all aspects of the issue? Are these positions possible or impossible?
After you have discovered intrinsic arguments that can be made about the issue, you may look to extrinsic sources in the library and elsewhere to supply the data and authority that often persuades contemporary audiences
Composition
What form might your paper take? It could be a letter. It could be a talk presented to a group of listeners which includes people with a variety of positions on the issue.
Or it could be an article for a magazine or a newspaper which presents the issue to its readers. Or imagine it as a lengthy memo to a person—such as a legislator—or to the members of a particular group who need to be informed before they take a stand in a particular issue. In any case, it must have an exigence—for some reason, an audience is interested in your exploration of this issue.
The completed paper should demonstrate your understanding of the role played by audience considerations in composing an issue, and it should demonstrate as well that you understand and can use the questions of stasis theory.

Department of Health and Human Services and sub-organizations

Department of Health and Human Services and sub-organizations
Utilize the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the Health resources and Services Administration (HRSA)website, 4 page paper on each agency and discuss the services that each agency provide. Compare and contrast the oversight of each federal health care agencies.

Policy Critique Go to the Fighting Crime in Our Suburbs" PDF. This is the Liberal Party crime policy for the last election. You will critique two of the following policies in the document: Volume Crime Blitz Use of CCTVto fight crime Out of control parties Tackling crime hot spots You are required to critique two ofthese initiatives using two different criminological theories (but excluding Classical Theory) and relevant research. You need to critique one policy in the framework of one theory and relevant evidencelevaluations ofthe policy; and critique a second policy in the framework of a different theory and relevant research. That means one theory for one initiative and another theory for the second initiative.

Policy Critique
Go to the Fighting Crime in Our Suburbs” PDF. This is the Liberal Party crime policy for the last election. You will critique two of the following policies in the document:
Volume Crime Blitz
Use of CCTVto fight crime
Out of control parties
Tackling crime hot
spots
You are required to critique two ofthese initiatives using two different criminological theories (but excluding Classical Theory) and relevant research. You need to critique one policy in the framework of one theory and relevant evidencelevaluations ofthe policy; and critique a second policy in the framework of a different theory and relevant research. That means one theory for one initiative and another theory for the second initiative.

History and Political Science

History and Political Science
Choose from among the following 2 questions for the essay. Write 1 ½ to 2 pages on each, for a total of 3-4 pages.  While you are not allowed to collaborate with each other, you are allowed to consult any library source you wish. I will be looking for logic, insight, originality and coherence. Grammar, spelling and mechanics will also factor into the grade. Essays should be typed or word processed, double spaced, using a #12 font, and stapled in the upper left-hand corner of the first page.
#1- Argue against a bill of rights. Tell why the original constitution – according to your argument – did not need a bill of rights.
#2-Tell me about Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s differences. Which of the two do you basically agree with more than the other? Why? What benefits accrued to the American republic from their in incessant conflict? What, if anything, did they agree on?
#3-Is there a tension between liberty and morality? Explain.
#4-Is there a tension between liberty and patriotism? Explain.
#5-Explain the separation of powers concept as found in articles 1.2 and 3of the U.S. Constitution.
#6-Explain the Division of Powers Concept as found in the U.S, Constitution. What is another term for Division of Powers?

it's down in more info

it’s down in more info
Use the prompt below to develop a thesis for your essay. State your argument
clearly and support it with persuasive interpretations of evidence from the text.
It is a 7-page essay (double-space, 12-point font, 1” margins, with an original title
but no title page). Cite sources according to MLA conventions and include list of
works cited.
Both Paredes’s George Washington Gómez and Anzaldúa’s Borderlands are texts
rooted in the political economy of the south Texas border region. Nevertheless,
each text gives us a distinct representation of a transnational subject that must
negotiate within the racial, economic, cultural, linguistic, and sexual borderlands.
Write one comparative essay in which you analyze the transnational (or border)
subject in George Washington Gómez and Borderlands. For example, how does
Gualinto’s “checkerboard” of consciousness differ experientially and conceptually
from what Anzaldúa calls “mestiza consciousness”? How do race, class, language,
and gender factor into borderland subjectivity in each text?
Use these two books .. George Washigton Gomez by Americo Paredes
Borderlands by Gloria Anzaldua
contact me for more essays related to the topic

Book Review; BREAKING THE CHAINS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL

Book Review;  BREAKING THE CHAINS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
THE AUTHOR GIVES HIS VIEWS IN CHAPTER 1, The Psychological Legacy of Slavery;
The sections include Black attitudes toward:
Work
Property
Leadership
The Clown
Personal inferiority
Community Division
The Family
Color Discrimination
Do you agree/disagree with the author’s views? State why or why not.
HE ALSO GIVES HIS VIEWS IN CHAPTER 2, Liberation from Mental Slavery;
Sections include:
Strategies to Break the Chains of Slavery
Knowledge of Self
Celebration of Self
Courage
Umoja (Unity)
Faith
Getting to Work to Make it Happen
Do you agree/disagree with his views? State why or why not.
FURTHERMORE, HE GIVES HIS VIEWS IN CHAPTER 3, Racial Religious lnguiry and
Psychological Confusion: Sections include:
Religious Imagery
Impact on the Psychology of the Portrayed Race
The Effect of Racial Images
The Solution
Do you agree/disagree with his views? State why or why not.

Apple case Analysis Report

Apple case Analysis Report
Apple Case Analysis – Write a report 1.5 spaced about 25-30 pages maximum (including references) Times New Roman 12 font.( APPLE company)
SWOT Analysis and Recommendations. Write on these two sections.(SWOT Analysis – 4Pages; Recommendations – 3 Pages)
5. SWOT Analysis. Identify the firm’s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats.
7.Recommendations. Provide alternative strategies – recommend specific strategies and long term objectives.

??s? Study

??s? Study
Question text
Which character do you propose to base your case study upon?
Note that when I say “approach” I mean weekly topic – we cover
11 main approaches across the 12 weeks of semester (week 1 was a general introduction), even though each week might include more than one theorist.
You should apply 3 approaches (weeks) at around 400 words each. Here name the 3 approaches you propose along with a brief list ofthe aspects of each approach that you will focus upon.
Character or case study is Bob Hawk a former prime minister of Australia; you can
google him as there is lengthy wikipedia of his life.
1. Psychodynamic approaches to understand an individual in order to make sense of
their relationship with others and how they view their world as well as their functioning which is based on interaction their conscious and unconscious.
2. Using Skinner’s and Bandura’s behabiour theory that suggest that people model or imitate other’s behaviour to increase certain behaviour that may be more attractive or beneficial to them.
3. I will relate Carl Roger’s and MasIow’s humanistic theory that suggests that each human has unique qualities through personal growth and freedom. compare other theories such as
-May’s existential psychology
-Eysenck and the big 5 – Trait approach
The aim ofthis case study is to apply enough biography
elements ofthe character to help make argument using three theoretical approaches.
i.e. what would be a suitable theory that would apply to
the character.

Line Direction

Line Direction
Elements of Design
Written Compositional Analysis
P“1Po5€? To improve writing skills, identifying compositional elements, and undentaml
movements.
Find and make a color photocopy of one of the following paintings. Write four to SlX
(d°“b1e’5P3C€d) typed pages about its compositional makeup and what makes it a
successful composition. Discuss the artist’s strategy for directing your eye across the
picture plane in terms of value, texture, line, shape, and color.
Name title of painting, artist, and date painted
Should include: Introduction
Body- line, shape, value, color, texture,
Conclusion
List source§j_i_t_‘_a”ny)_ _o_rih separate page.
Paintings to consider:
Arrangement in blac & gray (Whist1er’s Mother) by James Whistler
Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth
The Third of May 1808 by Goya
The raft of the Medusa by Gericault
Sunday afiernoon on the Island of La Grande J atte by Seurat
Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon by Picasso
La Vie by Picasso
Oath of Horatii by David
5 American Gothic by Grant Wood
K The Scream by Edvard Munch
The Starry Night by Van Gogh
Garden at Sainte-adresse by Claude Monet
Supper in Emmaus by Caravaggio
Lamentation by Giotto
The Virgin of the rocks by Leonardo Da Vinci
The persistence of memory by Salvador Dali
Grande Odalisque by 1118195
Madame X by John Singer Sargeant
Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth
Freedom fi’om want by Norman Rockwell
Death of Socrates by D3V‘_d
The Piano Lesson by Matisse
The Wedding Dance by Bruegel
Lavender Mist by Jaclmon Pollaclt
The Ambassadors by Hans Holbem
Nighthawks by Edward H°PP°‘
Stag at Sharkeys by George Bellows

Moon Journal

Moon Journal
Project 2:  Moon Journal
Mark the location of the moon in the sky every night for a week. Your observations MUST be done at the same time each night. The purpose of this is to find out how much the moon’s position has changed relative to the background stars in a 24 hour period. You can do this by either making a sketch of the horizon and sky and showing where the moon is and the phase it’s in or by using a camera to take pictures to record the moon’s progression .Once all of your observations are done, put all the data together and write a ½ page single-spaced summary of what you learned.

Sun Journal

Sun Journal
Project 1:  Sun Journal
Observe the location on the horizon of the rising or setting sun everyday for two weeks. To do this, make a sketch of your eastern or western horizon and show on the sketch where the sun is rising and setting. Make sure to indicate the dates and times of your observations. Write up a summary of your findings, and discuss what they have to do with the length of the day, and what season we are in.

Choose from among the following 2 questions for the essay. Write 1 ½ to 2 pages on each, for a total of 3-4 pages. While you are not allowed to collaborate with each other

Choose from among the following 2 questions for the essay. Write 1 ½ to 2 pages on each, for a total of 3-4 pages.  While you are not allowed to collaborate with each other
#1- Argue against a bill of rights. Tell why the original constitution – according to your argument – did not need a bill of rights.
#2-Tell me about Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s differences. Which of the two do you basically agree with more than the other? Why? What benefits accrued to the American republic from their in incessant conflict? What, if anything, did they agree on?
#3-Is there a tension between liberty and morality? Explain.
#4-Is there a tension between liberty and patriotism? Explain.
#5-Explain the separation of powers concept as found in articles 1.2 and 3of the U.S. Constitution.
#6-Explain the Division of Powers Concept as found in the U.S, Constitution. What is another term for Division of Powers?

Tech Writing

Tech Writing
After reading “More than ‘Correct'” and “Double Take” in the Measures of Professionalism folder, please comment on the following questions:
DeGraw and Wegner seem to have different opinions about the importance of grammer. Who do you think is right? Why?
What is your grammar comfort level? How do you think this may effect the clarity of your writing?
Why do you think some writer have difficulty with grammar?
Here are the two site for the assignment:
Double Take: http://stc-carolina.org/newsletter/tiki-index.php?page=Double%20Take
More Correct: http://www.stcboston.org/archives/articles/grammar2.shtml

ASB 223:KennewickMan Activity Balancing the Interests of Different Publics In this assignment, you will consider the problems sometimes faced by archaeologists who must balance the interests that different publics have in their work. You should also

ASB 223:KennewickMan Activity Balancing the Interests of Different Publics In this assignment, you will consider the problems sometimes faced by archaeologists who must balance the interests that different publics have in their work. You should also
ASB 223:KennewickMan Activity
Balancing the Interests of Different Publics
In this assignment, you will consider the problems sometimes faced by archaeologists who must balance the interests that different publics have in their work. You should also get an understanding of the feelings of the communities that have ties to the cultures studied by archaeologists. You will have some articles to read on the internet and we will watched a video. Using this information, write a typed, double-spaced response on the topic described below. There are no “correct” answers to these questions; however, you must SUPPORT your position by reference to the materials you have read, the video, and discussion in class. This assignment is worth 10 points.
READINGS:
There are two main web sites for you to review:
http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/kman/
On this web site, go to “Trace the Story.” From there, read all the sections on the left side of the page which are part of the Kennewick Man Virtual Exhibit: Introduction, Chronology of Events, Who are the Native Americans, Idea of Race, Native American Views, Anthropologist’s Views, and News Update.
www.cr.nps.gov/archeology/kennewick
The first web site is the on-line exhibit at theBurkeMuseumwhich now houses theKennewickskeleton. Review these web sites.
TOPIC: In your opinion, should Kennewick Man be studied? Why do you think this? Contrast both sides of the argument: the anthropologist interested in the scientific value and the Native American perspective where the argument for repatriation is felt from the heart. Can these positions be reconciled?
Some possible issues to explore in your response could include: Do you think he should, in fact, be considered “Native American” or not? What do you think of the idea of race? Compare and contrast the Native American and Anthropologist’s views. Should he be protected by NAGPRA? Should he be studied at all? How can the interests of Native Americans, archaeologists, and the general public be balanced, if at all?

Management of Software Projects

Management of Software Projects
Introduction to the Scenario
Management Training (NMT) is a spin-off training company from a large University based in central UK . It has successfully offered a wide variety of commercial management courses on a fairly ad hoc and to be honest rather disorganised basis. It now seeks to leverage its presence in the market place and take the next step of expanding its course offerings and it aims to become a leading centre of management training in the central belt of UK.
To assist in this endeavour – senior management have established that marketing and promotion is going to be key. Fundamental to the promotional elements is the establishment of a comprehensive web site that would provide the following basic functionality
1 – Full conformance with all standard web usability criteria. A Report is required which outlines these criteria and shows how the proposed web site will conform. (1000 words)
2- As this project is a proof-of-concept a report is required indicating your recommendations for a cost-effective hosting and maintenance solution (500 words)

Address police department roles and functions

Address police department roles and functions
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address police department roles and functions. Include the following in your paper:
•    Identify the principal roles and functions of police organizations and their role as it applies to the law.
•    Describe various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal level and the roles and functions of each.
•    Explain the role and function of patrol work.

The design and contruction of a bridge to span a river of width 100 meters.

The design and contruction of a bridge to span a river of width 100 meters.
Develop a project management plan for any one ofthe following projects.
The design and construction of a bridge to span a river of width 100 metres.
Technical, economical and environmental evaluation (assessment) of a selected project.

E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982)

E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982)
Review the critical analysis questions in the “Conclusion and Critic’s Resource” section of your textbook. Write an eight to ten page film critique (excluding the cover and reference pages) of an American feature film of your choosing. Use the list of critical analysis questions provided in your textbook as a guide while writing your paper.
Areas that must be covered:
Storytelling
Acting
Cinematography
Editing
Sound
Style and Directing
Impact of society on the film and vice versa
Genre
Application of at least one approach to analysis and interpretation
Overall textual themes
Select a film that they have not previously explored in class, either in written assignments or discussion posts.
Establish a coherent thesis statement in the introduction of their paper with a claim that they intend to prove. The body of the essay serves to support the thesis through an analysis of the film and other relevant material.  Avoid simply rehashing descriptive material from other source.
Support your thesis through textual and formal analysis. Refer to specific shots, scenes, characters, stylistic devices, and themes in the film.
As much as possible, use technical, literary and industry terms to make your points.
If needed, you may use additional resources to support your claims. Suggested sources might include academic books and articles; film reviews; and personal opinions from reputable film critics and scholars. Information other than production details obtained from popular sources such as The Internet Movie Database and Wikipedia is not considered reputable.
Only use plot information to support the thematic points of the paper. Include only one to two sentences of plot summary when explaining each of the required filmic elements.
choose a film that the authors of the textbook have analyzed in detail.
Writing the Final Film Critqiue
The Final Film Critique:

Florida's State Panther

Florida’s State Panther
Write an Annotated Bibliography on Florida Panther. It has to be about just the State of Florida’s Panther, books solely on Florida’s Panther topic,  and referring to its history/cluture. I’m attaching a document that my professor provided with exact details and requirement for this Annotated Bibliography. There needs to be at least 8 sources from different types – like creditable website, books, article and so on.
The book I checked out at the library is Twilight of the panther by Ken Alvarez 1993. ISBN 0-9635656-0-5
Another book I got is Cougar Ecology and Conservation edited by Maurice Hornocker and Sharon Negrei ISBN-10:0-226-35344-3
Can you please use sources that I would be able to find at my local public library or college?
From the three possible topics about which you did some brainstorrning/free-
writing and formulated investigative questions and preliminary theses, choose one topic
for completing your research project. For this topic, compile a working bibliography of
at least 8 possible, reputable, credible, and college-level sources. Begin looking for
some sources based on our library orientation sessions. The 8 sources in your working
bibliography should represent the variety of types of sources (books, periodical articles,
and Internet sources) that you will need to include in the final draft of your researched
essay. Among the 8 sources for your working bibliography, you should have at least
one book, one periodical article (from the library databases), and one reputable,
college-level Internet site. The following sources will not be acceptable: the online
encyclopedia W1’/(z’pedia (because of its unreliability), World Book (because it is focused
on a high school audience, and most “.com” websites (because their purpose is
commercial and they are not for a college-level audience). Acceptable e-books are ones
that are accessed through the SFSC library website. E-books and portions of e-books
from Amazon.com and Google are not acceptable.
The working bibliography should be arranged in alphabetical order based on the
last name of the author of each source or the first word of the title if no author is shown.
You should prepare the bibliographic entry for each of your sources in the MLA format
as shown in the Wadsworth Handbook, pages 23 9-57.
To begin preparing for the next step in your research project, the annotated
bibliography, you should find one book, one periodical article from the library databases,
and one credible, reputable, college-level website listed in your working bibliography and
take notes, in the form of summaries, paraphrases, and quotations, from them. Therefore,
along with your list of 8 possible sources, you must include some written evidence (on
separate sheets of paper, including the name of the source and the specific page
numbers) of your note taking from those sources listed in your working bibliography.
Your list of possible sources must be typed; your evidence of note taking can be
handwritten.

Obesity in Middle Childhood

Obesity in Middle Childhood
You are what you eat!
According to Figure 10.1 in your text, the rate of obesity in American children has more than quadrupled since 1970, rising from 4% to over 15%. As we have learned in previous chapters, physical, socio-emotional, and physical development do not occur in isolation. These developmental domains overlap considerably, each dramatically affecting the other. In this Discussion Board we will be examining both the cause, as well as the direct and indirect effects of obesity in childhood. Watch this lecture by Jamie Oliver: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/jamie_oliver.html
Research at least two web articles involving the correlation between childhood obesity and one of the following topics. Include information on the reading assignments as well.
Correlating Factors:
Parental support of physical activity
Parent’s weight
Child’s diet and fast food
Violence in neighborhood
Gender Expectations
Depression
Poverty
Diabetes II
Parental Responsibility

Explaining a Concept Research Paper

Explaining a Concept Research Paper
In the Explaining a Concept Paper, you will simply want to explain a concept of your choice, using research to support your explanations/definitions.  This paper should be at least 4-6 pages long, it should include at least two sources, and it should accomplish the following:
*Inform your particular audience about a specific subject.
*Present information confidently and efficiently.
*Use established information for support, as well as personal “evidence” (if applicable) such as short anecdotes and examples from your own experience, or the experience of others.
*Maintain an informative tone (not an argumentative tone, as this is not an argumentative or persuasive paper).
Unit 11 is designed to familiarize you with the Explaining a Concept paper, and to help you choose a topic.  I would like each of you to discuss your topic ideas on the discussion board this unit.
Looking ahead, Unit 12 will discuss strategies to consider in terms of your approach to this paper, and Unit 13 will explain the basic structure of papers such as this.  Unit 14 is designed to give you time to revise.

Health and Safety Report

Health and Safety Report
Fire Safety Design and Technology in Modern High-Rise Office Buildings
Include any case law available
The initiation and spread of fire.Emergency evacuation issues and strategies.Fire safety legislation including recent developments.Fire preventive measures and protective measures and devices including consideration of failure.  Fire issues in modern high-rise and open plan buildings. Flammable atmospheres, dust explosions dangerous gases and processes.
The essay should be a printed document, professionally laid-out with diagrams and properly cited references as appropriate to the topic (using the Harvard system).
Useful sources
https://www.gov.uk/workplace-fire-safety-your-responsibilities/fire-safety-advice-documents

Name,course,lecturer's name,date should be in upper left-hand corner. No more than 4 lines.


Name,course,lecturer’s name,date should be in upper left-hand corner. No more than 4 lines.
Reading: “Selections from Reading Lolita in Tehran,” by Azar Nafisi; “On becoming an Arab,” by Lelia Ahmed
Essay prompt: Why do these different political conditions elicit different modes of resistance? What is the difference in effect between history and literature as forms of political resistance?
Instruction: Be sure to introduce both articles in relation to your argument clearly but concisely.
(ex) In “On becoming An Arab,” Leila Ahmed examines….
Don’t need quote in the introduction
Do not compare or contrast. Carefully consider the author’s positions and your own in nuanced ways.
(ex) Choose a word in the article and think why author chose the word. For instance, the word “our becoming” from Ahmed , “our Lolita” from Nafis. Think about why author chose the word and expand your idea.
Do not choose a side and turn one author into a “straw man”
Doesn’t matter more than 3 body-paragraphs, but each body-paragraph has to start clear topic sentence. Not summarize the articles. Also, Each paragraph needs to connect two quotes from two articles. After the quote, analyze it and write why is that quotes important to support your thesis. Make sure each paragraph must have quotes.
If you paraphrase or summarize articles, make sure write like this :”…blah blah”(Ahmed 3)
In the conclusion, write a summary; other than that, Write your own thoughts about articles and express your idea.

Select a company that has several product divisions or strategic business units (SBUs). Remember, an SBU is an internal division or product line that has its own distinct mission and competitors which operates somewhat independently from the rest of the company.

Select a company that has several product divisions or strategic business units (SBUs). Remember, an SBU is an internal division or product line that has its own distinct mission and competitors which operates somewhat independently from the rest of the company.
General Electric, Proctor and Gamble, and Ford Motor Company are examples of companies with multiple SBUs.
Choose one product from your chosen company, and write a product market analysis (PMA).
A PMA is a three to four page analysis of how the product is being placed in the market. The following components should be included: MBA 5871, Business to Business Marketing 41. Provide background information about the company and its SBUs.
2. Describe the product you have chosen to analyze. What other products in the company’s product line are in competition with your chosen product?
3. Identify the target market for the product. How is the product being positioned in the market?
4. Describe the pricing strategies being used for this product.
5. Describe the distribution channels used to serve the product’s market segment. What role does the Internet play in the company’s supply chain management operations?

CASE STUDY INSTRUCTIONS

CASE STUDY INSTRUCTIONS
Use scenario below and discuss how you would proceed if working with this client. Do not use any outside sources besides journals attached. PLEASE DO NOT CUT AND PASTE PARTS OF THE JOURNAL. DO NOT DO ANY DIRECT QUOTES FROM THE JOURNAL ONLY CITE INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE PAGE OF THE JOURNAL THAT IT PERTAINS TO IN YOUR PARAGRAPH. EXAMPLE
Scenario
Roger is an obese 40-year old man and suffers from other health issues. Roger reports that he lives alone and has very few friends. Roger is single and would like to be married. However, he is afraid that women will reject his advances due to his weight. To further complicate the issue he reports struggling with homosexual thoughts. Roger sought your help because he recently contemplated suicide.
Personal Biases and Limitations
Every counselor needs to consider personal biases and limitations carefully. If the topic is a hot-button or you lack sufficient knowledge to be effective with the client then you would need to refer. Identify possible problems in working with the client. Be clear in explaining why these issues could detract from counseling.
Goals
What goals would you like to achieve with the client? Why do you believe that these goals are important? What would you do if the client refused to accept a goal that you believe would be helpful? If you were allowed only one goal, what would that goal be? Why do you believe this would be the most beneficial goal?
Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research
2012, Vol. 6, 62–75 ISSN: 1935-3308
intrinsically negotiated by the individuals engaged
in the composing process. The author
identified three proponents of composing processes:
author (the writer), audience (perceived
or genuine), and product (the text). In college
composition classrooms, audience includes
both the author’s peers and the classroom facilitator;
writing is often a result of the interaction
between both. Composition classrooms
entrench writers in constant negotiation among
expectations.
Flower’s (1990; 1994) investigations asked
what happens at points of conflict and points of
decision in composing processes. When the inner
voices of teachers, collaborators, and peers
speak together, how do writers negotiate these
multiple, often conflicting guides to meaning
making? How do these complex, internal representations
of meaning shape text? How does
the negotiation of inner voices shape the hidden
Meaning, knowledge, and identity in writing
have been part of a long-standing conversation
in composition studies. In 1990, Flower
showed that academic writing, in particular,
is rich with negotiation because of the context
in which it occurs: “Academic papers are typically
written in the context of a rich rhetorical
situation that includes not only the conventions
of academic discourse, but the expectations of
the instructor, the context of the course, and
the terms of the assignment” (p. 35). In 1994,
Flower asserted that writing is a social act in
which aspects of meaning and knowing are
Transforming Experience:
Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the
Composing Processes of Gay Men
William F. Berry
Cape Cod Community College
Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing
processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for
writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is
often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of
negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of self-identified
gay men. Using purposeful intensity sampling, I selected 7 gay men for
semi-structured interviews. These interviews were analyzed using narrative
analysis (Reissman, 2003) and the science of phenomenological
inquiry as outlined by both Giorgi (1985) and Moustakas (1994). The
data presented 7 emergent themes: (a) discovery, (b) expression, (c) courage,
(d) being out, (e) reflection, (f) negotiating public and personal identity,
and (g) integration. The essential experience of the phenomenon
was transformation, wherein the qualities of engaging sexual identity in
composing processes allowed the participants to bring deeper structures of
meaning into written form.
William F. Berry, Ph.D, is Associate Professor of Language
and Literature at Cape Cod Community College in
West Barnstable, Massachusetts.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed
to wberry@capecod.edu.
63
logic of the text? In answer to these questions,
Newkirk (1997) suggested that students are
not expressing a self, they are creating a self.
Newkirk argued that the objective characteristics
of language shaped the way in which the
social characteristics formulated the creation of
a linguistic identity, or self. Hence, negotiating
meaning, knowledge, and identity is social,
and writing is socially constructed. However,
Emig (1971) presented another answer to these
questions: “Persons, rather than mechanisms,
compose” (p. 5). Emig focused on two modes
of writing: reflexive writing (student’s feelings
about their experience) and task-oriented writing
(writing for a particular purpose). The author
emphasized the individual’s place in composing
processes. Emig accepted that language
carried meaning both socially and individually,
but argued that meaning was negotiated personally.
Hence, negotiating meaning, knowledge,
and identity is personal, and writing is
constructed individually.
While Emig emphasized the individual’s experience
in composing processes, Newkirk emphasized
the social aspects of composing processes.
Both supported Flower (1990; 1994) in
agreeing that writers are entrenched in conflict
and expectation, and that personal and social
negotiations are embedded in composing processes.
In applying this proposition, one could
argue that negotiating sexual identity in composing
processes is natural, and that there are
entrenched conflicts and expectations. Hence,
negotiating sexual identity for gay writers is
risky because the related negotiations are difficult
and complex.
When examining the discourse of gay writers,
patterns of heteronormativity emerge in
both the language and the discourse community.
Bergman (1991) discussed the strategies
that gay men use to fashion their sense of sexual
identity, and argued that gay men build their
sexual identity around constructs of heteronormativity:
“For example, since heterosexuality
approves of sex that is ‘natural,’ gay writers
have showed that homosexuality is ‘natural,’
and, thus, worthy of approval” (p. 26). The
author contended that constructing gay sexual
identity as something natural negates gay
sexual identity: “[This strategy] authenticates
both the dominant and subordinate [and is] unable
to fully acknowledge the extent to which
the former negates the latter” (p. 26). The author
explained that creating gay sexual identity
in response to heterosexuality was a way of
rendering heterosexuality as normative: “Gay
men have fashioned their sense of themselves
out of and in response to the heterosexual discourse
about them, gay men, even as conceived
by gay men, cannot be viewed outside of the
constructs of heterosexuality” (p. 26). Thus,
the language of sexuality becomes both a way
of othering those who do not fit into predominant
heteronormative categories and a means
of validating heterosexuality; the language of
sexuality becomes a way of codifying people as
opposed to a discursive tool. For example, Malinowitz
(1995) reasoned that it is not unusual
to see the issue of sexual identity in one of
two lights, as an issue of rights and/or personal
identity. The author warned, however, that
consigning gay and lesbian existence to a matter
of mere personal identity can negate the issue
of culture and community; likewise, consigning
gay and lesbian existence to a matter of
mere culture and/or community can negate the
issue of personal identity and choice:
The presence of lesbian and gay discourses
in the classroom, then, contributes
significantly to our understanding
of the ways that seemingly remote, autonomous
identities are in fact deeply
implicated in one another’s existence—
and of the ways that in writing we produce
ourselves through our production
of the other. Such notions suggest, too,
that identity is not immutable and static,
but rather may be reconstructed, repositioned,
or redefined. The absence
of a particular discourse may itself be a
message. (p. 29)
One of the ways that heterosexuality receives
affirmation is through implicit, unspoken recognition
of itself as a normative category of identification,
and most of the colloquial language
used to discuss sexuality is hegemonic and affirms
heterosexuality over homosexuality (Armstrong,
1997). Unless sexuality is otherwise
labeled, heterosexuality is always assumed.
Writers are often unaware of the social and personal
assumptions concerning language, even
when that language concerns them.
According to Armstrong (1997), in discourse,
all participants are assumed to be
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heterosexual until information contradicts.
When other sexual identities are present in discourse,
they are often negotiated as a binary opposition:
heterosexual versus homosexual. This
kind of negotiation can create an adversarial
discourse in which the phenomena of omission
and othering can occur. However, Malinowitz
(1995) argued that systems of classifying sexual
identities had begun to change as a result of
post-modern theory:
Theorists of sexuality have challenged
the systems of classification by which
identities become inscribed, predominantly
the dualistic thinking that has
produced the homo-hetero opposition.
In popular imagination, homosexuals
are made, while heterosexuals just naturally
exist in nature. Much of the writing
that has come out of lesbian and
gay studies—influenced by postmodern
theory—challenges this dichotomy
by demonstrating how all identities are
constructed. (p. 43)
The author explained that in the complex negotiation
of sexual identity, constructions of
choice, rights, personal identity, and culture
happen from varied vantage points in both social
and individual contexts; thus, indexed in
writing are the patterns, network, and sexual
identities they carry and/or construct.
The foregoing literature review reveals some
of the myriad, complex issues embedded in the
phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in
composing processes for gay men and presents
some of the perils of revealing and negotiating
discourses about gay sexual identity. Ilyasova
(2007) maintained that because of these perils
and complexities, the field of composition studies
has disregarded issues of sexual identity:
Within the composition field sexual
identity issues have often been overlooked,
in spite of the increasing attention
the composition field has paid to
other identity issues such as race, gender
and socio-economic class as factors
that shape writing practices. In contrast,
queer sexual identity issues have
tended to be ignored and heterosexual
identities taken, uncritically, for granted.
(p. 3)
The present study responded to Ilyasova’s assertion
and explored how the phenomenon of
negotiating sexual identity in composing processes
is a core part of composing processes.
Engaging transformation in the texts of writers
engages negotiations of knowledge and meaning
within composing processes. By recounting
how the participants negotiated their sexual
identity in composing processes, the present
study further explored how sexual identity
shape and transform both the writing and the
writer.
Method
I selected participants for this study using
“purposeful intensity sampling” (Patton, 2001,
p. 234). It was important that each participant
self-identified as a gay male and had experience
writing in academic settings. However, it was
not necessary that they were engaged in academic
writing or part of a composition classroom.
The saturated data achieved the study’s
results, and the sample size of seven fell within
the appropriate range of 5 to 25 participants for
a transcendental phenomenological study (Creswell,
2007). The seven men who constituted
the final pool of participants manifested the
phenomenon in an intense, rich, and common
manner; a brief narrative description of these
men follows:
Chris is a white male in his mid twenties
who has taken several composition courses at
a Midwest community college. Chris is an avid
writer and intrigued with literature and art. He
is a creative writer of both fiction and non-fiction
and has enjoyed his college composition
courses, where he wrote extensively for academic
purposes.
Steve is a white male who teaches reading
and literature at a Northeast community college.
He teaches reading and literature and lived for
12 years as a cloistered monk. He didn’t come
out as a gay man until after age thirty. He facilitates
writing processes in his courses, but does
not consider himself a writer. He is an ordained
priest.
Bob is a Vietnamese-American who lives in
the Northeast region of the U.S. is in his early
thirties and is very close to his family. Bob
works as a dentist and had a strict Catholic upbringing.
Bob did not come out as a gay male
until after college. His current writing is mostly
private, but he has experienced writing in college
contexts.
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65
Mark identifies as a gay Christian. He is a
white male in his late twenties. Mark attended
a Christian liberal arts college where he could
not express his gayness. Mark came out as a
gay man after he left college. Mark writes for
his church and wrote several essays while in
college.
Stu is an African-American male in his early
thirties who works as an addiction psychiatrist
in a large metropolitan city in the Northeast
region of the U.S.. Stu identifies as an African-
American gay male. Stu mostly writes for professional
purposes, but has experienced writing
in academic contexts.
Kirk is a white male in his early forties who
lives in the Northeast region of the U.S. He
identifies as a gay male and has worked as a
journalist, writing in his field for predominantly
gay oriented media, as well as having done
writing in college contexts. Kirk works for a
Northeastern community college where he does
fundraising.
Tom is a white male in his late twenties
who identifies as a gay male and sings with a
gay men’s chorus, living in Northeastern city
where he also attended college. Tom does not
consider himself a writer, but he has written essays
for college and has done research papers
for academic purposes.
I used semi-structured interviews to explore
the phenomenon with the study’s participants.
Seidman (1998), in his work Interviewing as
Qualitative Research, stated: “[Interviews lead]
to deeper understanding and appreciation of the
amazing intricacies, yet, coherence of people’s
experiences” (p. 112). Phenomenology often
relies on informal, interactive, open-ended interviews
(Moustakas, 1994). Using the central
question of the study as a starting point, I interviewed
each man separately, at different times,
and in different places. I audio-recorded these
interviews and later transcribed them. The primary
questions for the interview emphasized
the focus of the study:
a) How do you feel your sexuality impacts
your writing process?
b) If you were in a basic writing class
(English 101) and asked to write a basic,
expository essay that would somehow allow
you to reveal your sexual identity, how
would you respond?
c) What are the experiences of addressing
sexual identity in your composing
processes?
The interviews incorporated other questions, as
needed for clarification and to prompt deeper
insight and description from the participants.
There was plenty of opportunity for participants
to be spontaneous and allow the interview to
take its own form. In accordance with the
methodology of qualitative research and standards
of phenomenological reduction, which
indicate that it may be necessary to conduct a
follow-up interview and verify the transcription
and transformations with the participants (Giorgi,
1985; Moustakas, 1994), I provided each participant
with a written transcription of both his
interview and the transformation of his interview
for verification.
The need to regulate the study to composing
processes in academic or composition classrooms
was unnecessary. Thus, the specific college
curricula each participant experienced was
not core to the context of this study; each participant’s
descriptions of his experiences in
and out of these varied, academic settings was
core. However, the participants needed to have
some experience writing in composition classrooms
because this experience made it possible
for each participant to understand and describe
their composing process.
In order to review the data in the early stages
of analysis, I used the process of phenomenological
reduction. Moustakas (1994) outlined
the process: “The method of Phenomenological
Reduction takes on the character of graded prereflection,
reflection, and reduction, with a concentrated
work aimed at explicating the essential
nature of the phenomenon” (p. 91). I kept
an informal research journal about my biases
and preconceptions and noted any expectations
that may have interfered with the results.
This process was ongoing throughout the data
transcription and analysis, as well as during the
write-up of the data.
I followed eight steps in analyzing the data
that Giorgi (1985) outlined. His method of data
analysis is concerned with providing the psychological
perspective of experience: “[It is] a
direct analysis of the psychological meaning of
naïve descriptions of personal experiences” (p.
1). As the present study explored the personal,
often psychological descriptions of sexual identity
in composing processes, Giorgi’s (1985)
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66
emphasis on psychological meaning was essential
for my data interpretation.
First, I collected, transcribed, and reviewed
verbal descriptions of the phenomenon. Second,
I transformed significant statements from
each interview into meaning units. As I transformed
each interview into meaning units, I engaged
in imaginative variation, the art of perceiving
the interviews from various perspectives,
which Moustakas (1994) explained: “[Imaginative
variation seeks] possible meanings through
the utilization of imagination, varying frames of
reference, employing polarities and reversals,
and approaching the phenomenon from divergent
perspectives, different positions, roles, or
functions” (p. 97). This process determined all
possible significances in the data. Third, I created
a specific description of the phenomenon
based on the transformed meaning units of the
interview. I created the specific description of
each interview from the determined meaning
units. I gathered the data and sorted it to determine
relevant from non-relevant aspects of the
phenomenon, the process of horizonalization.
Fourth, I extracted a general description of the
phenomenon for each participant. Fifth, I identified
the emergent themes. In the fourth and
fifth steps, I used narrative analysis (Reissman,
2003) and more fully engaged that data. This
process allowed me to explore the narratives on
three levels: a) the external narrative mode, the
description of what happened; b) the internal
narrative mode; the description of the feelings,
reactions, preconceptions; and c) the reflexive
narrative mode where the question of meaning
is addressed and extracted (Reissman, 2003).
The use of narrative analysis in conjunction
with phenomenological methodology allowed a
richer, more complete description of the themes
to emerge. Thus, I discovered and correlated
the emergent themes of the phenomenon with
the identified meaning units of the data, and I
developed a general description of the phenomenon
as a whole. This description contained
both the emergent themes and the essence of
the phenomenon. Hence, in the sixth step I analyzed
the emergent themes in accordance to
the identified meaning units and placed each
meaning unit into an emergent theme. I analyzed
the general description of the phenomenon
by using each participant’s specific description
and transcribed interview and provided
further analysis of the emergent themes within
the phenomenon and to show how each theme
correlated with the essence of the phenomenon.
Seventh, I described each individual emergent
theme using the transcribed interviews of the
participants. Finally, I synthesized the descriptions
of the participants into a general description
of the phenomenon as a whole and the essence
of the experience. Giorgi (1985) stated:
This last step is a difficult one because
more so than with traditional research,
where conventions are already established,
one has the freedom to express
findings in multiple ways. To a large
extent, how the findings are presented
very much depends upon the audience
with whom one is in communication.
(p. 20)
Thus, I used the language and literature of the
study of composition and rhetoric and contextualized
the emergent themes, descriptions, and
essence of the phenomenon I studied.
Results
I summarize the findings of this study and
culled from each participant’s interview the
emergent themes and essential experience of
the phenomenon. From each participant’s interview,
I identified seven emergent themes:
(a) discovery, (b) expression, (c) courage, (d)
being out, (e) reflection, (f) negotiating public
and personal identity, and (g) integration. The
themes correlate with the essential experience
of the phenomenon based on the examination
of the participants’ external narrative modes
(what was experienced) and internal narrative
modes (how it was experienced) of the phenomenon
described. Transformation was the essential
experience of the phenomenon, extracted
from the participants’ descriptions by examining
the reflexive narrative mode (wherein the
question of meaning is addressed). I present
the general descriptions of the themes here.
Discovery
The participants experienced the act of writing
as providing new avenues of discovery into
their sexual identity. Chris, a community college
student in his 20’s, stated: “I came to terms
with my sexual identity first in my reading process.”
He defined his process of discovery:
This is part of what I call my ‘me
search.’ So I take this me search and
Transforming Experience
67
I write about things that I’m reading
about that have to do with who I am
and incorporate that into my process.
I start to write and just start to brainstorm
about what can I write about?
What do I feel like writing about?
What is my objective in this? And then
I write.
For Chris, the experience of discovery led him
to understand not only how his sexual identity
shaped the perspective from which he wrote,
but how composing processes worked for him.
Similar to Chris’s description, Mark, who
identified as a gay Christian and studied writing
at a conservative Christian college, described
how writing helped him uncover his sexual
identity:
I was going through college and realizing
that I was actually gay and not fitting
this perfect mold. And after hearing
for 4 years that God can’t love gay
people and all this stuff, that’s when I
think I realized that I couldn’t let other
people decide what my life should be
about; what I should write and how I
should write it.
For Mark, the process of discovering his sexual
identity had direct impact on his composing
process:
I really needed to just figure out what
my own voice was and who I was as a
person and who I was as a spiritual being,
and I had to stop living other people’s
lives and what my parents expected
of me or what the college expected
of me and what I had to be. And I think
that’s when I realized that I could finally
start discovering who I was as a
writer rather than trying to fit someone
else’s mold and whatever they wanted
me to do.
Mark’s description of discovery highlighted uncovering
the private, more personal aspects of
his sexual identity in order to convey the more
public, social aspects of his sexual identity.
Stu, an addiction therapist who writes
mainly for professional purposes, described the
theme of discovery as such:
College afforded me an opportunity to
take lots of classes on isms: racism,
sexism, ageism, heterosexism, and homophobia.
So in college, I think, even
though I was not out, my interests grew
out of that feeling that I couldn’t necessarily,
at the time, be out without some
sort of negative repercussions.
Discovery was a way of coming to understand
both his sexual identity and his writing interests.
The participants described acts of discovery
in composing processes as something that perpetuated
the negotiation of sexual identity, publicly
and privately. They stated that discovery
occurred in composing processes before, during,
or after writing tasks. Thus, they experienced
discovery as an essential component of
the phenomenon about negotiating sexual identity
in composing processes.
Expression
The participants engaged the expression
of their sexual identity with intrigue and passion,
if not a tempered sense of external audience.
In essence, they described it as the ability
to articulate their sexual identity in writing.
Steve, a community college professor and ordained
minister, described his ideas of expressing
his sexual identity in writing. He began
with a description of writing in general: “That’s
what composition is about, painting a picture in
writing, as well as just putting words together.”
Steve described his writing as directly affected
by his sexual identity:
I feel that we put more emotion toward
our writing than a heterosexual male
would. I think that we know that women
and men speak differently in communication.
And I think that, as a gay
man, I probably tend to do that more;
writing might be a bit more flowery.
Steve’s sexual identity affected his writing to
the extent that his writing style itself is, from
his description, inherently gay.
In contrast, Stu, a clinical psychiatrist, talked
about how his sexual identity was not expressed
in his college writing:
Although, to some degree, it did impact
the types of subjects that were interesting
to me, such as HIV and AIDS.
And the impacts of those illnesses on
gay men were certainly an interest at
the time and remain an interest, but not
to the degree that I would do any writing
on it.
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He further stated that in his professional field,
sexual identity is often unexpressed and even
assumed:
It’s common in medical discourse to describe
or discuss a patient by their age,
by their race. Sometimes you may use
their gender as well, so you might describe
someone as a 59 year old White
male or a 27 year old Black female, and
there’s an assumption of heterosexuality
in that term. But if you have a patient
who’s gay, usually gay men, you
identify that this gentleman is a 59 year
old homosexual Caucasian male, and
depending on the writer, they may use
the word gay or homosexual. I find homosexual
tends to be used much more
often. And I guess in my own writing
as a psychiatrist, I tend to use the word
homosexual in describing men.
Stu’s description indicated that the omission of
expressed sexual identity in writing may be the
norm and affirmed that gay sexual identity is often
represented by omission and assumed heterosexual
until stated otherwise.
Bob, a very private writer by his own admission,
supported Stu’s notion. He described
the difficulty expressing his sexual identity in
writing: “When I was in college, I don’t think
I would be comfortable enough to write something
about my sexuality.” However, Chris described
expression differently:
I mean we’re experiencing a kind of
love that is foreign to the majority of
the heterosexual society, so they don’t
really know what we’re experiencing,
which is why I feel it’s important to incorporate
that into my writing style.
Chris found expression in his composing processes
as liberating because of his ability to
share his experience with others.
Through their experiences, the participants
described expression as an act of revealing.
These acts occurred both personally and
publicly. The participants’ descriptions showed
that expression varied from discreet to explicit
in composing processes. Expression also took
the form of stylistic choice, subject matter, and
genre. The expression of sexual identity in
composing processes was sometimes a way of
overcoming homophobia. Often, as the participants
described, the more indirect negotiations
of sexual identity were the effect of homophobia;
omission was a form of the expression of
sexual identity. Whether for personal or public
expression, the negotiation of sexual identity
as it is expressed in writing, an essential
component in the phenomenon of negotiating
sexual identity in the participants composing
processes.
Courage
The participants demonstrated courage
through the ways in which they chose to express
and negotiate their sexual identity in their
writing. The risk of doing so was very real for
them. Tom, who rarely wrote about his sexual
identity in academic contexts explained:
Well, you know, I just think that being
gay in our society is just really difficult.
You know, there are a lot of people
who just want you dead and who
can’t stand that fact that you live and
that you love, or that you have sex with
whoever you do.
Steve, who worked with student writing for several
years, affirmed Tom’s interpretation:
Having taught high school for several
years, I can imagine being an 18 year
old kid who’s popular on the football
team and life’s going great all of a sudden
saying, “I think I’m gonna be gay.
I think that it would be more fun to be
hated by my classmates, be thrown out
of my church (by) my parents.”
While Tom’s interpretation of risk may not have
seemed as extreme as Steve’s, the consequences
of revealing sexual identity were often heartfelt,
as Chris stated: “When I first started writing, I
would have taken that experience as almost a
death threat because I was so concerned about
people knowing who I am, and I was afraid of
being abused or beaten up.” Whether it was
fear of a violent response or a loss of social acceptance,
the courage to address sexual identity
was a cornerstone of negotiating sexual identity
in writing processes.
Kirk chose to assert his sexual identity and
selected a topic for a class project that he considered
was gay-identified. He wrote about putting
on a condom: “You know, in ’95, I don’t
know, even though it was only 12 years ago, I
don’t think there were a lot of straight boys writing
about, you know, how to put on a condom.”
Transforming Experience
69
Kirk described his courage and the awareness of
his difference. Chris described his experience:
“In writing courses where this [sexual identity]
came up, I was fearful and yet excited to
be able to share these experiences with people
even if they were anonymous.” The impact that
fear had on composing was in the form of the
choice as whether to write about sexual identity
or not. Chris explained that, in composing
processes, fear would cause him to limit his
writing: “[The act of writing] can be limiting at
times because of my nervousness.” The consistent
dichotomy of fear and courage was ever-
present when negotiating sexual identity in
composing processes.
Weighing the risks against the rewards of
revealing sexual identity in writing was another
component of composing processes. Mark
embraced his sexual identity as part of his spirituality:
“I realize that my life isn’t going to be
accepted by everyone and that there will be
people out there who will say I can’t be Christian
or I can’t be this or I can’t be that, but I’m
doing those things.” Mark was not alone in his
description of the rewards of embracing and expressing
his sexual identity. Bob enjoyed more
private aspects of writing: “Well I think as I get
older, coming out and meeting other gay people
and being more open about my sexuality, my
writing has gotten more emotional.” Bob described
the experience of creating writing that
was more honest as a result of his courage to
express his sexual identity.
Being Out
As the participants experienced, to privately
live with awareness of one’s sexual identity
does not necessarily beget publicly expressing
one’s sexual identity. However, awareness is an
important step to public expression. Regardless
of the choices one makes in his private and personal
expressions of his sexual identity, being
out is a fundamental act negotiated in the composing
processes. Yet, in order to be out, one
must first come out.
Coming out, or becoming aware of one’s
sexual identity, uniquely happened for each
participant. While the experience of coming
out was not the focus of the present study, it
was a primary facet of being out and negotiating
sexual identity. Coming out led to being
out, and was a core component in negotiating
sexual identity in composing processes. For
Steve, being out was important: “The world is
still very ignorant of what the gay and lesbian
lifestyle is.”
Kirk had an interesting description of being
out: “It wasn’t necessary for me to come out if
I lived in Provincetown because I was living the
gay dream.” Because Provincetown is a wellknown
gay resort town, Kirk described his sexual
identity as being implied by the culture in
which he lived. Thus, coming out in his writing
was unnecessary:
Most of the writing I did publicly was
for either a publication called Bay Windows,
which is a New England weekly
gay newspaper. I did some arts writing.
And then I did some arts writing for
Provincetown Banner and they’re not a
gay newspaper per se, but it’s the Provincetown
weekly paper, the gay press
today, you know, content by default it’s
a gay writer. And by writing it, you’re
sort of implying your sexuality.
Kirk described how his sexual identity is implied
by the context in which he writes and the
community in which he lives.
The participants described the experience
of not knowing or just coming to know about
their sexual identity, as Bob described in his
college experience:
I think back then, when I was in college,
I don’t think I would be comfortable
enough to write something about
my sexuality. I don’t think I really
came into my sexuality until I was into
my late twenties. So if I was in college
and I was asked to write an essay based
on my sexuality, I don’t think that my
orientation would come out in any way
whatsoever.
Chris described his first college writing experiences:
“I did notice trepidation in the beginning
because of all of that, and it took me several
years to get comfortable enough to, to really
identify myself in writing as being gay.” Mark
added:
I think part of the reason I went through
the depression and failed out of school
and all that was because I was just so
caught up in the idea that other people
could tell me who I should be; who
I could be; who God wanted me to be.
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Stu stated:
In college, I was not out and, but I had,
even though I wasn’t out, an awareness
that I was gay. I think because of
that, my inclination was to write about
themes related to social justice and
prejudice and even impacted the major
that I selected in college. Now, I
was in the process of coming out, and
subsequently came out during graduate
school, but I’m not necessarily sure
that my coming impacted the kind of
writing it did. Although to some degree,
it did impact the types of subjects
that were interesting to me.
The participants described two primary aspects
about how sexual identity is expressed in writing.
One of these is not being out and thus not
being able to write about sexual identity directly.
The other is choice.
It is important to note that while the participants
may not have been explicitly negotiating
sexual identity, they made a conscious choice
to not do so. However, the participants experienced
a freedom in expressing their sexual identity
through writing. Chris illustrated the process
of negotiating sexual identity in composing
processes by describing what it was like to write
as an out gay man: “I can’t take on this other
persona of someone that I never was and try to
live through that, otherwise my writing process
would be almost invalid; it would be false, and
people would, I feel, see through it.” Chris described
his writing processes as essential to his
being out.
According to the participants’ descriptions,
being out and coming out were intrinsic to each
other. How this was negotiated in the participants’
composing processes occurred both within
composing processes and outside of them.
Whether the participants were personally out
about their sexual identity or not, the participants
negotiated their sexual identity and either
engaged it in writing acts or chose not to do so.
The participants found themselves in continual
negotiation with the landscape of sexual identity
during their composing processes.
Reflection
The participants’ descriptions affirmed that
writing as an innately reflective act. When composing,
the participants engaged the process of
reflection by considering the ways their sexual
identity could affect their writing. Reflection
was as a way of coming to understand one’s
experience.
When asked how one might respond to an
essay prompt that allowed one to address sexual
identity, the participants reflected on the difficulties
of the question. They reflected on it
through both their life experience and hypotheses,
and asserted the impossibility of having
been able to address their sexual identity
in writing while in college. For example, Tom
shared:
You know, I’m not really sure. I didn’t
do a lot of writing about my sexuality. I
think I did an abstract story once about
two gay boys not boys, young men. It
was in a creative writing class, and it
wasn’t very good mainly because I’m
not a creative writer.
Stu stated: “I’ve never really had to write something
like that. I don’t think I’ve ever been
asked to write that.” It was through reflection
that this awareness presented itself to the
participants.
The participants described reflection as providing
a sense of completion and understanding.
Kirk reflected on how he would write an
essay concerning his sexual identity: “I think I
would definitely. For me it would immediately
start at my childhood because my sexuality
was sort of muted. It is very much a part of
my story.” Kirk would have incorporated his
life experience into the narrative, if he had been
provided the opportunity and had the personal
awareness necessary to write about his sexual
identity. Mark stated: “You have to be honest
with yourself and you have to figure that out,
otherwise there would be no point in writing
an essay that would reveal your sexual orientation.”
Through reflective acts, Mark came to
understand why writing about his sexual identity
was difficult for him
The participants said that reflection naturally
and spontaneously occurred in their writing.
They showed that reflection also occurred
outside the contexts of composing processes.
Reflection allowed them the ability to discover
the nature of their experience and describe
it completely. Through the description of their
experiences with composing and their descriptions
of their lives, the participants described
Transforming Experience
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the links in negotiating their sexual identity in
composing processes.
Negotiating Public and Personal Identity
Two primary ways in which the participants
negotiated their identity were personally
and publicly. The ways in which the participants
negotiated their sexual identity in
composing processes provided a look into how
they negotiated their sexual identity as moving
from private contexts of identification into public
expression. Kirk described this negotiation
of public and personal identity as being influenced
by culture. He used his professional career
as a journalist to demonstrate:
Well you know, sure, I mean, like, culturally
I think sometimes editors would
choose me for a topic because they
knew I would get it without any, you
know, intensive study of, you know,
something had to be written within a
week’s time.
The public negotiation of sexual identity for
Kirk was externally focused: “I would rather
look out toward other people than look too
introspectively.” Kirk said this was a result of
the media for which he wrote, which was gaycentric
and imbedded in a gay-centric culture.
Kirk experienced the negotiation of his sexual
identity uniquely; it was expected that his
writing would be gay. He stated: “People just
know who you are, or that’s the gay guy that
works at the AIDS support group, and he’s freelancing
about this gay topic. Isn’t that nice?”
Kirk showed that culture influences how sexual
identity is negotiated, because culture is the audience
for whom one writes.
The culture in which the participants negotiated
sexual identity was a core component
in choosing to engage or ignore sexual identity.
However, they experienced personal and public
identity, regardless of social context, as inseparable.
Within composing processes, this negotiation
was intrinsic. Tom stated:
Well, like I said, I certainly look at
things from a different perspective than
say a straight man would. So in that regard
it does affect my writing process;
what I write about would be affected;
what I choose to write about would be
affected; and it would be, you know,
topics that would be, you know, if it’s
a story about a paper about a health
the AIDS health crisis in the early part
of the gay community or in the earlier
days.
Chris claimed: “At first, I tried to separate my
sexual identity and my writing process.” He
later felt this was unnecessary: “I’m just thinking
if they’re not sleeping with me it’s none of
their business, but I’m gonna write.” The participants
described the negotiation of personal
and public identity as a way of negotiating culture
and context.
Writing exists within the confines of culture.
However, the context of that culture allowed
the participants to experience their sexual
identity differently. Some of the participants
described composing experiences positively;
others described their experiences as stilted,
even negatively. Whether writing personally,
professionally, or academically, the negotiation
of personal and public sexual identity was a primary
component in the composing processes
for the participants.
Integration
The participants described integration as
the process of incorporating sexual identity into
both personal and public identities. They experienced
the process of integration as a long one
that involved many steps and struggles; however,
the resulting integration was empowering.
Integration was intrinsic to their descriptions.
Tom discussed integrating his sexual identity
in writing as relief: “It is validating in many
ways, and it’s a good way to sort of get things
out.” Chris stated: “And then the more I became
more comfortable with myself, the easier
it became in the writing process.” The effects of
integrating sexual identity are clearly described
by these two participants. He added: “Everything
that I write about is slanted on my own
experiences, my own experiences being a gay
man.” The way in which Chris’s sexual identity
has integrated itself into both his personal
identity and his composing process is evident.
It is experienced as something essential. Steve
said: “I think it’s a lifestyle to which we’re born
in.” Chris explained: “My sexual identity because
that’s who I am, and that’s what I’m capable
of grasping. I don’t know that I have the
imagination as of yet to write about heterosexual
love because I haven’t experienced that so in
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72
writing. I basically have that viewpoint of GLTB
identity and use that in my writing.” Tom explained
his experience in great detail:
I just think that I would approach
things, you know, as a gay man. I
would approach everything that way. I
certainly look at things from a different
perspective than, say, a straight man
would. So in that regard, it does affect
my writing process in the sense of the
process of writing.
The participants’ sexual identities became a
component of who they are. Thus, they experienced
writing as being more authentic. Stu
described how sexual identity operated in his
composing processes:
Now, I would say that my writing continues
to be more of a technical kind of
writing related to my career. How my
sexuality may impact my writing today.
It’s interesting. I have on occasion gay
patients, and I’m always surprised or
interested how other people refer to
those patients … And I think that my
own writing, because of my own sexuality,
I feel like I can handle that with a
certain sort of sensitivity that someone
else without this particular perspective
could.
Stu then reflected on what it might be like if he
were writing from his current perspective in a
college classroom:
And I think because I’ve moved past
that in my life, if I were to write about
it now even in an English 101 class, if
I were to write about it now, it would
be more regular, more matter of fact. It
just is what it is. There’s not a lot of
thought that goes into it. There’s not
a lot of thought that goes into it, but
because there really isn’t much struggle
now, I don’t think I’d write about it
from that perspective.
For Stu, integration was the final stage of negotiating
sexual identity in composing processes.
Integration allowed both the author and the
reader to engage in the discourse of sexual identity
with acceptance and understanding. While
the participants described the process of integrating
sexual identity into personal and public
identities as a life-long process, they stated that
the negotiation is well worth the risks. Steve
explained:
I think how glad I am that I am who I
am; that I don’t have to worry about
that. Also, the time in which we live
that we don’t have to worry about being
put to death as a result of who we
are.
The end result of this integrative process, as
Steve described, was transformative.
Discussion
Writing is an innately transformational act
(Malinowitz, 1995). Paranto (2005) stated:
“Writing can transform and heal writers; writing
makes personal and social change possible”
(p. 3). Paranto’s study defined writing as transformative
by both teachers and students and
something innate to one’s sense of identity, culture,
and community:
Students draw on multiple and complex
discourses to define transformative
writing. This study suggests that
for these students writing is a sociocultural
practice deeply imbedded in their
sense of self and their constructs of
knowledge and power. This study also
suggests that writing in a classroom
that creates the space for students to
connect their subjective experience and
knowledge with academic literacy practices
is transformative. (p. 3)
In the composition classroom, this kind of academic
literacy, Paranto argued, is innate to
writing.
Within this transformative process of writing
is the negotiation of personal and public
identities, meaning and knowledge, and authority
and power (Malinowitz, 1995). The
discourses of sexual identity, both written and
oral, can, as well, become transformative ways
of producing more authentic writing. The essence
of negotiating sexual identity in the composing
processes of gay men was transformation.
I identified transformation as a process
marked with acts that produced a continued
change, both personal and social, and that is
imbedded in the emergent themes of the phenomenon.
It was through transformation that
both the experience and knowledge of the participants
connected with written meaning.
Hence, the transformative experience of negotiating
sexual identity in composing processes
Transforming Experience
73
allowed the participants to bring deeper structures
of meaning into written form.
The emergent themes of this phenomenon
have been ordered in such a way as to suggest
this process for transformation, but this ordering
does not attempt to assert that this is the
only process through which transformation can
or will occur. The ordering of the seven themes
presented in this study suggests that the thread
of transformation can be traced through the
emergent themes; this thread can be, as with
most human experience, linear or not. To better
explicate the transformative nature of the
phenomenon, I offer a discussion of how each
emergent theme inter-relates.
The participants described discovery as
a way of coming into awareness. Discovery
happened when there was an absence of understanding
about something. The discovery
of sexual identity was often an essential moment
of personal growth. However, discovery
did not necessarily beget acceptance. Malinowitz
(1995) stated: “Sexual identity is a component
of personal and social identity highlighted
for gay men because homophobia in the culture
makes it problematic” (p. 24). As a result,
as the participants discovered their sexual identity,
it often led to years of denial and/or constraints
of expression. The author supported
this description:
Because gay men must constantly assess
the consequences of being out and
negotiate the terms of disclosure, often
necessitating elaborate monitoring
of what is said and even thought
(‘internalized homophobia’), a particular
complication is woven into their
processes of construing and constructing
knowledge. Even for those who
are most out, acts of making meaning
involve constant confrontation with
many of the premises and mandates of
the dominant culture. Gay writers do
not have to be familiar with reader-response
theory to know that in a homophobic
society, the transaction between
a heterosexual reader and a homosexual
text can yield explosive meanings.
(p. 24)
It took the participants courage to discover and
express sexual identity in writing because it involved
confronting the mandates of the dominant
culture.
As the participants experienced, courage
was not the absence of fear, but the quality of
mind and spirit that allowed the participants to
face difficulty and/or pain regardless of fear.
Courage was necessary to overcome adversity
and choose to live a life of being out, or to live
openly and publicly with awareness. Malinowitz
wrote about the experience of being out and
creating a sense of self:
The risks that [gay men] take in coming
out, the rewards that motivate and
enable them to come out, the ways they
calculate those risks and rewards, the
factors that position them to negotiate
that calculation, the ways they locate
and define and propel themselves within
the master narratives of hegemonic
heterosexual culture, the communities
and identities they form within and in
opposition to that culture—all of these
things produce particular sorts of relationships
to the world that have everything
to do with who they “are.” (p. 7)
By reflecting on the world in which they lived,
the participants experienced being out as living
openly and publicly with awareness. In contrast,
they experienced the closet as living privately
or secretively, often without awareness.
The participants also experienced reflecting or
meditating on sexual identity as part of negotiating
personal and public identity.
Constructions of identity in writing are often
based around a fairly simple premise: audience
and expectation. For gay men, identity
is negotiated chiefly around heteronormativity.
One writes according to the precepts set
forth by one’s audience, according to the participants’
descriptions of their experiences. In
support of this idea, Hickey (1993) showed
that identity and voice, or written identity, are
shaped through the constant tension of the constructed
and the “distinctive self” (p. 25):
Any reader, like any writer, is in a state
of both constancy and flux. Each writer
strives to discover and communicate
her private relationship to the world in
which she lives, yet that same world
pressures her to conform, to please. All
we can do, I believe, is live with the
tension. Its existence is part of what
it means to be an individual and a
member of a community. Every day,
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74
our voices are spoken and heard, written
and read, within that tension. The
sound of that struggle, however, is often
what’s missing in print. (p. 25)
The process of constructing identity and knowledge
of that identity was in constant flux with
the participants’ perceptions. However, what
Hickey illustrated as the primary tension between
the constructed self and the distinctive
self, the participants experienced as the process
of integration. This integrative act was defined
by Hickey (1993): “The sound of that struggle”
(p. 25). This struggle was often the continued
result of identity discovery and/or construction
or, as Malinowitz (1995) postulated, something
essential in the process of discourse: “Creating
a new kind of discourse through community,
and a new kind of community through discourse”
(p. 267).
Negotiating sexual identity in composing
processes occurred both literally and figuratively.
The descriptions and experiences the participants
presented held within them a transformative
quality. While sexual identity was often
constructed differently in various settings, the
participants described negotiations of sexual
identity as something essential to the way in
which they experienced themselves. Through
the lens of composing processes, the participants
engaged a sense of who they are by revealing
themselves with unabridged descriptions
of how they experienced negotiating their
sexual identity in composing processes.
In summary, each emergent theme of the
phenomenon explained another texture of transformation
in negotiating sexual identity in composing
processes. Discovery provided a way of
uncovering sexual identity; expression provided
avenues of revealing sexual identity; courage
provided a sense of being able to overcome perceived
and inherent risks in identifying sexual
identity; being out provided avenues of knowing
about sexual identity, reflection provided
further insight into sexual identity, negotiating
public and personal identities provided ways
of combining and incorporating sexual identity,
and integration provided a means for which
sexual identity became something normative
in the lives of the participants. Within each of
these emergent themes, the participants experienced
acts, processes, and instances of transformation.
The patterns that emerged as the
descriptive qualities of these themes serve to reinforce
the transformative quality of each emergent
theme and the phenomenon as a whole.
Through an explication of these themes, transformation
rooted itself as the essential experience
and the participants were able to bring
deeper structures of meaning into their varied
descriptions.
Limitations and Future Research
There are several limitations in the present
study. First, this study describes the phenomenon
of writing and the observations and experiences
of a small population. It cannot be
determined whether a larger pool would have
revealed different results. However, the data
from the participants saturated quickly and
richly, and data analysis was validated by external
readers. Second, along with the participants,
I identify as an out gay man. Additionally,
I am a college-level writing instructor. Thus,
I had the potential to influence the results of the
study. Because of my perceptions of the congruence
between the writing process and sexual
identity, I could affect the participants’ interviews.
I engaged Moustakas’ (1997) epoche to
help address this issue.
The descriptions of the participants are presented
for an audience that includes researchers
and educators in the field of rhetoric and
composition and queer studies, as well as gay
men. Future qualitative research into the relationships
between sexual identity and composing
processes can help shape future pedagogies.
By better understanding how sexual identity
reveals itself through writing, composition instructors
can better understand the composing
processes of gay men.
Exploring the voices of sexual identity in a
variety of composing processes can help create
a better understanding of their unique contexts.
In turn, this understanding will help create
more awareness of these contexts. By exposing
the impact of sexual identity on writing processes,
teachers can better facilitate and negotiate
the experience of their queer student writers.
By exploring gay voices in writing, new ways
of interpreting texts will evolve that will continue
to provide new insight into composing processes.
New ways of understanding constructions
of meaning, identity, knowledge, power,
and authority can continue to emerge through
Transforming Experience
75
the exploration of queer voices in writing and
the composition classroom.
This study shows how future researchers can
continue to expand on what is known about the
relationship between sexual identity and writing.
For educators, this study furthers the discourses
about identity and composing processes.
For gay men, this study provides continued
validation for exploring sexual identity. In the
end, this study on negotiating sexual identity in
the composing processes of gay men, built upon
existing research, hopes to shed more light on
the ways in which queer voices resonate in writing
and in our societies.
References
Armstrong, J. (1997). Homophobic slang as coercive
discourse among college students. In A. Liva
and K. Hall (Eds.), Queerly phrased: Language,
gender, and sexuality (pp. 326-34). New York:
Oxford University Press.
Bergman, D. (1991). Gayiety transfigured: Gay self
representation in American literature. Madison:
The University of Wisconsin Press.
Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design:
Choosing among five approaches. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Emig, J. (1971). The composing processes of twelfth
graders. New York: National Council of Teachers
of English.
Flower, L. (1990). Reading-to-write: Exploring a cognitive
and social process. New York: Oxford University
Press.
Flower, L. (1994). The construction of negotiated
meaning: A social cognitive theory of writing.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Giorgi, A. (1985). Sketch of a psychological phenomenological
method. In A. Giorgi (Ed.), Phenomenology
and psychological research (pp. 8-22).
Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.
Hickey, J. (1993). Developing a written voice. Mountainview,
CA: Mayfield.
Ilyasova, K. A. (2007) Writing, identity, and practice:
The role of sexual identity in the composition
classroom. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
Michigan Technological University, Houghton,
MI.
Malinowitz, H. (1995). Textual orientations: Lesbian
and gay students and the making of discourse
communities. Portsmouth, NH: Boyton Cook.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research
methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Newkirk, T. (1997). The performance of self in student
writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-
Boynton/ Cook.
Paranto, L. (2005). Writing and transformation in
college composition. Retrieved from Electronic
Doctoral Dissertations for UMass Amherst.
(AAI3179914)
Patton, Q. (2001). Qualitative research and evaluation
methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Riessman, C. (2003). Narrative analysis. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research:
A guide for researchers in education and
the social sciences. New York: Teachers College.
Berry
Copyright of Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research is the property of Journal of Ethnographic &
Qualitative Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv
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Copyright of Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research is the property of Journal of Ethnographic &
Qualitative Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv
without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email
articles for individual use.

address police department roles and functions

address police department roles and functions
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address police department roles and functions. Include the following in your paper:
•    Identify the principal roles and functions of police organizations and their role as it applies to the law.
•    Describe various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal level and the roles and functions of each.
•    Explain the role and function of patrol work.

Comparing and contrasting the treatment of cultural

Comparing and contrasting the treatment of cultural
write an essay of about 800 words comparing and contrasting the treatment of cultural in these 2 short stories  “The boy plaything, Life as mockery” by Bissoondath and “Swimming lessons” by Mistry.

The media presents a distorted picture of crime however media reporting only has a minor effect on people's knowledge about crime and crime justice responses.Discuss.

The media presents a distorted picture of crime however media reporting only has a minor effect on people’s knowledge about crime and crime justice responses.Discuss.
1. The media presents a distorted picture of crime however media reporting only has a minor effect on people’s knowledge about crime anc criminal justice responses. Discuss.
A good starting point for this essay is chapter 1 ofthe textbook Briefly describe the way in
which the media presents a distorted picture of crime
You will then need to review research which has explored relationships between
distorted media depictions of crime and people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses.
Select at least 2 or 3 ways in which distorted media presentations of crime affect people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses (e.g. fear of crime,policies which are too severe (harsh and inappropriate responses to crime, police focus on violent crime ratherthan say white collar crime).
Briefly outline each factor and the empirical evidence which has explored the relationships
You need to conclude for each factor whether or not it is significantly affected by media depictions. Are there certain aspects ofpeople’s knowledge or criminal justice policies which are affected more strongly than others? You also need to conclude overall about the impact of media depictions on people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses.
It is acceptable to present stories which have been reported in the media to illustrate your points howevertry to limit the description ofthese stories to a line or two. Your essay needs to be based upon
academic research rather than newspaper stories.
You must adopt a position and argue this position throughout. Possible arguments might be:
(i) that media depictions significantly affect people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses;
(ii) that media depictions don’t affect people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses; (iii) that media depictions affect people’s knowledge about certain crime and criminal justice responses but not others.
This essay topic it is fine to disagree with the statement and argue that actually media reporting has a major effect on people’s knowledge about crime and criminal justice responses. You should develop this position after reading your empirical articles.
your essay preparation’ forum. The next step is to develop some good keywords for searching in the Griffith library. Think about ways in
which the media might affect people’s knowledge about crime. Perhaps you might think that the media affects people’s fear of crime. This
might lead to a library search using the terms ‘fear of crime’ AND ‘media’. What other ways does the media affect people’s knowledge about crime?

Adminstrative Law

Adminstrative Law
write a modified letter of advice to a client based on the problem scenario provided.  avoiding the use oflegal jargon, case names and legislation in the body ofthe letter.
The letter of advice must address the following:
1) Based on the problem scenario, you must provide a comprehensive summary to your client ofthe appropriate non-judicial review steps that were pursued to try and effect a change to the
decision. You must briefly explain to your client, why each ofthese steps failed to obtain a positive outcome. You must provide a logical sequencing ofthe steps that were taken to try and effect a change ofthe decision.
2) Some reference should be made where appropriate to the following:
(i) informal review,
(ii) obtaining reasons, if applicable
(iii) an FOI applications,
(iv) the Ombudsman and
(v) tribunal review.
In addition to the facts forthe scenario, you have been provided with a number of other letters or materials, which you need to consider. You need to determine, howthese letters or statements were obtained and legal support forthis should be provided in your Endnotes. These materials are available on the Assignment page ofvUWS.
If you considerthat some ofthe steps for non-judicial review are not appropriate, then a brief explanation as to why you made this decision should be included in the Endnotes, with references made to the lelevant and appropriate primary and/or secondary sources to support your election.
You must outline the “merits issues”that may have been relevant in terms ofthe avenues of non-judicial reviewthat were pursued. Such issues must be supported by legal references in the
Endnotes. Legal references will include references to the legislative sections, regulations, cases (a brief one line summary ofthe ratio should be included) and where appropriate references to secondary materials.
3) You must also briefly mention) to your client of any other action that may be taken, as all avenues for non-judicial review have failed to provide a positive outcome. You should concisely explain to
your client in plain English the difference between judicial review and merits review , and what remedies are available should such an application be successful. Briefly, explain to your client in plain English what this means forthem in terms of achieving their desired outcome.
4) An outline oftime frames, application fees, flnancial costs and any relevant procedural
requirements should be briefly discussed in the letter. Again legal support forthese statements must be included in the Endnotes.General Guide for Letter of Advice Particular reference must be made to relevant legislative sections, regulations and cases in the Endnotes,
while a summary ofthe effect of such law written in plain English should be included within the letter itself.
The word limit excludes the endnotes. The endnotes should mostly consist of pinpoint references to the relevant legislative sections, regulations, cases and secondary sources. All material must be correctly cited using AGLC.
A brief statement ofthe principle oflaw from the cases or other material upon which you are relying may be included in the Endnotes, where you consider a brief explanation should be provided for clarity.
However, such statements should be limited to one concise sentence or quote

IFRS – what does it stand for and what is it? Include dates and how it will affect businesses of all sizes; where it is and isn't affective now, how it compares to US GAAP

IFRS – what does it stand for and what is it? Include dates and how it will affect businesses of all sizes; where it is and isn’t affective now, how it compares to US GAAP
IFRS – what does it stand for and what is it?  Include dates and how it will affect businesses of all sizes; where it is and isn’t affective now, how it compares to US GAAP – if less than 1/2 page will not receive full points

interest rate risk

interest rate risk
IBM has an existing loan of $20 million at LIBOR +0.25%, repriced every six months, for the next five years. The firm worries that the interest rates, particularly LIBOR, might go up in the years ahead. It decides to swap the loan into a fixed rate one. It contacts Citibank and receives the following quotes:
Bid        Offer
6.47%        6.51%
for a five-year interest rate swap. The quotes are against six-month LIBOR. (When the bank pays LIBOR, it receives the offer rate; when the bank receives LIBOR, it pays the bid rate)
(1)    Please help IBM make an arrangement with Citibank.
(2)  Please evaluate the result for IBM after the swap.

Mies van der Rohe's conceptions of space this is discussing Mies van der Rohe's conceptions of space, first reading by Barry Bergdoll, which will give you an overview of Mies's villas and the influence of garden design on his conception and a second by Robin Evans, which will focus primarily on the Barcelona Pavilion and Mies's unique approach to symmetry. I have also included one of Mies's own texts as reference. The Bergdoll text is quite long, focus on what you think is Bergdoll's main argument about the nature of Mies's spatial approach. 2-Please be specific to the article and don't be general. use only my resources. Also look for is the main argument. what you think is important that the author think is important? This is not a summary paper.

Mies van der Rohe’s conceptions of space
this is discussing Mies van der Rohe’s conceptions of space, first reading by Barry Bergdoll, which will give you an overview of Mies’s villas and the influence of garden design on his conception and a second by Robin Evans, which will focus primarily on the Barcelona Pavilion and Mies’s unique approach to symmetry. I have also included one of Mies’s own texts as reference. The Bergdoll text is quite long, focus on what you think is Bergdoll’s main argument about the nature of Mies’s spatial approach.
2-Please be specific to the article and don’t be general. use only my resources. Also look for is the main argument. what you think is important that the author think is important? This is not a summary paper.

Microsoft Access Database Design and Implementation Business Scenario Your company has been using Excel to track customer orders. They are having difficulty analyzing the data and producing meaningful reports. They have asked you to implement an Access database which will allow them to add, modify and delete data as well as generate reports based on the information contained in the database. 1. Create Database ?Your first task is to create a database in Microsoft Access populated with data from OriginalData.xlsx spreadsheet which includes: ?§??the material worksheet?§??the customer worksheet?§??the salesorder worksheet?§??the salesorderitem worksheet ?Start with a “blank” Access database, name this database YourName.accdb. Import data from each worksheet in the Excel file OriginalData.xlsx. Note that each worksheet should be imported as a new Access table and given the same name as the Excel worksheet. Hint: Be careful in setting the datatypes of each field during the import process – remember foreign keys (an example is the CustomerID in the SalesOrder table) MUST be of the same data type as the corresponding primary key in a related table. Use text for ID numbers in all tables. 2. Create Relationships & Forms for Data Entry?a. Build the relationships for the three tables per the model shown in Figure 1. ?Figure 1: Model of the Relationships ITM 220 Access Assignment Dr. Papp 3. Create Forms for Data Entry a. Create a data input form (name it “customerFRM”) for customers that can be used to update the customer table. Use the Create form wizard with “split form”. Add one company to the database as a new customer that is a Hypermart in Fulda (Germany) with postal code of 36048. Use your UT student ID for the customerID. Figure 2 b. Create a form to display each salesorder as well as salesorderitem details on a subform. (Use the Forms Wizard, style “office”.) The form should look like Figure 3 below. For Order number 10 add an additional line item using your new form as follows: MaterialID: AA-02 Quantity: 100 Price: 525 Figure 3 ITM 220 Access Assignment Dr. Papp 4. Create Queries to Analyze Information (a) Create a query called Q1-ListAllCustomers which displays each customer’s ID, postal code, city, and searchterm. Sort the list alphabetically by city (hint change setting in “Sort” row of query design grid). (b) Create a query called Q2-ListCustomersFulda that displays the ID, postal code, city, and searchterm for each customer in Fulda. Sort this list from largest to smallest by customerID. (c) Create a new query called Q3-PriceStatistics that displays price in six columns but computes different values for each display. Display 1) the sum, 2) the minimum, 3) the maximum value, 4) a count, 5) the average, and 6) the standard deviation of price. (Hint: use the Sigma summation symbol to display the “Total:” row in the query grid) (d) Create a query called Q4-CustomerOrderbyItem that displays data from all four tables. Specifically include: Customer, City, SearchTerm, SalesOrderDate, SalesOrderID, MaterialID, Quantity, Price, and Material description. Sort by MaterialID. This query will be used as an input to the next query and to show we can reassemble the data from the original document used to build the system. (e) Create a query called Q5-OrderDetailsCrosstab, which produces a table such as is shown below (Hint: use the crosstab function in the Query Wizard and the previous query as your input to create this query) (f) Create a query called Q6-CustomersLessThan15000. Start by copying Q4 and modify the name. Display only data for total prices less than 15000 Euros. (Hint: use the “criteria” row by entering the appropriate inequality and numeric value to generate the correct data.) ITM 220 Access Assignment Dr. Papp 5. Create Reports for Management (a) Create a report “R1-CustomerbyCity” that looks like the one below. • Use the Create | Report with Customer table. (Don’t use Report Wizard.) • Change the title to include your name. • Use “layout view” to customize report (column order, width and sort by city,) ?(b) Create a second report “R2-SalesReport” as shown below using Q4 as your input source. ?•?Use Create | Report again but with Q4 as your source. You can use Report Wizard or create the report manually. Note: “right click” is your friend as you modify the default report format to achieve: ?o Group on MaterialID?o Group on MaterialDescription?o Adjust layout to “Stack MaterialDescription” as shown?o Sort by OrderDate?o Compute subtotals and grand totals for price and quantity?o Adjust format to align columns and change labels as necessary

Microsoft Access Database Design and Implementation
Business Scenario
Your company has been using Excel to track customer orders. They are having difficulty analyzing the data and producing meaningful reports. They have asked you to implement an Access database which will allow them to add, modify and delete data as well as generate reports based on the information contained in the database.
1.    Create Database ?Your first task is to create a database in Microsoft Access populated with data from OriginalData.xlsx spreadsheet which includes: ?§??the material worksheet?§??the customer worksheet?§??the salesorder worksheet?§??the salesorderitem worksheet ?Start with a “blank” Access database, name this database YourName.accdb. Import data from each worksheet in the Excel file OriginalData.xlsx. Note that each worksheet should be imported as a new Access table and given the same name as the Excel worksheet. Hint: Be careful in setting the datatypes of each field during the import process – remember foreign keys (an example is the CustomerID in the SalesOrder table) MUST be of the same data type as the corresponding primary key in a related table. Use text for ID numbers in all tables.
2.    Create Relationships & Forms for Data Entry?a. Build the relationships for the three tables per the model shown in Figure 1. ?Figure 1: Model of the Relationships
ITM 220 Access Assignment Dr. Papp
3. Create Forms for Data Entry
a. Create a data input form (name it “customerFRM”) for customers that can be used to update the customer table. Use the Create form wizard with “split form”. Add one company to the database as a new customer that is a Hypermart in Fulda (Germany) with postal code of 36048. Use your UT student ID for the customerID.
Figure 2
b. Create a form to display each salesorder as well as salesorderitem details on a subform. (Use the Forms Wizard, style “office”.) The form should look like Figure 3 below.
For Order number 10 add an additional line item using your new form as follows: MaterialID: AA-02
Quantity: 100 Price: 525
Figure 3 ITM 220
Access Assignment Dr. Papp
4. Create Queries to Analyze Information
(a) Create a query called Q1-ListAllCustomers which displays each customer’s ID, postal code, city, and searchterm. Sort the list alphabetically by city (hint change setting in “Sort” row of query design grid).
(b) Create a query called Q2-ListCustomersFulda that displays the ID, postal code, city, and searchterm for each customer in Fulda. Sort this list from largest to smallest by customerID.
(c) Create a new query called Q3-PriceStatistics that displays price in six columns but computes different values for each display. Display 1) the sum, 2) the minimum, 3) the maximum value, 4) a count, 5) the average, and 6) the standard deviation of price. (Hint: use the Sigma summation symbol to display the “Total:” row in the query grid)
(d) Create a query called Q4-CustomerOrderbyItem that displays data from all four tables. Specifically include: Customer, City, SearchTerm, SalesOrderDate, SalesOrderID, MaterialID, Quantity, Price, and Material description. Sort by MaterialID. This query will be used as an input to the next query and to show we can reassemble the data from the original document used to build the system.
(e) Create a query called Q5-OrderDetailsCrosstab, which produces a table such as is shown below (Hint: use the crosstab function in the Query Wizard and the previous query as your input to create this query)
(f) Create a query called Q6-CustomersLessThan15000. Start by copying Q4 and modify the name. Display only data for total prices less than 15000 Euros.
(Hint: use the “criteria” row by entering the appropriate inequality and numeric value to generate the correct data.)
ITM 220 Access Assignment Dr. Papp
5. Create Reports for Management
(a) Create a report “R1-CustomerbyCity” that looks like the one below.
•    Use the Create | Report with Customer table. (Don’t use Report Wizard.)
•    Change the title to include your name.
•    Use “layout view” to customize report (column order, width and sort by city,) ?(b) Create a second report “R2-SalesReport” as shown below using Q4 as your input source. ?•?Use Create | Report again but with Q4 as your source. You can use Report Wizard or create the report manually. Note: “right click” is your friend as you modify the default report format to achieve: ?o Group on MaterialID?o Group on MaterialDescription?o Adjust layout to “Stack MaterialDescription” as shown?o Sort by OrderDate?o Compute subtotals and grand totals for price and quantity?o Adjust format to align columns and change labels as necessary

Political Science 4781

Political Science 4781
Overview. This assignment consists of two parts. The êrst involves setting up a web
scraper. It may take a couple of attempts and will probably take a while to run, so
you might consider setting it up êrst and then working on the second part of the
assignment while it’s running.
Part I: Stu?ed and Starved
Noted author Raj Patel is coming to Ohio State to give a talk. His book, Stu?ed and
Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System, explores the reasons behind the
simultaneous epidemics of starvation and obesity worldwide. Word of your datavisualization skills has spread among your friends, and you’ve been contacted by the
editor of the Lantern and asked to produce two world maps for the newspaper—
one exploring the distribution of poverty in the world and the other exploring the
distribution of obesity.
Go to the CIA World Factbook website and click on “View Text/Low Bandwidth Version” for the uglier (but much more scraper-friendly) version of the site.
Use Outwit Hub to collect data on (a) the adult prevalence rate of obesity and (b)
the percentage of the population below the poverty line for as many countries as you
can.?
Using GunnMap, create two graphs representing “The Stu?ed World” (obesity
rate) and “The Starved World” (percentage below the poverty line). Use whatever
color schemes you’d like, but be sure that the balance is set so that readers can see the
full spectrum of variation. Save the maps as stuffed.jpg and starved.jpg.
Part II: The Structure of Insurgency Networks
The Francs-tireurs were irregular riëemen who engaged in guerrilla warfare and what
we would now call covert operations. Their history dates back at least to the FrancoPrussian War, though they became most prominent during the French Resistance in
World War II.
?There will be a fair bit of missing data, both because some governments don’t report these êgures
and because the CIA World Factbook collects data on territories as well as autonomous countries.
Don’t worry too much about it; GunnMap handles missing data pretty well.
1Your assignment is to analyze the network structure of the Francs-tireurs partisans
(FTP), the military arm of the French Communist Party, which engaged the Nazis
as part of the French Resistance following the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
The data for connections among 175 members of the FTP have been collected
by Alexander Gutfraind at Cornell University. To download and analyze them, visit
Mr. Gutfraind’s website at http://www.cam.cornell.edu/~gfriend/research.php and
ênd the link that says “Network data on the underground network Francs-tireurs et
Partisans.” Either download the data or copy-and-paste them into a text êle.
In order to prepare the data to be read into a network-graphing program (Gephi
or Cytoscape), you will need to do the following in a text editor:
• Remove all the comments at the top (the lines that start with “#”).
• Do a global search and replace within the text êle to replace all spaces with
commas.
• Save the êle, with a .csv su?x (for example, “FTP.csv”).
You will then need to open the CSV êle in a spreadsheet program like Excel and do
the following:
• Delete the third column—the one that only contains 1s.
• Insert a blank row of cells at the top of the spreadsheet (in Excel, you do this
by clicking on row 1, going to the Insert menu, and selecting Rows).
• At the top of the êrst column, enter the word “Source”. At the top of the
second column, enter the word “Target”.
• Save as a CSV êle (for example, “FTP2.csv”).
You now have an edge list, or a list of all of the connections between nodes in the
network. Load this êle into either Gephi or Cytoscape and explore a few di?erent
layout options for the data. When you ênd one that gives you a good sense of what
the network looks like (hint: it’s not just a blob), save a copy of the network graph.
In a separate Word or text êle, answer the following question: Why do you think
the Francs-tireurs partisans network looks the way it does? (1 paragraph)
Upload to Assignment 3 Dropbox a compressed folder containing (a) your two
maps from Part I, (b) your CSV file and network graph from Part II, and (c)
your answer to the question in Part II.

Eastern Orthodox Beliefs

Eastern Orthodox Beliefs
Topic: Describe the key beliefs of Eastern Orthodoxy.Describe only the beliefs – you don’t need to describe their practices or authority structure.(Ware, pp. 11-30; 195-207; 245-306 &Adair, pp. 332-335 print {e-book pp. 555-560}).In order to write each essay, you must read the assigned text. No outside research is required.
In two-three pages you are not expected to summarize all of the material in the assigned reading. Rather, the goal is to write a cohesive essay that responds to the essay prompt.

Discussion Board

Discussion Board
Each of the readings this week make their literary form explicit. Jesus’ writings as well as the Zen writings are parables. MLK, on the other hand, writes in the form of a letter.
1. What effects do the form of the parable and the form of the letter have on an author’s message? Provide examples from the texts.
2. Compare and contrast Jesus’ arguments, the Zen authors’ arguments, and MLK’s argument. Why do you think Jesus and the Zen authors choose to communicate in parables? Why does MLK communicate through a letter?

Discussion Board

Discussion Board
Each of the readings this week make their literary form explicit. Jesus’ writings as well as the Zen writings are parables. MLK, on the other hand, writes in the form of a letter.
1. What effects do the form of the parable and the form of the letter have on an author’s message? Provide examples from the texts.
2. Compare and contrast Jesus’ arguments, the Zen authors’ arguments, and MLK’s argument. Why do you think Jesus and the Zen authors choose to communicate in parables? Why does MLK communicate through a letter?

The song of songs & The golden ass

The song of songs & The golden ass
Essay Exam: The Song of Songs&The Golden Ass
Directions: Read the following questions carefully and choose the one you feel most confident about answering; write one well thought-out essay that responds to all parts of the question with appropriate specific examples supporting your claims; plan for as long as you wish, but try to hold writing time to about an hour. 50 points. Due by next class period.
A.    The Shulamite and her lover sometimes compare each other to wild animals—deer or gazelles, e.g. Lucius, on the other hand, is actually transformed into an animal (albeit a domesticated one), an ass. Compare the animal images of The Song of Songs to Lucius’s experience of being an ass. What do these animal images suggest about how love/lust/desire are imagined in both books? Try to identify both differences and similarities in how the poem and the novel make use of animal imagery.
B.    In ancient literary works about action-adventure or warfare men are always the heroes, but women are sometimes portrayed as heroes in romantic tales. What are the qualities that make a character a hero, and discuss how the Shulamite, Psyche, and Charite should or should not be thought of as the heroes of their respective stories.

Literature

Literature
In  a brief, one  page essay, choose any character from any one of the stories we’ve read thus far and describe the techniques (“Showing” “Telling”  “Saying”, etc.,) that the author uses  to establish that character.  Remember to include specific examples from the  story you’ve chosen to support your point, and to document any outside sources proprerly.
1)  Alexie’s “Superman and Me
2) In “Daughter of Invention,”
3) Alice Walker’s “The    Flowers,”
4) Plot in “Love in L.A.
5) Symbols in “The Secret Goldfish
6) Setting in “Hills Like White Elephant
7) Theme in “Everyday Use”
8 Narrative voice in “The House on Mango Street”

Assess Capital Budgeting Problems

Assess Capital Budgeting Problems
Assess Capital Budgeting Problems ? Expansionary Project
Develop an assessment in which you address the following problems/questions:
Assess the relevant cash flows used in forming a capital budgeting decision model. For this assignment, focus upon an expansionary problem.
Evaluate the cost of capital (wacc) for use in a capital budgeting decision model. Make sure to define each component of the formula. Explain how the resulting cost of capital (wacc) is used within a capital budgeting model. How can the Capital Asset Pricing Model contribute to this analysis?  Explain.
Weigh each of the following decision metrics that can be used within a capital budgeting decision model: net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period. Explain how each metric is formed and discuss the critical value of each in forming conclusions within a capital budgeting decision model. Discuss which method has the strongest basis for being used and under which conditions each might be the preferred method.
Develop a capital budgeting decision model showing cash flows, cost of capital and decision metrics (i.e., npv, irr and payback). Form a conclusion based upon the analysis.  Begin with the example problem on age 405 and 406 of the textbook, Table 12.1.  Modify the problem in the following fashion and develop the analysis within an Excel spreadsheet.
Assume the units sold are 2,700,000 in year 2013 and they grow each subsequent year at 5%.
Assume each unit will sell for $2.10
Assume the variable cost of producing each unit is 1.10.
Assume straight-line depreciation.
The cost of capital is calculated based upon funding from retained earnings and from debt.  The company is assumed to fund itself with 50% debt and 50% retained earnings.  The cost of debt capital, rD, is 7%.  The cost of capital from retained earnings, rS, is based upon the capital asset pricing model.  The risk free rate in the market is 5% and the difference between the expected return on the market and the risk free rate is 5%.  The beta for the company is 2.0.  The tax rate is assumed to be 40%.
Complete a sensitivity analysis in which you reevaluate the model considering the selling price per unit is 1.90, 2.00, 2.10, 2.20 and 2.30.  Present and comment on the results.
Assume all other assumptions as given.
Support your paper with at least three (3) resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.

The Excellent Powder

The Excellent Powder
Instructions: Does this book make it’s case? What are the strong and weak points of its arguement? Should we do more science before taking actions like the DDT ban? You need to discuss these issues withing the context of the arguement presented in the book (not that you have to agree with it, but I want you to comment on the discussion made by the authors).
Discussion: onsider both this book and Silent Spring. Did we do the right thing in banning DDT the way we did given what has happened?
Link to book:http://books.google.com/books?id=S2fvZsZwgQ4C&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=The+Excellent+Powder.+DDT%E2%80%99s+Political+and+Scientific+History.pdf&source=bl&ots=DyXTsMFag0&sig=8iJRBmWvr4_HxDbpa7Z15EfWHDA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4vtEUo_xIYbW9ATS24HICQ&sqi=2&ved=0CEgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=The%20Excellent%20Powder.%20DDT%E2%80%99s%20Political%20and%20Scientific%20History.pdf&f=false

CAS 100B

CAS 100B
Assume that you have been asked for advice concerning communication by a friend who will soon be participating in a group problem-solving or decision-making discussion and who knows that you are taking Communication Arts and Sciences 100B. Although you are only into the third lesson, it is safe to assume that you know more than the person who is asking you for advice. On the other hand, since you have not as yet reached the point in the course involving problem solving and decision making as such, you tell the person, “I do not feel comfortable giving you specific advice about how to communicate in the type of discussion in which you will be participating, but I can give you some tips in the form of do’s and don’ts that apply to nonverbal communication in particular.” Your friend responds, “I will take any advice I can get. I am just petrified about being in this group, having to contribute, and running the risk of making a fool of myself.” Restricting yourself to the material covered in the reading assignment, develop five pieces of advice in the form of “do’s” and “don’ts” that you would be willing to offer. (Two or three of these pieces of advice should be in the form of what to do, and the other two or three should emphasize what to avoid doing.) Write a short dialogue that takes the following form:
You: Piece of Advice #1
Friend: “Why?”
You: Explanation
Friend: “OK, I understand.”
You: Piece of Advice #2
Friend: “Why?”
You: Explanation
Friend: “Great!”
Repeat the pattern (but use your imagination for the friend’s responses) for the remaining three pieces of advice. In developing your explanations, try to be complete enough so that the kinds of responses noted above seem probable. Also, include a brief preface. For instance, “Following is a brief dialogue in which I am giving advice to a friend who is concerned about a forthcoming group discussion.”

Summary Advertising Order Description Summary Advertising Embrace Life – always wear your seat belt advertisement – this is the link form YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-8PBx7isoM 1 background/ overview: 2 what is the objective the purpose of the ad? 3 target audience: who are we talking to? 4 what’s the single most important thing to say? 5 what are the supporting rational and emotional reasons to believe and buy? 6 what else will assist creative development?

Summary Advertising
Order Description
Summary Advertising
Embrace Life – always wear your seat belt advertisement – this is the link form YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-8PBx7isoM
1 background/ overview:
2 what is the objective the purpose of the ad?
3 target audience: who are we talking to?
4 what’s the single most important thing to say?
5 what are the supporting rational and emotional reasons to believe and buy?
6 what else will assist creative development?

How technology has ruined us

How technology has ruined us
1.    Choose a topic.  Think about issues/ideas that you have a strong opinion on or are passionate about.  Conduct some prewriting and preliminary research to see what you can find on your topic.  Keep track of all possible sources and citation information as you go.  *Off-limit topics: drinking age, abortion, and the death penalty.  You should begin working on this step immediately after receiving the assignment.  Please feel free to run preliminary topic ideas by me prior to working on the proposal.  Please see pg. 295 in your text: Topic Narrowing: Issues for Argument.
2.    Create a Research Proposal to turn into me for approval.  A research proposal is when you write a “pitch” to me telling me the probable scope and focus of your essay.  At this point, you need to communicate to me a solid thesis and a plan for development for the essay.  Additionally, you may choose to include counterarguments you wish to address.  This should be typed, about 2 paragraphs in length.  You may also include any sources you’ve found that you think will be useful to your paper.  Note: You needed to have completed some preliminary research by this point to ensure that you have enough material to work with.  However, your focus/thesis may still change slightly after the original proposal.  *Due: __________________
3.    Once your proposal is approved, you should continue your research and plan your paper.  You should strongly consider creating an outline for yourself to follow.  Then begin drafting the paper.
4.    A full draft of your research paper is due _____________________.  I will review your papers and prepare commentary on them to be discussed during individual conferences.
5.    Peer Workshops: ____________________.  Please bring 2 copies of your revised paper with you to this class meeting.  Your goal is to have revised based on what we discussed in your conference and then get feedback from your peers on your revisions.

Int paper wk8

Int paper wk8
lease follow this outline—including using the prescribed headings. You cannot combine or eliminate any category from your paper. Please do not include references. This is an exercise in critical thinking and integration—its design is to encourage you to think about the contents of these preceding 8 weeks of study from a ‘big-picture’ perspective. Again, this is not a research document—it is an assignment to encourage you to integrate the concepts of the module and previous learning periods into your own situation and work environment.
In the paper, address the following questions:
A. What are the most important concepts and theories you have learned in this module?  [While this often turns into a LIST, we expect to see your explanation of what you learned and why it was valuable (or not) to you in this section.]
B. What was covered that you, other stakeholders, or your business can generally benefit from? [Your response should not be a list, but rather observations of what you felt was very good—or not so good—in the last 8 weeks of study.]
C. How will what you have learned impact you personally and professionally?  [In your own words, can you see any effect the materials you’ve studied these past 8 weeks will have on you personally or professionally? Have you learned anything about yourself as a leader? Are there areas in which you are now committed to developing yourself or your skills?] Note especially any critical skills or competencies that you think the module has helped you to develop.
D. How can you link the topics you have learned with previous classes? [Answer only if this is not your first module.]
E. Provide any additional relevant personal notes and observations. [To make sure you understand the purpose for this section—this is about personal matters, not academic—you should put anything to do with your learning or the academic aspects of this module in one of the first four sections. This section is about challenges, difficulties you may be encountering, or suggestions for improvement.] However, as a minimum, Section E of your integration paper should include the answers to the following questions:
How many days did you visit and participate in the classroom each week (the 3 of 7 rule)?
Did you submit all of the graded assignments for the week? If not, when did or will you complete the work?
Did you have any personal problems getting the Module Project done on schedule?
What did you like or dislike about the module—or what would you change?
How do you feel about your progress, both here and through your degree? Are you satisfied with your performance?
What can I do to make things better? Be specific about the ‘personal’ aspects of your module in this section.
Topic covered
Week 1: Examining leadership
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Compare and contrast management and leadership
Evaluate the trait approach to leadership
This week, you will explore the perspective that leadership is not necessarily associated with a job or position held (although such a position gives the leader legitimacy), but is related to a whole host of variables.
Workload
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 1: ‘Introduction’
Chapter 2: ‘Trait Approach’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Week 2: Assessing leadership: skills and styles
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Contrast the skills approach to the style approach to leadership
Analyse how managers and leaders make decisions
This week, you will delineate between diverse approaches to leadership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 2:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 3: ‘Skills Approach’
Chapter 4: ‘Style Approach’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Week 3: Situational leadership approaches
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Evaluate the situational approach to leadership
Explain contingency theory in relation to its similarity to and difference from situational leadership
This week, you will identify major leadership theories in historical context and relevant industry instruments to assist in leadership identification and development.
Workload
Self-study for Week 3:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 5: ‘Situational Approach’
Chapter 6: ‘Contingency Theory’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Discussion Question:
Post your initial response both to the Discussion Board and to the Turnitin link provided
Week 4: Leadership: approaches to motivation
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Reflect upon path–goal leadership theory relevant to its implementation in organisations
Reflect upon leader–member exchange leadership theory relevant to its implementation in organisations
This week, select leadership theories, including path–goal and leader–member exchange, will be discussed within the context of global leadership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 4:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 7: ‘Path–Goal Theory’
Chapter 8: ‘Leader–Member Exchange Theory’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Integration Question (Discussion Question for the week):
Post your initial response both to the Discussion Board and to the Turnitin link provided
Module Project:
Submit the first part of the Module Project to the Turnitin link provided
Week 5: Leaders and followers
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Evaluate the concept of followership
Analyse the transformational and transactional leadership approaches
Assess the key components of authentic leadership and its impact on leaders and followers
This week includes a discussion of major leadership styles that incorporate the concept of followership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 5:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 9: ‘Transformational Leadership’
Chapter 11: ‘Authentic Leadership’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Discussion Questions:
Post your initial response both to the Discussion Board and to the Turnitin link provided
Week 6: Team leadership and the psychodynamic approaches
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Assess how diverse types of leaders use power to influence organisational teams
Explore various psychodynamic approaches to personality and leadership
This week focuses on a discussion of how leaders make decisions and build teams across global, physical, and virtual borders.
Workload
Self-study for Week 6:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 12: ‘Team Leadership’
Chapter 13: ‘Psychodynamic Approach’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Discussion Question:
Post your initial response both to the Discussion Board and to the Turnitin link provided
Week 7: Leadership and gender
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Analyse the effect of gender on leadership acceptance
Identify success factors for female leadership
This week focuses on a discussion of the role of gender in leadership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 7:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 14: ‘Women and Leadership’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Discussion Question:
Post your initial response both to the Discussion Board and to the Turnitin link provided
Module Project:
Submit your the final submission of your module project to the Turnitin link provided
Week 8: Leadership, ethics, and perception
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Evaluate the role of ethics in leadership
Assess how an individual leader’s behaviour influences follower perception of his or her ethics
This week focuses on a discussion of how ethics and perception affect leadership behaviour globally.
Workload
Self-study for Week 8:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 16: ‘Leadership Ethics’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles

Wilson Disease Describe the disorder, making sure to answer the following questions in your discussion of the disorder: 1.Which parts of the brain are believed to be involved in this disorder, and how do these areas of the brain influence the development and behavior of the individual? 2.Briefly describe at least one method which has been used to study this disorder (EEG, fMRI, etc.), and what this method involves. 3.Describe at least one neurotransmitter(s) that is believed to function abnormally in this disorder, and how this impacts on the behavior of the individual. You will need a cover page, which includes your name, the name of the class and section, and the date. In completing this Assignment, be sure to use specific information from the text or other outside sources as needed to support your answers when defining the different terms and concepts. When referencing the text or outside sources, you need to use APA formatting. Information regarding APA formatting can be found in the Writing Center and should be reviewed thoroughly. APA formatting dictates how your paper should appear on each page.

Wilson Disease
Describe the disorder, making sure to answer the following questions in your discussion of the disorder:
1.Which parts of the brain are believed to be involved in this disorder, and how do these areas of the brain influence the development and behavior of the individual?
2.Briefly describe at least one method which has been used to study this disorder (EEG, fMRI, etc.), and what this method involves.
3.Describe at least one neurotransmitter(s) that is believed to function abnormally in this disorder, and how this impacts on the behavior of the individual.
You will need a cover page, which includes your name, the name of the class and section, and the date.
In completing this Assignment, be sure to use specific information from the text or other outside sources as needed to support your answers when defining the different terms and concepts. When referencing the text or outside sources, you need to use APA formatting. Information regarding APA formatting can be found in the Writing Center and should be reviewed thoroughly. APA formatting dictates how your paper should appear on each page.

Law

Law
Consider the cases of Mordaunt Bros v British Oil and Cake Mills Ltd [1910] and DF Mount Ltd v Jay & Jay (Provisions) Co Ltd [1960].
How do these cases differentiate between s25(1) Sale of Goods Act 1979 and s47 Sale of Goods Act 1979?
Does this differentiation still hold true in 2013?
Analyse and discuss.

Int question wk8

Int question wk8
Based on following the article respond to the questions below by
case
Ibison, M. &amp; Bailey, B. (2009) ‘Women’s advancement: one engineering firm’s pathway to leadership’, Journal: American Water Works Association, 101 (8), pp.44-51. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Available from: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Journal%3A+American+Water+Works+Association&amp;volume=101&amp;issue=8&amp;spage=44&amp;date=2009 (Retrieved 6 April, 2011).
‘In the traditionally male-dominated industry of engineering and construction, CH2M HILL provides a model for advancing female employees to achieve business success. The Women’s Leadership Initiative uses the company’s long-standing inclusive workplace to accelerate women’s advancement and includes internal and external components, including Women’s Network Chapters, Women’s Leadership Summits, and outreach to philanthropic and community organsations. Since the initiative was launched in 2003, women’s representation in CH2M HILL senior leadership positions—such as business unit heads, geographic region leaders, and top managers—has increased from 2.9 to 18 percent. The Women’s Leadership Initiative illustrates the strong business case for supporting women’s advancement to leadership and demonstrates that businesses can benefit from fresh thinking and commitment to making women in the workplace a top priority. The initiative has been so successful that it now provides a model for other workforce diversity efforts, both in the engineering and construction sectors as well as other industries’.
Question;
Reflect upon the readings and videos from this week as well from the last 3 weeks of the module and consider the various leadership approaches and theories that have you encountered.
1.How do the ideas presented in the article above relate both to the ideas and concepts presented in the previous 3 weeks of the course as well as to the notion of ethics in leadership?
2. How can you apply the ideas and concepts presented in your chosen article to your own leadership practice?
Special instructions;
Please cite and reference the work properly and ensure that the work is original crafted.
Week 8 Weekly Notes
Module Text
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 16, ‘Leadership Ethics’
This chapter discusses why ethics is central to leadership and begins by defining ethics, providing a summary of ethical theories, and describing the perspectives of select thought-leaders. In addition, the chapter proposes five key principles of ethical leadership and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of present-day leadership ethics theory.
Articles
Post, J.E., Varma, J.R., Menon, K., Desai, A., Raghavan, A., Srinivasan, V., Parekh, S.P. &amp; Vohra, N. (Coordinator) (2009) ‘The Satyam story: many questions and a few answers’, Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 34 (1), pp.69-88, Business Source Premier [Online]. Available from: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=vikalpa&amp;volume=34&amp;issue=1&amp;spage=69&amp;date=2009
This colloquium offers a variety of perspectives into the large-scale corporate fraud case of Satyam Computer Services. Several authors explore the case from leadership, ethics, governance, and regulation perspectives.
Rafferty, B. (2008) ‘Who am I? Defining and communicating your leadership brand’, Public Relations Tactics, 15 (8), pp.19, Business Source Premier [Online]. Available from: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=public+relations+tactics&amp;volume=15&amp;issue=8&amp;spage=19&amp;date=2008
This article explores what a leadership brand is and how it can help to drive successful leadership practises. Assessment of the business culture, knowing your teams, and managing your focus are key directions in developing and communicating your leadership brand.
MEDIA
Fifty Lessons, Ltd. (Producer). (2010) Having the courage of your convictions. Video [Online]. Click here to access media
Amelia Fawcett, chairman of Pensions First, LLC, explains the value in staying the course and standing by your decision-making as a leader especially during times when difficult decisions must be made. (4:58 minutes) (Click here for a transcript of this media program)
Fifty Lessons, Ltd. (Producer). (2010) Establish your personal brand. Video [Online].
Click here to access media
In this video, Sanjiv Ahuja, founder and chairman of Augere, discusses the importance of establishing your own personal brand and basing it firmly in your personal and professional values. Having a clear brand and particularly being true to it day in and day out shows an honest and transparent leadership style. You can use it to make your expectations among team members and your demands completely clear. This will result in more clarity of vision, quicker decision-making and more empowered teams. (5:05 minutes) (Click here for a transcript of this media program)
Week 5: Leaders and followers
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Evaluate the concept of followership
Analyse the transformational and transactional leadership approaches
Assess the key components of authentic leadership and its impact on leaders and followers
This week includes a discussion of major leadership styles that incorporate the concept of followership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 5:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 9: ‘Transformational Leadership’
Chapter 11: ‘Authentic Leadership’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Week 6: Team leadership and the psychodynamic approaches
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Assess how diverse types of leaders use power to influence organisational teams
Explore various psychodynamic approaches to personality and leadership
This week focuses on a discussion of how leaders make decisions and build teams across global, physical, and virtual borders.
Workload
Self-study for Week 6:
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 12: ‘Team Leadership’
Chapter 13: ‘Psychodynamic Approach’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles
Submit your journal entry for the week
Week 7: Leadership and gender
Upon completion of this week, students will have achieved the following outcomes:
Analyse the effect of gender on leadership acceptance
Identify success factors for female leadership
This week focuses on a discussion of the role of gender in leadership.
Workload
Self-study for Week 7:
Read and/or listen to the Weekly Notes for each topic
Read the textbook pages indicated under each topic
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 14: ‘Women and Leadership’
Browse the links to Web-based materials under each topic
Review the additional media materials for the week
Study the online journal articles

"Professional challenges you are likely to face in your first 6 months as a nurse"

“Professional challenges you are likely to face in your first 6 months as a nurse”
The experience of transition from student to registered nurse is a time of adaptation to the real world
Identify and discuss 3 professional challenges you are likely to face in your first 6 months as a registered nurse
Identify and explore stratedies that will assist you in meeting these chalenges and how you will demonstrate your competence and develop your confidence as a reflective practitioner

"Analysis of a mental health issue"

“Analysis of a mental health issue”
PART A
write a 1,700 word report on your selected topic.Your report must include;a discussion of the following areas The significance of the selected issue to this age groups mental health and well being Using a bio-psychosocial framework, discuss the physiological, behavioural, emotional, psychological responses and social impact this issue may have on individuals and their families Discuss the role of the health practitioner in implementing appropriate education and mental health promotion activities with individuals and/or families, including what other health clinicians they would work with and why
1, Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the significance of the selected mental issues to the relevant age group.
2, Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the impact of the selected mental health issue on the individuals and their families using abio-psychosocial framework
3, Discuss the role of the health practitioner in implementing appropriate education and mental health promotion activities with individuals and/or families experiencing the selected mental health issue

Strategic Management

Strategic Management
Question 1
Critically evaluate the international opportunities and threats for retailers such as Tesco over the last 30 years. Applying structured analysis frameworks where appropriate, discuss the implications for retailers in developing and maintaining their internal competences to be able to operate successfully in today’s dynamic and competitive operating environment. What are your overall conclusions?
Question 2
Using examples from retailing, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of localisation as part of a globalisation strategy. What do you conclude?
Question 3
The case study describes Tesco as being at a crossroads in Turkey. What recommendations would you make for its future operations in Turkey, and why?
Question 4
Describe and discuss how Tesco can manage the cultural issues that result from being a global player.

Final Comprehensive Activity

Final Comprehensive Activity
Based on your problem statement, purpose statement, research questions, method, and design identified in RSH9101, RSH9102 and course activities, compose a comprehensive paper in which you discuss the envisioned context and variables in your proposed research. Also, include discussion of envisioned data collection method and analyses along with the reasoning behind your selection. Finally, propose plans to ensure validity and reliability of your outcomes.

Strategic Human Capital Management

Strategic Human Capital Management
Expand on the above topic and begin to analyze why this problem exists. Using the principles of change management and diagnostics, determine the root cause or factors that contributed to your global human capital problem. Provide an explanation of how this has impacted Organization X.

Dq1 week 7 biz lead

Dq1 week 7 biz lead
Often, women are described as ‘nurturing’ and ‘caring’ leaders. As further research has been conducted on women’s leadership, traditional thinking about women’s leadership has given way to new paradigms of gender diversity.
Yet, a recent Harvard Business Review article, ‘Women in Management: Delusions of Progress’, indicates only marginal realisation of progress for women in business leadership.
Case;
1. Consider the factors that contribute to this dilemma.
Consider this week’s literature as well as the ideas expressed in this week’s media resources, and then ;
2. discuss the role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.
Using this week’s literature,
3. identify and discuss three success factors for female leaders.
Special instructions;
Remember to cite and reference examples from the readings and journal articles for this week.
Also ensure that the paper is properly structured with an introduction , the key issues and a very firm conclusion with reason to the conclusion.
References
Carter, N.M. &amp; Silva, C. (2010) ‘Women in management: delusions of progress’, Harvard Business Review, 88 (3), pp.19-21, Business Source Premier [Online]. Available from:
http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&amp;volume=88&amp;issue=3&amp;spage=19&amp;date=2010&amp;issn=&amp;eissn=  (Accessed 1 October 2010).
Week 7 Weekly Notes
Module Text
Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: theory and practice. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 14, ‘Women and Leadership’
This chapter focuses on the examination of women’s leadership styles and effectiveness in contrast to men’s leadership. It discusses the gender gap in leadership, and finally proposes solutions to promoting women in leadership.
Articles
McKenna, M.A. (2007) ‘Women in power’, New England Journal of Public Policy, 22 (1/2) pp.7-16, Business Source Premier [Online]. Available from: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=new+england+journal+of+public+policy&amp;volume=22&amp;issue=1%2F2&amp;spage=7&amp;date=2007
In this article, the author examines gender gaps in existing leadership roles within the U.S. and around the world. Indicators related to language, stereotypes and expectations (of self and others) help to deconstruct some of the historical inequities. As a result, the author emphasises the need for continued support of women to achieve leadership positions.
Rowley, S., Hossain, F. &amp; Barry, P. (2010) ‘Leadership through a gender lens: how cultural environments and theoretical perspectives interact with gender’, International Journal of Public Administration, 33 (2), pp.81-87, Informaworld Social Science Humanities Collection [Online]. Available from: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=international+journal+of+public+administration&amp;volume=33&amp;issue=2&amp;spage=81&amp;date=2010
This article presents a theoretical analysis of leadership theories from the perspective of gender. Behavioral and contingency theories are explored as well as transformational leadership theory. Gender inequality, gender as a distinct influence in leadership, gender-specific and gender shared leadership traits are explored in depth in an effort to synthesise perspectives and provide a gender-inclusive look into broad-based successful leadership approaches.
Handout
Module Project Final Submission
Return to top
MEDIA
Fifty Lessons, Ltd. (Producer). (2010) The importance of education and mentoring. Video [Online]. Click here to access media
Chairman and publisher of Black Enterprise magazine, Earl Graves discusses his commitment to African American men and the raising up of the school systems that, he believes, are failing to provide our children the best education. He also shares his specific approach to mentoring.  (4:29 minutes) (Click here for a transcript of this media program)
Fifty Lessons, Ltd. (Producer). (2010) Leaders sit in a powerful spotlight. Video [Online].
Click here to access media
Jay Conger, Henry Kravis Research Chair professor of the Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont McKenna College, explores through a powerful anecdote, the dangers as well as the opportunities of being under scrutiny as a leader. Modeling the behaviour you expect from your team (while under the leadership magnifying glass) can have an equally broad, but positive influence on your team. In other words, harness the spotlight and leverage the benefits it can provide to you as a leader. (5:36 minutes) (Click here for a transcript of this media program)

Validity, Credibility, Dependability, and Ethics in Qualitative Research

Validity, Credibility, Dependability, and Ethics in Qualitative Research
The elements of validity and reliability determine the assessment of the quality and rigor of the research. Reliability is the extent to which other researchers would arrive at similar results. External validity is the extent to which the findings can be generalized. Internal validity is the extent to which the researcher can demonstrate that the emergent themes, constructs, and perspectives are true (thick description). Anticipate the ethical issues that may arise during the research process and the outcome of the data analysis.
Required Reading:
Patton, pages 405-417 and Part 3, Chapter 9
Shank – pages 109-122
Schram – Chapters 7, 8
Golafshani, N. (December 2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607.
Establishing Integrity
4 Establishing Integrity
Based on the required readings and your proposed study topic, respond to Exercises 7.1 (Preparing for how you will talk about data and 8.1 (Anticipating ethical challenges) of the Schram text. Please include both exercises in single document.

Systems Management Overview

Systems Management Overview
Assignments 1 and 2 are presented together as they are closely related. Note carefully their different due
dates (refer to Academic Calendar for the current term).
These assignments require you to apply research skills and information systems theory to a case study.
Read the “Assignments Brief” section first to get a general idea, then complete the tasks detailed for
each assignment. Submit the reports specified by their due date.
Assignments Overview
In Assignment 1, you will undertake a literature search to gather appropriate references to support your
answers, arguments and recommendations for the Case Study Questions. You must submit your
proposed list of references in the prescribed report format. You must do this assignment on your own,
not in a group.
Note that Assignment 1 is NOT a formal literature review, that is, you are not describing, summarising,
evaluating, or clarifying the literature on the topic. You are only justifying the use of individual
references for Assignment 2.
Assignment 1 will be assessed on the appropriateness of your choice of references and sources.
In Assignment 2, you will write a non-technical report in which you provide answers to the Case Study
Questions in detail. You will use the references chosen previously, adjusted appropriately according to
assessment feedback if applicable. You must submit your report in the prescribed format. You may do
this assignment in a group – see Group Work Requirements document for rules about working in groups.
Assignment 2 will be assessed according to criteria listed in the downloadable marking criteria sheet.
The detailed assignment requirements (presentation, formatting etc) follow directly on from the Case,
and the Case Study Questions.
Correct Referencing
For both assignments, use HARVARD referencing style for in-text referencing and for the References
List. Check the course web site for links to help with referencing and the Harvard referencing guide.
Copy detection/plagiarism process
On submission, assignments are scanned by the copy detection software, Turnitin. Your assignment is
checked against all submitted assignments from current and previous terms for this course and other
courses as well. Any copying found in the process of running this software may be investigated. On
Using case FixItNow Revised 28/5/2013
Marking spreadsheet revised 28/5/13
investigation, marks can be deducted for any part of the work that is categorised as plagiarism, and
further, any student identified in the copy detection process may be subject to penalties up to and
including failing the course or expulsion from the University. Full details of the University’s plagiarism
policies are available from the CQU website.
The Case: ‘FixItNow’
‘FixItNow’ (FIN) is a SME owned and run by Adam Smith and his younger brothers Ian and Paul, in the
regional town of Shockhampton 210 kilometres away from the state capital city. FIN is a supplier for
building, plumbing and gardening businesses and home clients.
Ten years ago, when Adam, Ian and Paul were working for a local hardware store, they decided to start
their own business to take advantage of a booming home market. Adam was working in building, Ian
was in plumbing, and Paul was in gardening section. The three opened a store for building, plumbing
and gardening supplies. Initially it was a bit slow but soon the business started to grow as the brothers
used their local contacts to get more orders. Being a fair business and with competitive prices, FIN soon
became a household name.
Adam, Ian and Paul did not have any formal qualifications so to help with office and admin work they
hired Gillian Cole, a former employee of their previous workplace, as office manager and left her to
organize the office functions as she saw fit. Gillian did not have any formal education in Accounting or
Business but it was felt that her 20 years experience from the previous job in a hardware store gave her
the essential skills required to run a small business.
FIN had simple operations. Individual customers shopped at the shop front and business clients placed
their orders via telephone or fax to the FIN office. EFTPOS facility was available to everyone, with
cheque payments available to business clients only. Deliveries were available at extra charge.
Gillian did everything manually – at first, being a small business with a low number of clients this was
easy to manage but soon she realised that the accumulating information about customers, suppliers,
products plus bookkeeping was becoming more difficult to manage. Gillian was the only one in the
office, on the floor there were the three brothers plus 10 fulltime and a similar number of casual staff.
There were two mobile salespeople always in the field. All in all, payroll included around 26 staff.
With written orders and invoices, manual bookkeeping became a nightmare. Managing the supplies
inventory and keeping track of what is in store and what was on order and scheduled deliveries was
becoming very difficult. Often customer orders were not delivered on time, as supplies were not ordered
in the right quantities from the suppliers. Scheduling casual staff and managing their manual claim
forms posed quite a challenge. The customers’ details were in a manual register but there was a big
question mark on currency of the information.
Adam hired a part time person to help Gillian with the administration, but this did not solve the
problems. So a personal computer with some essential business and Accounting software was purchased
to transfer all of the manual records and information to electronic files including products, customers,
suppliers and Accounting including payroll. Using a computer proved helpful and they started to input
information about customers, suppliers, employees, jobs, schedules, payroll, pricing information, other
overheads, invoices, and other financial figures.
The three owners worked very hard and after ten years, the business had grown significantly. They now
Using case FixItNow Revised 28/5/2013
Marking spreadsheet revised 28/5/13
had a total of 57 employees including 3 more mobile sales people. Gillian has 3 staff in the office now to
help her with the office work. But now another challenge emerged. Having some of the information on
the only PC in the office and most of the remaining information stored in the filing cabinets, created
certain problems. For instance, it became difficult to make decisions about some business matters as
relevant information might or might not be complete, correct, and/or current. Therefore, more time was
required to validate and verify data between the computer and the filing cabinets.
With their problems in managing the business, profits began to dive. Adam called a business meeting to
try to work out the problems of recent months. The following issues emerged:
1) Accounts payable and receivable suffered due to incorrect invoicing.
2) Inventory problems — no correct information about what was available, what was on order,
delivery times from suppliers, what has been ordered by business clients and delivery schedules,
back orders etc.
3) Supplies — not ordered in a timely manner, supplies ordered which were not in demand, or were
ordered in more than required quantities.
4) Customers and business clients had problems tracking their orders.
5) Communications — Incorrect contact details meant that clients could not contact FIN staff.
Invoices were often sent to wrong addresses. Mobile salespeople did not have up to date
information about products, available inventory or delivery lead times to provide to the
prospective clients.
6) At the shop front, employees had problems accessing policies and other work related information
to complete their tasks. Employees also found it difficult to communicate with each other as
most of the time staff were not at their stations for a variety of reasons.
7) Lastly, casual staff often received incorrect pay or pay went into the wrong bank account due to
incorrect and delayed processing of their claim forms and timesheets.
Adam, Ian, Paul and Gillian realised they had significant problems. Gillian knew that computers and IT
could help in managing the business, including a mobile sales force, and play a role in acquiring new
business and competing with their market rivals. A decision was made to introduce IT in the business
and use it to support business operations, information management, decision making, and making
strategic plans, including an intention to create an online presence to provide a better service to their
customers and suppliers.
To initiate this project, Adam contracted you, an IT consultant, to prepare a report that addresses the
following concerns of management.
Case Study Questions
1. Given the list of identified problems at FIN, discuss what you think needs to
change in business and technology terms.
2. To help FIN management, define what information systems are and briefly explain
the importance of information systems for the business. You may like to include
the roles information systems play to explain the importance.
3. What are the information requirements of FIN? How does this information support
the strategies for competitive advantages? (hint: refer to Porter’s five forces). What
business processes should FIN consider computerising? Why?
Using case FixItNow Revised 28/5/2013
Marking spreadsheet revised 28/5/13
4. Which information system(s) can help FIN in managing the problems and fulfilling
the business requirements? How will they help?
5. How will the business decision making at FIN be supported by the information
systems that you are suggesting?
6. Explain how FIN may utilise IS/IT to collaborate and communicate with the key
stakeholders. Explain the strategic use of computer networks (intranets and
extranets) and the Internet to serve their needs.
7. For customers, employees, and FIN, what are some of the security and ethical
issues that may arise with the introduction of information systems and online
presence? How should these issues be addressed?
8. How
should
FIN
manage
the
organisational
change
during
the
implementatioof
the
information
system
and
online
presence?
n
Assignment Requirements and Report structure details
FOR ASSIGNMENT 1:
First, read the Case Study and the questions carefully. Next, you must identify a minimum of six unique
references that will help you to answer the Case Study Questions in the next assignment. Your list of
proposed references must include at least three academic (scholarly) references and at most three
general references. This means you can use more academic references and fewer general references, but
not vice versa.
Some websites are not acceptable as reference sources in research tasks. These include general
encyclopedic sites such as Wikipedia, and the numerous student study sites that publish papers in
various school or university study categories. Likewise, general printed encyclopedias, popular
magazines and newspapers are not considered to be scholarly references.
Using multiple quotes or material from different pages in the same reference is only counted as one (1)
reference. You may use your prescribed textbook as one reference so you can include this as one of your
general references.
In the body of the report, in your own words, write a justification for each reference selected,
describing how each reference is relevant to the Case Study. Use in-text referencing to support
your explanations. Each justification would therefore include at least one in-text reference.
At least six credible references must be used and at least three of these must be from academic
(scholarly) journals. The maximum three general references may be from industry magazines or books.
The references can be from printed or online sources and must be current (i.e., within the last five (5)
years). You can use material from organisational web sites as an example to support your arguments but
these will not be counted towards the references’ quota (i.e., 6 references). A library guide has been
prepared for this course that you can access via the link from the course Web site. This guide
walks you through using scholarly databases to locate suitable reference sources, and by using this guide,
you will find it much easier to locate suitable sources and you will also be able to observe the types of
references that are acceptable as academic research sources.
FOR ASSIGNMENT 2:
As the consultant, your brief is to advise your clients on the possibilities that would best suit their
requirements. You do this by writing a non-technical report that addresses the questions raised in the
Case Study Questions and making full use of the references you identified in assignment 1 plus four
more scholarly references, making a minimum total of ten references.
Note that your use of the references should fully incorporate any feedback received from assignment 1
assessment. For example, if a reference was marked as inappropriate in assignment 1, then that
reference cannot be used in assignment 2. You must select a new reference to replace the inappropriate
one. Assignment 1 will not be marked again so do not re-submit it – the replacement reference(s) will
be marked on its merits in assignment 2 with no further opportunity to change it.

"Product proliferation"

“Product proliferation”
Product proliferation occurs when organizations market many variations of the same products. This can be done through different colour combinations, product sizes and different product uses. This produces diversity for the firm as it is able to capture its sizable portion of the market. However, it can also be considered that marketing so many new products leads to economic resources being wasted; the consumer becomes confused and mistakes are made in the purchase of products.
Product proliferation is often used by incumbent firms as method of entry deterrence. By developing a large variety of products, the incumbent firm is able to occupy gaps in the market that potential entrants may have exploited, thus reducing the threat of competition.
The very dynamism of product proliferation makes it hard to manage. Complexity is spawned by an ever-changing landscape of customer demand and companies’ attempts to meet that demand with configurable products and more product variations.
Product proliferation can sometimes also lead to cannibalisation of the existing product line of the company and should be justified by overall increase in market share.” Discuss
This is an essay based on scholarly journal article research and theory. You must support your answer with a minimum of 4 journal articles.

"financial derivative derivative securities"

“financial derivative derivative securities”
Warren Buffett (America’s most famous investor) once called financial derivatives
“financial weapons of mass destruction”. His argument is that financial derivatives are
unnecessary instruments that are mainly harmful to the underlying markets. Do you
agree with these statements and why?

dismissal

dismissal
Write a literature review regarding dismissal including different Definitions for dismissal with special attention to the ILO definitions and provisions regarding dismissal, and contrasting approaches to regulation of dismissal in different countries according to the IlO with specific attention to regulating dismissal in the UK and Jordan

What are the benefits of using humour on patient outcomes?

What are the benefits of using humour on patient outcomes?
1.    What are the benefits of using humour on patient outcomes?
A relevant article:
•    From critical care to comfort care: the sustaining value of humour
Dean R & Major E 2008, ‘ From critical care to comfort care : the sustaining value of humour’, Journal of Clinical Nursing vol. 17 no. 8, pp. 1088-95.
Notes:
•    Write an introduction about the question .In the introduction and identify three (3) concepts/issues which will used as the framework for my review
•    Using the identified concepts as the headings discuss the findings from a minimum of three (3) relevant research studies.
•    Conclusion-identify the strengths and weakness, any gaps and the purpose of conducting further research
?    Discuss the findings from the relevant research articles as they relate to each of your three chosen concepts/themes. Compare and contrast the findings of the research studies relevant to your concept.
?    You are required to use a minimum of 6 articles for your review

MSc International Business

MSc International Business
13
INTRODUCTION
This module provides participants with an appreciation of the growing importance of international entrepreneurship.  It develops appropriate knowledge and skills among students to foster international entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviour. A variety of teaching methods are used including, formal lectures/seminars, group and individual presentations.
MODULE  TUTORS (6 & 7)
Michael Warner   Email:
Dr Imani Kyaruzi Email:  imani.kyaruzi@qa.com
AVAILABILITY OF MODULE TUTORS (8)
Module tutors are available by appointment.
RATIONALE
The literature identifies three major barriers to the internationalisation of entrepreneurial firms: lack of foreign market knowledge, limited human and financial resources, and inherent weaknesses in management. In many countries, developing the entrepreneurial capabilities of firms and management teams is a significant public policy objective. Given the potential contributions of small entrepreneurial firms to economic development and export led growth, an international context and focus is highly appropriate.
AIMS    (9)
The aim of this module is to provide students with the requisite knowledge and skills to develop more flexible attitudes to risk and stimulate entrepreneurial behaviour. As well as providing the theoretical underpinnings from the emerging stream of literature in the field, practical approaches involving on-line research, communication, presentation, teamwork and decision-making skills will be developed.
LEARNING OUTCOMES    (9)
Learning outcomes are stated explicitly in the Course Document, and summarized below. On successful completion of this module students will:
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
K1    Demonstrate knowledge of the factors, which influence entrepreneurial
attitudes and behaviour in an international context
K2    Understand the practice of International Entrepreneurship
K3    Understand the nature of International Entrepreneurship and demonstrate knowledge of its role within internationalising firms.
K4    As a result of the above, comment authoritatively on how entrepreneurial behaviour can be used to improve the competitive advantage of firms.
INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES
I1    Identify, analyse and synthesise materials from primary and secondary source materials that assist in the understanding of International Entrepreneurship.
I2    Construct and defend a reasoned argument in class presentations.
I3
I4    Be creative in your approach to studying topics in International
Entrepreneurship, including thinking around entrepreneurial issues drawing on
organisational experience.
Develop your learning through the cross fertilisation of ideas from others’
Experiences of working in different sectors.
PROFESSIONAL/PRACTICAL SKILLS
P1    Apply entrepreneurial skills creatively to problem solving situations.
P2    Recognise and utilise own and others contributions in group processes.
P3    Perform effectively in a team environment.
P4
P5    Participate in academic, ethical and value discussions that develop from
topics studied
Complete presentation and written assignments in a way that demonstrates
systematic information gathering, accuracy, critical reflection on arguments
presented, as well as detailed referencing in written assignments.
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5    Demonstrate proficiency in written and oral communication using a variety of media.
Demonstrate an ability to deal with complex issues systematically and creatively.
Demonstrate an ability to take responsibility for development of knowledge and skills.
Demonstrate an ability to learn through critical reflection on existing
International Marketing practice.
Demonstrate an ability to learn and to enhance personal effectiveness through feedback from tutor and peers.
MODULE TEACHING (10)
Lectures / Tutorials       24hrs
Seminars    12 hrs
Independent Study    114 hrs
TEACHING PLAN – indicative content (11)
Session 1: Introduction of Course
Go through Module Handbook and assignment brief.
You should now have learnt:
•    The introduction to the nature of the International Entrepreneurship environment
•    Recognize what an SME is and the importance in the world arena
•    To appreciate changes, the compelling and consequences  in the international business landscape
•    Apply how firms value chain activities can be internationalized
•    Examine the drivers and consequences of Market Globalisation
•    The introduction of Born Global using examples
•    Recognize the evolution, challenges and characteristics faced by Born Global
•    To invent a Born Global.
•    Identify distinctive features of Born Global strategies and expansion process and why the strategies fail.
(Break)
•    Classify growing internationally Means, Pros and Cons
•    To propose how to sustain and develop a niche.
•    Illustrate first mover outcomes and their motivations
•    Demonstrate the barriers to SME internationalization
•    Develop the factors and geographic development affecting SME Internationalization
•    Construct the advantages and disadvantages for inward internationalization
•    Recognize the implications for Management
Content
1.    What is International entrepreneurship about?
2.    What is an SME and why are they important in the global economy?
3.    Using Estonia as an example of how IE boosts a countries growth
4.    Fundamental changes in the Business Landscape
•    Why firms Internationalize?
•    Firms compelled to internationalize
•    Firm level consequences of globalization
5.    How firms Value Chain Activities can be Internationalized
6.    Summary of the drivers and consequences of Market Globalization
7.    About Born Global
•    As a focal firm
•    Examples
•    Evolution and challenges
•    Common Characteristics
•    How they become global using an example
•    Invent a born Global
•    Distinctive features of Marketing Strategy and failures
•    Strategies
•    Internal Expansion Process
(Break)
8.    Growing Internationally
•    Looking at the means, pros and cons
•    Sustaining and developing the niche
•    First Movers Advantage
•    Illustrating First Mover Outcome
•    Motivations behind SME Internationalization
•    Barriers to SME internationalization
•    Factors affecting SME Internationalization
•    Geographic Development of SMEs
•    Outsourcing for SMEs (Inward internationalization)
•    Provide SME – Total  recruitment outsourcing
•    General implications for managers and acquiring global competence
Session 2:
You should now have learnt:
•    To evaluate the competing theories on small firm internationalization
•    Appraise Case Study and Discussion
Content
1.    Competing Theories on  Small Firm Internationalisation
•    Networking and limitations
•    Resource based View
•    Knowledge Based View
•    Dynamic capabilities view
•    Extending the Dynamic Capability
2.    Case Study and discussion
Session 3:
You should now have learnt to:
•    Recognise the  resourcing, funding problems, stages and implications of financing for International Entrepreneurs
•    Evaluate the differences between Business Angels and Venture Capitalists
•    Examine the Investment cycle
(Break)
•    Investigate early funding problems, working capital and cash flow management
•    Analyze the various sources of funding and conditions.
•    Illustrate the key concerns from global economic crisis.
(Break)
Content
1.    SMEs and resource paucity
2.    Why SMEs are under-banked
3.    Funding internationalization sources of funding
4.    Sources of funding: Debt Financing
5.    Who Business angels are and the differences between them and Venture Capitalists
6.    Investment cycle
7.    Early funding problems
8.    Working Capital and Cash Flow Management
9.    Creativity in Funding
10.    Sources of funding
•    Family and Friends
•    European Union
11.    EU 2020 key framework conditions
12.    Key concerns from Global Economic Crisis
Session 4:
You should now have learnt:
•    Identify teams in entrepreneurial  and international business
•    Recognize the definition of Entrepreneurship
•    Investigate the survival rates of business start ups
•    Discuss entrepreneurial founding teams
•    Explain the creation of an International New Venture Team
•    Investigate and discuss different categories between founder or founders
o    Size of founding team
o    Composition
o    the separate elements surrounding an International venture Team
o    Qualities of founders
•    Discuss and apply the roles of a board of Directors
•    Categorize the roles of professional advisors & others
•    Propose how people create a competitive advantage
•    Judge how to select the right investor
•    Assess the ways lenders and Investors add value
(Break)
•    Discussion
o    Describe the two potential pitfalls of using a team to start a firm?
o    What barriers do you think will be present?
•    Identify what the founding CEO must do and the questions the CEO must address
•    Discuss Team working in Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and problems faced
Content
1.    Teams in International Entrepreneurship and International Business
2.    Definition of Entrepreneurship
3.    10-year survival rates of business start ups
4.    Entrepreneurial founding teams
5.    Creating an International New Venture (INV) Team
6.    Founder or Founders
•    Size of Founding Team
•    Composition
•    Separate Elements surrounding an INV Team
•    Qualities of Founders
7.    The Roles of the Board of Directors
8.    Rounding Out the Team: The Role of Professional Advisors & others
9.    Competitive Advantage: The People
10.    The right Investor????
11.    Lenders and Investors
12.    Discussion…..In groups discuss these questions….names on the sheet with summary
13.    If you are the founding CEO…….
14.    Taking your company idea …
15.    Team working in IB….MNEs
16.    Problems re Global teams
17.    Presentations of your Born Global
Session 5:
You should now have learnt to:
•    Write about the (Born) Global Mindset
•    Define and apply the Global Mindset
•    Analyze case studies of “Global Mindset”  and “why” it matters
•    Apply the “how” to develop a “Global Mindset
(Break)
•    Develop a “Global Mindset” and examine resources and tools available
Content
•    Why mindset matters
•    Changing landscape means
•    Discussion Born global Mindset – think globally , act locally
•    Challenge for international entrepreneurs
•    Defining a Global Mindset
•    Case Studies of Global Mindsets
•    Why does Global Mindset matter?
•    How to develop “Global Mindset”
•    Developing global mindset
1.    Learn a Language and read International Business News
2.    Join and International club or Group
3.    Study abroad
4.    Do an international internship
5.    Build your network with international professionals
Session 6:
You should now have learnt to:
•    Predict trends to finding opportunities
•    Examine localization and how it can apply to internationalization.
•    Compose a presentation in your groups focusing a problem, trend and one “Localization” idea to the class
Content
1.    Analysing trends to find opportunities
2.    Trends in Technology (to think about)
3.    Tech Trends to watch
4.    Localisation
5.    Presentation and discussion.
Session 7:
You should now have learnt to:
•    Compare Contemporary Issues
•    Recognize what is a Social Enterprise and why it matters
•    Distinguish the characteristics of a Social Enterprise
•    Identify the types of Social Enterprises in the UK.
•    Recognize the importance of Social enterprise in the UK.
•    Define Social Enterprises in an International Entrepreneur Context illustrated with examples.
•    Define a family business
•    Distinguish between a family versus non family business
•    Discuss the facts about a family business
•    Evaluate a family business
•    Compare the competition between Family and Business Interests
•    Appraise the advantages of a family business making application
•    Investigate problems of transferring ownership to heirs and further research
Content
1.    Current Issues
2.    What is Social Enterprise
3.    Why Social Enterprise Matters An entrepreneurial Revolution
4.    Characteristics of Social Enterprises
5.    Key Differences between Social Enterprise and Private Enterprise
6.    What Social Enterprises include
7.    The importance of Social Enterprise in the UK
8.    Social Enterprise definition
9.    What must SE’s learn
10.    Examples of SE’s that have done well and the links
11.    What is a Family Business
12.    Family versus Non-Family
13.    Facts about family Business
14.    The three circle Model of a Family Business
15.    What is your perspective on the on the family business
16.    Competition between family and business interests
Lunch
17.    Advantages of family Business
18.    Examples of GMR Group
19.    Problems transferring ownership to Heirs
20.    Family firms and research
Session 8:
You should now have learnt to:
•    Discuss and distinguish the possible advantages and disadvantages that a social enterprise will face in the future.
Content
1.    Discussion
Session 9: Seminar
Session 10: Seminar

Project on Health and Physical Activity

Project on Health and Physical Activity
Part 1: Essay Respond to the following question – Discuss the role of the teacher when they are educating young children in ?physical activity?. (1000 words maximum – 10% margin either side of the word count applies) You are expected to extend and elaborate on the following points: 1. Children?s growth, development and the importance of body management.
2. The importance of providing a variety of activities.
3. The educator as a positive role model. This essay must be presented in the correct style for the Academic Genre ? Essay Writing. Introduction ? that establishes the importance of the topic and indicates the key issues/points that your essay will address; Significant Evidence ? the ?body? of your essay. This is arranged in cohesive paragraphs that provide the evidence/key points that you are expounding in your paper. Accurate referencing is the key for this section where you will be paraphrasing the ideas you have gained from the literature. Direct quotes are permitted in your essay ? but they MUST be kept to a minimum. It is essential that you are able to crystallise your ideas as a result of extensive reading; Conclusion ? return to your Introduction and draw together the ideas you have presented to provide a strong finish to your essay; References (APA Referencing) ? accurately incorporated into your text and reference list. REMEMBER ?Google Websites? and ?Dictionary Definitions? MUST be avoided at all times in Academic Education Essay writing. Incorporate quality and appropriate readings ? texts studied in your various units studied in your Course and Journal Articles (minimum of 3) that you have located. Part 2: An obstacle course to develop fundamental movement skills > (No word count applies to this part of the assessment. Please ensure that you succinctly cover all required sections.) An obstacle course is a course which has been set up with apparatus with the focus on certain skills – where students move through obstacles and complete the course a few times. Select 3 fundamental movement skills (One from each of the domains – 1 body management, 1 locomotor and 1 object control) and develop an obstacle course to develop these skills. You need to develop 3 activities to develop each skill ie if you choose running in the locomotor area then you need to develop 3 different running activities. Therefore, your obstacle course should include 9 activities. In your assessment there must be reference to the SPARC readings (these are in Week Two: Module 1.2). 1. Provide a plan ? diagram of the layout of the obstacle course. 2. Modifications to activities to ensure that all students in the group can participate no matter what Phase of Development they are at (Please refer to the SPARC readings in Week Two: Module 1.2). 3. Overview of the obstacle course activity, you need to include the following headings: ? How old are the children participating in the activities? ? How many children are involved? ? What other adult supervision is available? ? What fundamental movement skills are you aiming to develop? ? What are the phases of skill development for each fundamental movement skill? (Reference to the SPARC readings is crucial) ? How will the children be organised? ? What ?signals? will be used to maintain a safe and efficient environment? (Reference to the Landy and Burridge essential text is crucial) ? How will you plan the environment? 3. Use APA Referencing. Part 3: A circuit to develop one fundamental movement skill (No word count applies to this part of the assessment. Please ensure that you succinctly cover all required sections.) A circuit is a collection of activities, where some time is spent at different stations and where a skill is practised by means of different activities at each station. Choose one fundamental movement skill from your obstacle course and develop a set of circuit activities (4 activities) that develop this skill e.g. if you decide to develop the skill of ‘jumping’ all 4 circuit activities will focus on teaching and practising jumping. These activities must be different to the ones in your obstacle course. 1. Provide a plan ? diagram of the layout of the circuit activities. 2. Modifications to activities to ensure that all students in the group can participate no matter what Phase of Development they are at (Please refer to the SPARC readings in Week Two: Module 1.2). 3. Overview of the circuit activity, you need to include the following headings: ? How old are the children participating in the activities? ? How many children are participating? ? How much time will the children spend at each station? ? What other adult supervision is available? ? How the children will be organised? What fundamental movement skills are you aiming to develop? ? Describe the activity at each of the stations and the teaching/learning cues that will be demonstrated for the fundamental movement skill. (Reference to the SPARC readings is crucial) ? What signals will be used to maintain a safe and efficient environment? (Reference to the Landy and Burridge essential text is crucial) ? How will you plan the environment?

"Health is a very complex issue.

“Health is a very complex issue.
“Health is a very complex issue. Use a current event that has been in the media within the last three months to identify an example of this complexity and discuss”.

"Information Flows across Health"

.
“Information Flows across Health”
Consider the following real-world example of one patient’s experience during early antenatal care in the USA. While this example has been taken from the American context, the events in this scenario could have easily and probably do take place in Australia.
**CASE STUDY:
When Ruth found out she was pregnant, she went to her primary care physician for a referral to a neighborhood birth centre. She had to schedule the appointment with her physician during work hours, quite inconvenient because she did not want to let her boss know she was pregnant. On the day of the appointment, she first registered with the receptionist and then saw her physician. The primary care physician confirmed the pregnancy with a urine test, similar to the one Ruth used to find out she was pregnant, and then wrote the referral letter.
Ruth called for an appointment with the birth centre and was able to secure a spot on a Saturday morning. She presented herself with the referral letter to the birth centre’s receptionist who placed the letter in a file folder she retrieved from the archive behind her. Ruth met with the midwife, answered a ten page long list of questions to assess any risk factors during pregnancy and underwent a physical exam. Ruth would have preferred to answer the survey at home because she would have been able to consult with her own mother about her family’s reproductive history. The midwife ordered that a blood sample be drawn and, according to the new hospital policy, suggested that she undergo a genetic test for cystic fibrosis.
The receptionist prepared the referral forms and sent Ruth to the blood laboratory in the nearby hospital. Ruth again registered in the main hospital and then waited for a phlebotomist to draw the blood. Because it was a Saturday, the phlebotomist was unable to draw the blood for the cystic fibrosis genetic test. Ruth would have to come back during the week. In this example, even though pregnancy check ups are routine events, all steps need to be planned and executed one at a time, resulting in an inefficient use of time of patients and health care providers and a chance for misunderstandings and sub-optimal care. Because it was too difficult to take time off work and after weighing the risks, for example, Ruth decided to forgo the cystic fibrosis genetic test.
(source: Berg 2004 pp85-86)
***Answer the following questions: –
•    Identify the main issues as you seen them in the case study?
•    As a Health Service Manager, what would you do to improve the patient care journey using ICT?
•    What would be the benefits of your redesign?
•    What are the risks with what you have proposed?
•    Utilising your knowledge of legislation and policy, are there any major obstacles you envisage that may affect your success?

Geography of Desire- San Francisco: Fisherman’s wharf

Geography of Desire- San Francisco: Fisherman’s wharf
Write about the Place is San Francisco-Fisherman’s wharf
In this essay, You are required to explore some PLACE in California that interests you. You may use one of the assigned essays as a starting point. In most cases, focusing on a place you know well will be easiest. However, you will have to find good quality research to help you evaluate this place. Your task is to analyze this place’s culture, the history behind the culture, the way the topography and geography contribute to the culture, and values (define the values of San Francisco-Fisherman’s wharf). You are essentially asserting a thesis about the culture of the place you’ve chosen. The definition essay structure is probably the most appropriate for this topic, but this structure is not required.
Consider this definition of “culture” (there are many): British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor in 1874 described culture in the following way: &quot;Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.&quot;
Most places are shaped by geographical, political, social and economic factors, among other things. For example, the essay on Silicon Valley asserts very specific work ethics and life styles that spring from the dominance of the high tech industry base there; although other areas might be influenced by other industry, the influence would be a little different, as another essay we discussed shows how the oil industry, mixed with the geography and weather, shape the culture and ethic of San Joaquin Valley.
Develop specific claims about which factors shape the culture of the selected area. Every place is different, so this will be your thesis and analysis. For some areas, an industry my dominate its culture; for other places it distance from large cities; for others a famous event might define it most, or the presence of an important university. Be sure each claim has adequate support—narrative, description, statistics, facts, quotes, experts, research, surveys, et cetera. Your thesis will essentially be a one- sentence synthesis of the individual claims defining the culture.

"Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PEHR)"

“Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PEHR)”
Research the personally controlled electronic health record currently being implemented by the Australian Government. In your discussion board: –
•    Provide an overview of the PEHR and its implementation plan;
•    Articulate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of such a model from your perspective;
•    Do you believe the government will achieve the goals of the PCEHR program?
•    Do you see any changes required to the current proposed model and if so, what changes would you make to the proposed concept or the implementation plan.

Perspectives on Positive Social Change Values and ideologies are reflected in each person’s worldview of what constitutes positive social change. However, there are often multiple prevailing worldviews evidenced in the structural features of human organizations, including education systems. Consider the following scenario: Troubled by the continuing achievement gap between the economically disadvantaged and the economically advantaged students in her district, Superintendent Miranda convenes a task force made up of a variety of stakeholders from the community to explore how to address this issue. During the first meeting, a gentleman states, “When my parents came to this country, they were poor and did not speak English. When my father went to school, it was with the express purpose of becoming an American. We kept cultural traditions in our home and with our neighbors who shared the same traditions. However, school was the place to learn the ‘American Way,’ including the English language and the skills to get a good job and move up the ladder in a workplace. He was never treated differently because he was poor and did not speak English. The expectation was that if you want to prosper in America, you learned the language of America and you adopted the American work ethic and culture so you could achieve the American dream. With these beliefs, my father did learn English, worked for an American company that taught him the technical and social skills he would use to help his family live the American dream. My father eventually started his own business, which continues to prosper in this community. He passed those values on to me, and I am successful because of them, too. Help me understand why we need to do things differently for what this task force is calling ‘the economically disadvantaged.’ School is already free to all students, and with the same effort and hard work my father and I put in, they can be as successful achieving the American dream. I am concerned we will further burden our schoolteachers, instructional time, and school budget by adding special treatment and programs for certain students who could succeed under our current system by just applying themselves the way my father and I applied ourselves.” To prepare for this Discussion, review the module readings in favor of and opposed to the Ruby Payne “culture of poverty” approach to positive social change for students in poverty. Review the Walden University definition of positive social change. Also, consider the following: •Worldviews/values/ideologies evident on each side of the “culture of poverty” debate •Principles and/or approaches of culturally responsive education practices advanced by Ruby Payne’s “culture of poverty” paradigm •Principles and/or approaches of culturally responsive education practices advanced by opponents of the Ruby Payne “culture of poverty” paradigm •How the positive social change leaders featured in the media for this module approached advocating culturally responsive education practices By Day 7 of Week 7: Post your responses to the following: Share two or three key points you would use to defend and/or challenge the community stakeholder’s perspective on positive social change with regard to providing interventions for economically disadvantaged students. How does your stand, or your perspective, reflect your definition of positive social change? How does your stand reflect the Walden University definition of positive social change? Cite resources to support your stand. By Day 3 of Week 8: Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. As you read their responses, note those to which you would like to respond with advice, questions, comments, and/or encouragement. Respond to two or more of your colleagues’ postings in any of the following ways: •Explain why and how you agree and/or disagree with your colleague’s stance and defense points. •Ask a probing or clarifying question to deepen understanding of your colleague’s stance. •Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting. By Day 7 of Week 8: Return to this Discussion to read the responses to your initial posting. Post responses as needed to those colleagues who commented on your post AND post a reflective comment on what you learned in this activity and/or insights you gained this week.

Perspectives on Positive Social Change
Values and ideologies are reflected in each person’s worldview of what constitutes positive social change. However, there are often multiple prevailing worldviews evidenced in the structural features of human organizations, including education systems.
Consider the following scenario:
Troubled by the continuing achievement gap between the economically disadvantaged and the economically advantaged students in her district, Superintendent Miranda convenes a task force made up of a variety of stakeholders from the community to explore how to address this issue. During the first meeting, a gentleman states, “When my parents came to this country, they were poor and did not speak English. When my father went to school, it was with the express purpose of becoming an American. We kept cultural traditions in our home and with our neighbors who shared the same traditions. However, school was the place to learn the ‘American Way,’ including the English language and the skills to get a good job and move up the ladder in a workplace. He was never treated differently because he was poor and did not speak English. The expectation was that if you want to prosper in America, you learned the language of America and you adopted the American work ethic and culture so you could achieve the American dream. With these beliefs, my father did learn English, worked for an American company that taught him the technical and social skills he would use to help his family live the American dream. My father eventually started his own business, which continues to prosper in this community. He passed those values on to me, and I am successful because of them, too. Help me understand why we need to do things differently for what this task force is calling ‘the economically disadvantaged.’ School is already free to all students, and with the same effort and hard work my father and I put in, they can be as successful achieving the American dream. I am concerned we will further burden our schoolteachers, instructional time, and school budget by adding special treatment and programs for certain students who could succeed under our current system by just applying themselves the way my father and I applied ourselves.”
To prepare for this Discussion, review the module readings in favor of and opposed to the Ruby Payne “culture of poverty” approach to positive social change for students in poverty. Review the Walden University definition of positive social change. Also, consider the following:
•Worldviews/values/ideologies evident on each side of the “culture of poverty” debate
•Principles and/or approaches of culturally responsive education practices advanced by Ruby Payne’s “culture of poverty” paradigm
•Principles and/or approaches of culturally responsive education practices advanced by opponents of the Ruby Payne “culture of poverty” paradigm
•How the positive social change leaders featured in the media for this module approached advocating culturally responsive education practices
By Day 7 of Week 7:
Post your responses to the following:
Share two or three key points you would use to defend and/or challenge the community stakeholder’s perspective on positive social change with regard to providing interventions for economically disadvantaged students. How does your stand, or your perspective, reflect your definition of positive social change? How does your stand reflect the Walden University definition of positive social change?
Cite resources to support your stand.
By Day 3 of Week 8:
Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. As you read their responses, note those to which you would like to respond with advice, questions, comments, and/or encouragement.
Respond to two or more of your colleagues’ postings in any of the following ways:
•Explain why and how you agree and/or disagree with your colleague’s stance and defense points.
•Ask a probing or clarifying question to deepen understanding of your colleague’s stance.
•Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
By Day 7 of Week 8:
Return to this Discussion to read the responses to your initial posting. Post responses as needed to those colleagues who commented on your post AND post a reflective comment on what you learned in this activity and/or insights you gained this week.

Commentary 1 Source: Insert URL Section 1: Summarize the news article. Identify all the issues involved. Be sure to include conflicts between one value and another. Sate who is being affected, and exactly how they are being affected; do not be vague. Section 2 2a) STATE AND EXPLAIN THE MORAL ISSUE! Why is this a real issue that I should care about? It is not enough to say “stealing is bad and therefore not moral” or “this is an obvious moral issue” or “it is wrong to treat people like this”. Explain to me why it is immoral, for example, why is stealing bad? Try to use terms/ideas from class and the readings to prove to me how and why this is, in fact, a moral issue. Show me you attend class and that you pay attention. YOU MUST CONVINCE ME THAT THIS IS A MORAL ISSUE! 2b) You must identify a CORRELATION (preferably more than one) BETWEEN THE MORAL ISSUE AND THE NATURE OF BUSINESS ITSELF. What are the specific features of business that give rise to the(se) moral issue(s), and how do/did they generate the kind of situation(s) you identify within the article? Consider the following short list (there are many more) of possible pressures: profit margin, corporate culture, competition between companies, competition within companies, legislative manipulation, the nature of the fiduciary relationship(s) between employers, employees, customers, shareholders, and/or stakeholders, losing site of the big picture, etc. If the correlation is indirect, you MUST make the connection to business as clear as possible. Failure to do so will result in a low grade. Section 3: Tell me what you believe should be done about this Moral dilemma and how YOU would go about it fixing it.

Commentary 1
Source: Insert URL
Section 1: Summarize the news article.
Identify all the issues involved. Be sure to include conflicts between one value and
another.
Sate who is being affected, and exactly how they are being affected; do not be vague.
Section 2
2a) STATE AND EXPLAIN THE MORAL ISSUE!
Why is this a real issue that I should care about?
It is not enough to say “stealing is bad and therefore not moral” or “this is an obvious
moral issue” or “it is wrong to treat people like this”. Explain to me why it is immoral,
for example, why is stealing bad?
Try to use terms/ideas from class and the readings to prove to me how and why this is, in
fact, a moral issue. Show me you attend class and that you pay attention.
YOU MUST CONVINCE ME THAT THIS IS A MORAL ISSUE!
2b) You must identify a CORRELATION (preferably more than one) BETWEEN THE
MORAL ISSUE AND THE NATURE OF BUSINESS ITSELF.
What are the specific features of business that give rise to the(se) moral issue(s), and how
do/did they generate the kind of situation(s) you identify within the article? Consider the
following short list (there are many more) of possible pressures: profit margin, corporate
culture, competition between companies, competition within companies, legislative
manipulation, the nature of the fiduciary relationship(s) between employers, employees,
customers, shareholders, and/or stakeholders, losing site of the big picture, etc. If the
correlation is indirect, you MUST make the connection to business as clear as possible.
Failure to do so will result in a low grade.
Section 3: Tell me what you believe should be done about this Moral dilemma and how
YOU would go about it fixing it.

Perception of leadership

Perception of leadership
Answer 5 questions in additional materials
Book:
Stanwick, P. A., & Stanwick, S. D. (2009). Understanding business ethics. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Question 1:
The environment and healthcare are very important aspects of our lives,
as discussed in chapter 5 and 6 of your textbook. However, it is still
unclear whether corporations should focus on these as rights or a
privilege.
Research the concepts “public good” and “private
good”. From a business ethics perspective, should corporations and
society focus on the environment and healthcare as either “public goods”
or as “private goods”? Use any of the ethical perspectives
(Utilitarianism, Kant’s Categorical Imperative, Rawl’s Fairness as
Justice, etc) to justify your position.
Cite and reference at least two reputable sources, excluding your
textbook, in support of your response to these questions. Wisegeek,
NetMba, Wikipedia, and sources of that nature, are not considered
reputable sources.
Question 2:
Examine and discuss the types of computer and telephone monitoring systems being used in the workplace. What are the ethical issues involved with these type of monitoring systems? How does your workplace use a monitoring system? What are your personal feelings about monitoring employee’s computer and telephone communication?
Question 3:
There are numerous examples of ethical dilemmas dealing with the privacy of customers. As the textbook states, using cookies is a common way of monitoring preferences of customers and potential customers. Companies’ websites gather and store information about its customers through cookies. Do you agree with this business practice? What are the benefits to the company, and what are the benefits and potential disadvantages to the customer?
Question 4:
You are the Assistant human resource manager for Proctor and Gamble. One of your tasks is to monitor the e-mail of all employees. You have discovered an e-mail that you would consider “sexual harassment,” which was sent from one employee to another. What specific action steps would you take in this situation? What are your ethical responsibilities under these circumstances?
Question 5:
Analyze in detail the five types of internet fraud. Please describe any personal experiences you have encountered with internet fraud? What are practical preventative measures to deter being a victim of internet fraud? Please be specific.

Freedom of Speech

Freedom of Speech
Today, Matthew’s high school is celebrating &quot;Cultural Heritage and Diversity Day.&quot; When he arrives at school, he sees several students wearing American flags, some Black students in Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., t-shirts, some Jewish students wearing armbands with the Star of David symbol, several Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) students displaying flags and posters, and other students representing their religious beliefs with various signs and symbols. Matthew decides it is time to take off his jacket. He is wearing a confederate flag with the words, &quot;Heritage Not Hate&quot; across the chest. On the back of his t-shirt are the words, &quot;Christian, German, and Proud.&quot; Immediately, students from every race, gender, religious background, and creed begin yelling at Matthew, calling him a racist and killer of Blacks and Jews. Teachers rush in and escort Matthew to the office.
The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution states, &quot;Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.&quot;
Was Matthew’s situation a violation of his First Amendment rights? As an education leader, it will be your responsibility to prevent, and/or manage circumstances such as Matthew’s in your education organization. What role does ethical leadership play in implementing First Amendment Rights in P–20 environments? Ensuring First Amendment rights is legally correct. From an ethical perspective, it is also the right thing to do.
To prepare for the Discussion, review the resources in this module. View the vignette &quot;Due Process.&quot; Review the website, Education for Freedom, which focuses on the case Tinker v Des Moines (1969).
Evaluate the following quote that Supreme Court Justice Fortas stated in the 1969 ruling of Tinker v Des Moines:
[Students do not] &quot;shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.&quot;
By Day 7 of Week 7:
Post your response to the following:
What implications does Judge Fortas’ quote have on the day-to-day operations of P–20 environments? Evaluate the relationship between ethical leadership and students’ First Amendment Rights in P–20 environments. Cite module resources in your response and connect to the vignette, &quot;Due Process.&quot;
By Day 3 of Week 8:
Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. As you read their responses, note those to which you would like to respond with advice, questions, comments, and/or encouragement.
Respond to two or more of your colleagues’ postings in any of the following ways:
•Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings
•Validate an idea with your own experience
•Expand on your colleagues’ postings

"Legal & Ethics Knowledge for Social Work Practice"

“Legal & Ethics Knowledge for Social Work Practice”
Prepare a report about your visit to a court or tribunal, as follows:
Write a 1,000 word report on one observation visit.
Dot points are acceptablefor this task – this report should include:
a) Description of the court/tribunal process, and who was responsible for particular duties/roles
b) Brief details of one of the cases presented
c) Identification of relevant law/legislation
d) Your assessment of the proceedings and/or client preparation of proceedings?
e) in what ways did/could a social worker assist the proceedings and/r client preparation for the proceedings?

Survey

Survey
Approach the human resources department of an organization of your choice. Ask the HR or HRD director or HR Generalist for a copy of a survey utilized by the organization to evaluate a trainee’s level of learning following a training/learning initiative (program).The survey that you acquire should be blank with no answers present!
Scan the survey or questionnaire and submit it in Blackboard along with a word document with your name, the course name and number, and the date of submission in the upper-left hand corner.
Read chapter 9 of our textbook. Carefully review the survey you acquired and address the following items on the word document that you submit in Blackboard for this assignment:
Title of the Survey (explain what is the message being conveyed).
Assurances of anonymity and confidentiality for the respondent (if present, describe).
Are instructions present at the beginning of the survey? If so, what is the message conveyed to the respondents.
Describe the types of items shown in the survey that are used to gather the data.
Are there instances where three to four items measure the same variable? If so, describe.
How many words are used in the shortest item present and how many words are used in the longest item present?
How many total items are shown on the survey and how much time is necessary to complete the survey?
Describe the statistical analysis that will most likely be utilized to analyze the various types of data acquired from the survey. It is possible that more than one analysis will be necessary! For example, frequencies, percentages, qualitative or perhaps all of these.

Women's spirituality

Women’s spirituality
In the editor’s introduction to the chapter on Teresa of Avila, she writes that Teresa insisted upon three prerequisites for Christian life: “love of God and for one another, emotional detachment from people and created things, and true humility”.  Where do these three qualities appear in the selections from Teresa’s work Interior Castle in our text?  Include at least one direct quote for each of the three qualities and explain how and why the quotes are relevant.
Below is the web site for the text.  You only need to find quotes from Sixth Mansion, Chapter 9-11 and Seventh Mansion, Chpt 1-4.
Web source: http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/tic/

You are to look at an Oil and Gas organisation of your choice.

You are to look at an Oil and Gas organisation of your choice.
Task 1
Identify 3 possible areas that will improve your organisations effectiveness.
These could be efficiency improvements, such as improvement in service, new ways of working, even new products. Create 3 small Project Briefs (1 Paragraph each) for these Projects.
Task 2
As a small dynamic project team, you have been requested to engage with your organisation and use your skills to
a) undertake a project selection process from the 3 ideas and choose a project to progress with justification
b) undertake a feasibility study for the chosen Project
c) deliver a detailed project plan showing the benefits to the organisation including the likely timescales and risk. This should include critical path analysis
All 3 of these areas will be expected to be clear within your report
Task 3
Present a professional overview of your project plan, and your approach to managing implementation including how you would respond to each of the 3 challenges below during implementation should
a) the client introduce a number of changes to the project
b) 2 of your key project team were to leave
Task 1
Identify 3 possible areas that will improve your organisations effectiveness.
These could be efficiency improvements, such as improvement in service, new ways of working, even new products. Create 3 small Project Briefs (1 Paragraph each) for these Projects.
Task 2
As a small dynamic project team, you have been requested to engage with your organisation and use your skills to
a) undertake a project selection process from the 3 ideas and choose a project to progress with justification
b) undertake a feasibility study for the chosen Project
c) deliver a detailed project plan showing the benefits to the organisation including the likely timescales and risk. This should include critical path analysis
All 3 of these areas will be expected to be clear within your report
Task 3
Present a professional overview of your project plan, and your approach to managing implementation including how you would respond to each of the 3 challenges below during implementation should
a) the client introduce a number of changes to the project
b) 2 of your key project team were to leave

"written case study assignment"

“written case study assignment”
Mr Hay, is an 82 year old man who has been in your ward for the past week. On admission he was complaining of sharp pain in his chest which is worse on deep inspiration and coughing. His respirations were shallow and he tended to use purse lip breathing with use of accessory muscles.
His temperature was 38 C and he was tachycardic at 106 beats per minute. His family were concerned as he was found on the kitchen floor by a neighbour, and he had been laying there for some time as he had signs consistent with a stage 1 pressure injury to his right hip, ankle and shoulder.
He also had a productive cough, with thick yellow sputum. He mentioned that he had been to his General Practitioner (GP) approximately a week prior to admission and was given antibiotics for the cough.
Medical History:
2010:    # NOF and pulmonary embolism
2011 January:    Partial thickness burn to left hand No other significant medical history
Social History: Married for 45 years but his wife died mid 2011
Retired from coal mining in 1990 Likes a scotch in the evening Lives by himself and states he copes well. Family lives a few hours away but they visit him regularly
Present Vital signs: Pulse:    98 beats per minute
Temperature:     37.6o C
Blood Pressure 150/95 mmHg
Respirations:    28 breaths per minute at rest and shallow with ongoing
complaint of pleuritic chest pain
Electrolytes:
K+- 5mmol/L
Na+135mmol/L
CL- 92 mmol/L
Arterial Blood Gases:
PaCO2    49mm Hg
PaO2     82mm Hg
HCO3    29mm Hg    –
pH:     7.4
Chest X-Ray (AP and Lateral view)
Results:
The lungs are hyperinflated. There are several poorly defined small pleural plaques evident bilaterally which may be consistent with long standing inflammatory change. High resolution CT scanning of the chest may be advisable to further characterise these lesions. The heart shows moderate enlargement and the lung fields are free of any focal abnormality.
Doctors orders:
IV therapy 1000 mL 24 hrly Normal Saline
Titrate O2 to keep SaO2 >94%
Ambulate as tolerated.
Tasks;
identify the patients 3 priority problems from this list.
Activity intolerance
Airway clearance, ineffective
Breathing pattern, ineffective
Hyperthermia
Injury, potential for
Pain
Self care deficit
Tissue integrity impaired

Advertising a software for small business

Advertising a software for small business
You are a sales manager for company that provides a software for small businesses. Your task is to write an e-mail to advertise the services. Follow next points:
1. Create a specific and attention grabbing subject.
2. State the main message. Get to the point. Describe services and prices.
3. Mention about attachments you are sending with e-mail.
4. Write a call for action at the end of message.
5. Add an business email signature. Full name, title, company and contact information.

Briefing Paper

Briefing Paper
Paper details:
a. General encyclopedias are not acceptable sources.
i. Examples include, but are not limited to, Wikipedia, Encarta, and World Book.
b. Make certain that all of your sources (including your textbook) are referenced at the end of your response and that the information within your response is cited to show the difference between your ideas and your sources. Each question will have at least three citations, with two coming from the textbook.
•APA format
?In-text and reference citations are required for all written responses.
Course Textbook:
Cheeseman, H. R. (2013). The legal environment of business and online commerce: Business ethics, e-commerce, regulatory, and international issues (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Chapter 14: Small Business and General and Limited Partnerships
Chapter 15: Limited Liability Companies, Limited Liability Partnerships, and Special Forms of Business
Unit 5 Assessment
Read the Call-of-the-Question carefully, and follow the instructions for each subject. Prepare four Briefing Papers using the APA Format for Research Papers, and upload them as one document for your response.
Briefing Paper 1: Critical Legal Thinking
Instructions:
Read Bank of America, N. A. v. Barr ? Cheeseman text page 293-294
Respond to the three Case Questions found in Cheeseman Text page 294
Brief the facts of the case and assume your boss is seeking your opinions as noted in the Critical Legal Thinking, Ethics, and Contemporary Business questions. Argue both sides of all issues.
Briefing Paper 2: Law Case with Answers
Instructions:
Read Edward A. Kemmler Memorial Foundation v. Mitchell – Cheeseman text page 305-306
Brief the facts of the case and assume your boss is seeking your opinions as noted on what facts the Supreme Court of Ohio based its decision and what could the Partners have done differently that would have changed the decision in this case.
Provide convincing arguments for both sides of your recommendations.
Briefing Paper 3: Critical Legal Thinking Cases
Instructions:
Read Sections 14.4 Tort Liability; (p. 307) 15.3 Liability of a Franchisee; (p. 325) 14.2 Liability of General Partners; (p. 306); and 15.5 Liability of members (p. 325-326)
Check the decisions of the highest appellate courts, if a case is cited, for each fact pattern.
Brief the facts of the cases and assume your boss is seeking your opinions as noted on whether each of the four subjects affect business in the United States and if so, provide the worst and best case scenarios.
Briefing Paper 4: Ethics Case
Instructions:
Read Section 14.8 Ethics ? Cheeseman text page 307
Brief the facts of the case and assume your boss is seeking your opinions as noted on the 3 questions found at the end of Section 14.8. Argue both sides of all issues.

Attitudes to Key Social, Political and Economic Issues: Running for President in 2016

Attitudes to Key Social, Political and Economic Issues: Running for President in 2016
For your 2nd research project, you should imagine that you are running for President of the United States in 2016.  You need to say if you are a Democrat or a Republican. You must first pick three major issues that you want to address.  Then you must decide whether when taking a position on each of these issues:
A.)    You want your party to do well in the 2016 Presidential elections (a pragmatic candidate), or,
B.)    You have core principled beliefs that you want to argue for even if they are not popular (a principled candidate).
With those choices in mind, you will then pick three key policy items (variables) that you believe can form the core of a suitable program.  Produce, for each of these policy items, a chart (simple frequency or crass-tabulation) using the 2012 NES data.  You should run new frequencies, not just use those  that you used in Project 1.
Also, for two of these policy items, you should go online and search one or more of the LA Times, New York Times, Washington Post or Wall Street Journal or Rasmussen Polls or other suitable media, and look in them for recent (preferably last six weeks) survey data, that you can use to supplement/update your 2012 NES data.
Possible Policy Issues (you can these or others if you prefer): economic issues especially the state of the economy; financial reform in the light of the recent financial/economic crisis; health care/health care reform; foreign policy especially the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and upheavals in the Middle East, attitudes to Iran and China; terrorism; social issues (e.g. abortion, gay rights, women’s rights);  government (how corrupt, whom it serves etc);  religion; attitudes to minorities.
Project 2, Part 1. Memo (10 points). Construct a memo that sets out where public opinion stood in 2012 on the three policy issues you have selected, and supplement two of these issues with newer, 2015 data, as described above. In the memo:  Explain what stance you should take on these three issues in order to achieve your goals (re. A and B above). You must say what your goals/choices are there i.e. whether you are primarily a pragmatic or a principled candidate. Base your views on the survey data you have researched.
Maximum length of text for memo should be 2 single spaced pages (plus charts).
Project 2, Part 2. Political Speech (5 points). Write a speech for public delivery  (one single spaced page, maximum) that draws on your memo above, presents your stance on the three issues,  and is addressed to a general or a specified particular audience of your choice (e.g. a tv address to the nation, e.g. the Republican or Democratic convention e.g. the Urban League e.g. Princeton University graduating class). The top of the speech should say to whom it is addressed.

A Learning Journal

A Learning Journal
Order Description
Write a learning journal during the course of the semester to collect ONE article from press sources (newspapers, and magazines and so on). (PLEASE INFORM ME OF THE ARTICLE YOU CHOOSE BEFORE YOU START WORKING ON THE ASSIGNMENT).
The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the chosen article using the Global Management Model used in the unit by Steers, Nardon, Sanchez-Runde (2013). ?
The Learning Journal will include a copy of the collected article, plus a five-page write-up (using 12 point font, 1.5 line spacing) answering the following four questions:
??What do you see as challenges for a global manager??
??Discuss the area(s) (cultural, organisational or situational environments) in which a global manager needs to develop a good understanding.?
??Discuss the global management skills that need to develop in order for a manager to be effective and successful?
??Is/are there any ethical implication/s? If there is/are, what is/are they?
In this assessment, a student needs to take time in choosing an article carefully so that a suitable article is chosen. To be able to tackle the questions above, students are allowed and expected to make projections and assumptions, based on the contents of the article.
This assessment requires you to produce a well-written and well-researched write-up and to use a minimum of 10 references from scholarly sources. The writing should be in scholarly style. Note that the Chicago referencing system is the only acceptable referencing system for written work in this unit.
Worth: 40%
HERE ARE THE SAMPLES: –
(JUST FOR YOUR HELP IN CHOOSING THE ARTICLE AND HOW TO COMPILE THE ASSIGNEMENT)
A case study on United Dairy Power
In March 2014, William Hui, a Hong Kong entrepreneur, purchased a controlling interest in United Dairy Power (UDP) with the aim of entering the Chinese infant powdered milk market (Kitney 2014). UDP is Australia’s largest privately owned milk supplier. It manufactures dairy products such as cheddar, mozzarella cheese, butter and whey powder but does not currently have the facility nor sufficient milk supplies to produce infant powdered milk (Kitney 2014).
Using the newspaper article by Kitney (2014) at Appendix 1 and the Global Management Model (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013), this essay analyses the situation presented by the purchase of UDP by William Hui. In particular, this essay explores the global challenges for UDP, the global environment within which UDP operates and the global management skills that will help the company succeed.
The article by Kitney (2014) refers to a number of stakeholders such as the new owner of UDP, William Hui, the CEO of UDP, Mark Smith, dairy farmers, Austrade, competitors, current customers and potential customers. However, for the purpose of this essay I will primarily focus on two stakeholders – Mr Hui and Mr Smith.
Challenges for UDP’s Managers
According to Forbes (2014) William Hui has 20 years experience in industrial management with business interests in Swing Media Technology Group, a Hong Kong manufacturer of CDs, DVDs and other media products as well as Chinarise Capital, a Hong Kong company that trades mobile phone handsets and components. He does not have experience in the dairy industry nor has he previously owned an Australian business. While Mr Hui clearly sees the purchase of UDP as a significant business opportunity it also presents him with a number of challenges. These challenges include developing knowledge of the Australian dairy industry and Chinese infant powdered milk market, developing knowledge of Australian and Chinese food safety standards, evaluating whether to invest further funds in UDP to diversify into the infant milk powder market or whether to seek a strategic alliance to facilitate entry into this market, evaluating whether UDP should consider the purchase of dairy farms to guarantee milk supplies, as well as developing cross-cultural communication skills for effective interaction with UDP employees and Australian government officials.
While Mark Smith, the CEO of UDP, shares many of the same challenges as Mr Hui, such as cross-cultural communication skills to effectively communicate with Mr Hui and developing knowledge and expertise in the infant powdered milk market and manufacturing process, he is also presented with a number of challenges directly linked to Mr Hui’s global business ambitions. UDP is a national business that has only recently entered the global market (United Dairy Power 2014). Mr Hui’s vision of entering the Chinese infant powdered milk market means that Mr Smith will need to transform UDP into a global business competing on a global scale. However, none of this will happen unless Mr Smith is able to expand the facilities of UDP, increase the sources of milk to the factory and develop the global managerial competencies of both him and other UDP employees.
In addition to individual challenges, challenges also exist at the broader industry level. The Australian dairy industry has experienced significant global competition at a time of persistent droughts, a high Australian dollar and depressed milk prices (Guilliatt 2014). While global demand for milk has risen, the Australian dairy industry has shrunk (Guilliatt 2014). According to Dairy Australia herd numbers have dropped and the number of dairy farms has halved (Guilliatt 2014). Increasing sources of milk to meet the future demands of UDP is, therefore, a significant obstacle to Mr Hui’s vision of entering the Chinese infant powdered milk market.
Further challenges relate to the relationship between Mr Hui and Mr Smith as well as their roles going forward. While Mr Hui has committed to maintaining the existing management team (Kitney 2014), how much involvement will he have in the day-to-day management of UDP? Will Mr Hui seek to introduce Chinese management practices and decision-making processes into the organisation? How will Mr Hui facilitate UDP’s entry into the Chinese market?
Developing a Global Understanding
Clearly there are a number of global challenges and obstacles that UDP will face if it is to achieve Mr Hui’s strategic objective of entering the Chinese infant powdered milk market. In deciding how to proceed, the Global Management Model (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013) suggests that Mr Hui and Mr Smith will need to consider the environment in which UDP operates and how this impacts their working relationship as well as the global expansion of UDP (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013).
Cultural environment
Successfully managing a global business requires dealing with national and organisational cultural differences (Hofstede 1994). In the context of UDP, it is critical that Mr Hui and Mr Smith understand the current and future cultural environment in which UDP operates. Not only will this assist them in understanding how to communicate with each other, but it is also vital in understanding cultural differences which may impede UDP’s entry into the Chinese market.
From an ethical perspective, it is essential that Mr Hui and Mr Smith understand each other’s cultural similarities and differences. Using the Core Cultural Dimensions developed by Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde (2013) Australia can be characterised as moderately egalitarian where it is acceptable for individuals to question their superiors; strongly individualistic with a focus on direct communication and individual decision-making; strongly mastery-orientated which embraces change and a preference for individual performance based extrinsic rewards; and moderately rule-based with an emphasis on legal contracts and decisions based on objective criteria. On the other hand, China is characterised by a strongly hierarchical approach where it is unacceptable for individuals to question their superiors; strongly collectivistic with a focus on indirect communication and a preference for preserving social harmony over individual rights; strongly harmony-orientated which defends traditions and values relationships; and strongly rule-based with an emphasis on individual behaviour being regulated by rules (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013). Clearly there are some critical cultural differences between Australia and China which will not only affect the way in which Mr Hui and Mr Smith communicate with each other but also decision-making processes, management approaches and leadership styles. Hofstede and Bond (1988, 14) state, “differences among cultures … have many consequences for management practices.”
Organisational environment
According to Nardon and Steers (2014), manager’s actions are guided by organisational context, that is, the organisation’s strategy, structure, decision-making processes and cultural norms. In the case of UDP, their strategy to grow the business in Australia and internationally (United Dairy Power 2014) has lead to the purchase of the company by an overseas investor. However, it appears that UDP’s organisational structure continues to supports its previous national business strategy with international activities being an add-on to its domestic activities (United Dairy Power 2014). Clearly this structure will need to change as UDP pursues its global strategy.
While there is insufficient information to determine the decision-making processes of UDP, I have assumed that this reflects Australian cultural norms. That is, Australian managers are willing to share power and engage in two-way communication with subordinates as part of the decision-making process (Wang and Clegg, 2002). Chinese managers, on the other hand, are less likely to invite participation in decision-making (Wang and Clegg, 2002). While this is a generalisation of national cultures, it nonetheless highlights a significant issue that Mr Hui and Mr Smith will need to clarify as part of their on-going relationship.
Situational environment
The situational environment reflects the circumstances “facing a manager at any given point” (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013, 151). In the case of UDP, Mr Hui and Mr Smith need to build a workable relationship and consider how they will achieve the strategic objective of global expansion.
An important element of Chinese culture that impacts the situational and organisational environment is the concept of guanxi. Guanxi encompasses mutual trust and reflects the Chinese practice of establishing trust before the transactional side of business commences (Hwang et al. 2009). In the context of relationships with customers and suppliers, Menzies and Orr (2010, 27), describe guanxi as “more complex than the western concepts of networking and business favouritism and provides an alternative path to formal … or contractual processes.” Guanxi also relates to good work relationships, that is, maintaining harmony and dealing with conflict using a collaborative style (Cheng, Rhodes and Lok 2010). While there are many positive aspects to guanxi, Mr Smith also needs to be aware of its negative aspects. That is, the “exchange of gifts” or “facilitated payments” to maintain guanxi with Chinese partners and government officials (Hwang et al. 2009, 237). This presents a significant situational challenge for UDP to retain the benefits of good guanxi while maintaining their ethical business practices.
Developing Global Management Skills
Reflecting upon the challenges facing UDP and its’ environment, there are a number of skills that, in my opinion, Mr Hui and Mr Smith need to consider. These include cross-cultural communication, negotiation, global mindset and global leadership skills.
Culture and cultural differences, such as those of Australia and China, often act as a barrier or “screen … in which people create, send, receive and interpret messages” (Nardon, Steers and Sanchez-Runde 2011, 85). In the case of UDP, communicating across cultural boundaries is made more complex by the fact that Mr Hui comes from a “high-context culture” (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013, 210) where non-verbal cues are very important and much is communicated indirectly. It is, therefore, critical that Mr Hui and Mr Smith develop skills to communicate with each other, that is, across cultural boundaries. They need to be self-aware, learn to understand each other’s culture, develop common meanings and develop active listening skills (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013).
Transforming UDP into a global organisation will require developing global relationships, partnerships, and potentially a strategic alliance to facilitate UDP’s entry into the Chinese infant powdered milk market. It is therefore critical that UDP considers the criteria for selecting global partners, based on compatible goals, systems and processes, culture, commitment and operational approach (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013). Additionally, UDP will need to consider potential ethical conflicts, such as bribery, corruption or working conditions in China, and the strategies it may use to resolve these conflicts. UDP may wish to adopt an ethical decision tree approach (Buller, Kohls and Anderson 2000) in determining the appropriate strategy for particular ethical dilemmas.
Developing the necessary cross-cultural relationships to realise UDP’s global strategy will necessitate global management skills. These skills are often described as a global mindest, global management skills, cultural intelligence or cross-cultural competence (Bucker and Poutsma, 2010). In essence each of these concepts refer to a “set of individual qualities and attributes that help a manager influence individuals, groups and organisations who are from other parts of the world” (Javidan and Bowen 2013, 147). UDP managers with a global mindset are more likely to handle the global business complexities, such as navigating through the challenges and obstacles mentioned earlier in this essay, that may hinder the achievement of UDP’s vision as a successful global organisation.
In addition to a global mindset, Mr Hui and Mr Smith need to consider their global leadership skills. Research from the Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) program highlighted universally acceptable and unacceptable leadership attributes (Javidan, et al. 2006). Understanding these attributes is vital for developing effective cross-cultural leadership. Mr Hui and Mr Smith need to understand and demonstrate both the similarities and differences in their leadership styles then seek ways to bridge the gap between the two cultures. Not only will this aid their working relationship but it will also assist the adaption of their leadership style to enable attainment of UDP’s strategic objective of expansion into the Chinese infant powdered milk market.
Conclusion
Globalisation provides organisations with many challenges and opportunities (Story and Barbuto Jr. 2011). UDP’s success depends upon Mr Hui and Mr Smith developing and demonstrating their global management skills. They need to recognise the global realities that face UDP, understand the environment in which they operate and develop the global management skills necessary for their particular cross-cultural setting (Steers, Nardon and Sanchez-Runde 2013).
References
Bucker, J., and E. Poutsma. 2010. “Global Management Competencies: A Theoretical Foundation.” Journal of Management Psychology. 25 (8): 829-44. doi: 10.1108/02683941011089116.
Buller, Paul F., John J. Kohls, and Kenneth S. Anderson. 2000. “When Ethics Collide: Managing Conflicts across Cultures.” Organizational Dynamics 28 (4): 52-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(00)00005-X.
Cheng, Vincent, Jo Rhodes, and Peter Lok. 2010. “A Framework for Strategic Decision Making and Performance among Chinese Managers.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 21 (9): 1373-95. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2010.488434.
Forbes. 2014. “William Hui.” Forbes. Accessed May 21, http://www.forbes.com/profile/william-hui/.
Guilliatt, Richard. 2014. “The Winning Formula.” The Australian, March 15.
Hofstede, Geert. 1994. “The Business of International Business Is Culture.” International Business Review 3(1): 1-14. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(94)90011-6.
Hofstede, Geert, and Michael Harris Bond. 1988. “The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth.” Organizational Dynamics 16 (4): 5-21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(88)90009-5.
Hwang, Dennis, Patricia Golemon, Yan Chen, Teng-Shih Wang and Wen-Shai Hung. 2009. “Guanxi and Business Ethics in Confucian Society Today: An Empirical Case Study in Taiwan.” Journal of Business Ethics 89: 235-50. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9996-5.
Javidan, Mansour, and David Bowen. 2013. “The ‘Global Mindset’ of Managers: What It Is, Why It Matters, and How to Develop It.” Organizational Dynamics 42 (2): 145-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2013.03.008.
Javidan, Masour, Peter W. Dorfman, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert J. House. 2006. “In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project Globe.” Academy of Management Perspectives 20 (1): 67-90. doi: 10.5465/AMP.2006.19873410.
Kitney, Damon. 2014. “United Dairy Power boss targets massive Chinese market.” The Australian, March 18. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/in-depth/united-dairy-power-boss-targets-massive-chinese-market/story-fni2wt8c-1226857438191.
Menzies, Jane L. and Stuart Orr. 2010. “The Impact of Political Behaviours on Internationalisation: the Case of Australian Companies Internationalising to China.” Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies 3 (1): 24-42. doi: 10.1108/17544401011016663.
Nardon, Luciara, Richard M. Steers, and Carlos J. Sanchez-Runde.2011. “Seeking Common Ground: Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Communication.” Organizational Dynamics 40 (2): 85-95. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2011.01.002.
Nardon, Luciara and Richard M. Steers. 2014. “Managing Cross-Cultural Encounters: Putting Things in Context.” Organizational Dynamics 43 (2): 138-45. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2014.03.008.
Steers, Richard M., Luciara Nardon and Carols J. Sanchez-Runde. 2013. Management Across Cultures: Developing Global Competencies. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Story, Joana S.P., and John E. Barbuto Jr. 2011. “Global Mindset: A Construct Clarification and Framework.” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 18 (3): 377-84. doi: 10.1177/1548051811404421.
United Dairy Power. 2014. United Dairy Power. Accessed May 21, http://www.udp.com.au/.
Wang, Karen Yuan and Stewart Clegg. 2002. “Trust and Decision Making: Are Managers Different in the People’s Republic of China and in Australia?”. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal 9 (1): 30-45. doi: 10.1108/13527600210797334
Appendix 1
United Dairy Power boss targets massive Chinese market
DAMON KITNEY
THE AUSTRALIAN
MARCH 18, 2014 12:00AM
Source: The Australian
THE Hong Kong entrepreneur who now controls Australia’s largest privately owned milk processing company, United Dairy Power (UDP), wants to use it as a springboard to break into the multi-billion-dollar powdered milk market in China.
William Hui, who last month paid about $70 million to take control of UDP from its founder Tony Esposito, said he was willing to spend a further $20m to bolster capacity at the group’s factories or seek alliances to help UDP expand into the milk powder business.
In his first ever media interview, Mr Hui — who is also the chairman of Singapore-listed Swing Media Technology, a company that makes and trades CDs, DVDs and other media products — said he was also talking to his bankers about potentially providing finance to UDP’s suppliers to help them bolster milk supplies.
He said the company could consider purchasing farming properties in the future as part of its expansion plan for UDP, designed to cash in on the booming demand for powdered milk products in China.
The infant milk formula market in China is set to double to more than $25 billion by 2017. But while the global price for whole milk powder jumped 65 per cent over the past year, Australia’s production of milk powder fell 22 per cent over the same period.
Mr Hui stressed that the company remained committed to maintaining capacity in the local market and would only forge ahead with its expansion plans if it could source bigger milk supplies. UDP, based in South Melbourne, has processing facilities at Poowong in Victoria and Murray Bridge and Jervois in South Australia.
Mr Hui’s purchase of the company last year followed a fierce bidding war for the listed Warrnambool Cheese & Butter, a battle eventually won by Saputo after the Canadian giant beat off local rivals Murray Goulburn and Bega Cheese.
The purchase comes as several Chinese state-owned enterprises and private companies are in negotiations to bankroll construction of new milk powder plants in NSW through a plan being brokered by Dairy Connect, a not-for-profit organisation that represents the NSW dairy industry.
Mr Hui, who was introduced to UDP in August last year by Huashan Capital co-founder David Chen, confirmed there were other investors in China willing to follow his lead to purchase or invest in Australian dairy assets.
“We know there are lots of investors in China,” he said in an interview with The Australian. “In the coming five years there will be a lot of Chinese coming to this market. In the past five years it has been in mining, but in the coming five years it will be in dairy.
“Whether it is a big company or a medium-sized company in China, they will be interested because the dairy product from Australia is very good. “The environment here is very good for the cows and the milk. China has already been importing a lot of cows from Australia.”
Mr Hui said his purchase was a private one and unrelated to Swing Media or his other business, Chinarise Capital, which trades mobile phone handsets and components in Hong Kong.
Established in 1999, UDP purchases milk from the Kirin-owned Lion-National Foods Group but also provides transport and logistics services as well as manufacturing facilities. The company manufactures dairy products including cheddar, the Caboolture brand of mozzarella cheese, butter and whey powder.
Mr Hui’s growth plan will see a major expansion of production to allow diversification into milk powder, which will be exported to China. “We now still mainly rely on the local market,” he said. “If we get more milk supply then we will divert to the China market. Our factories have the potential to produce more but supply is at the maximum already. We need to look for the milk supply, increase our production and then we can go to China. Right now we have about 150 farmers, suppliers, and we are talking to them about supplying more. We are also talking to our bankers to see if they can allow us to provide finance to farmers, assistance to them, to help them grow as well,” Mr Hui added.
While he said there were no plans to purchase dairy properties and emphasised that “having a processing company is very different to having a farm”, he said it could be an option for the future. “We won’t buy farms now but we could in the future. But we are new to this industry,” he said. “Once we expand our facilities then we will consider buying some farms.” Mr Hui’s chief financial adviser and Chinarise CFO, Johnny Chan, said the company was in dialogue with Austrade about providing more support to the local farmers to help them bolster supply But he said the government needed to do more. “I think the government should give more support to the farmers, to help them to grow. They shouldn’t just rely on the foreign investor financing the farmers.”
Mr Hui said the company remained committed to the local market. It is being run by the existing management team, led by chief executive Mark Smith.
Earlier this month it increased prices for suppliers. “We won’t cut off production or capacity for the local market because we already have good profitability here,” he said. “We don’t want to cut that off and ship to a new market. Locally we are still growing. Locally we still have demand we can’t supply to. We cannot have enough supply for our customers — so we want to make sure our local customers are happy first.”
Tighter food safety rules in China have also made it more difficult for importers of dairy products, especially after a contamination scandal involving New Zealand dairy giant Fonterra last year. “We need to be very careful because of new regulations governing the import of dairy products into China,” Mr Hui said. “Other people have been getting into big problems. We don’t want to jeopardise everything we have established.”

Walter Long and the Process Engineering Proposal (PEP)

Walter Long and the Process Engineering Proposal (PEP)
Order Description
I AM UPLOADING THE WALTER LONG CASE AND THE PROCESS OF ENGINEERING PROPOSAL IN THE ATTACHED FILE. YOU NEED TO READ THE CASE AND THE PROPOSAL THOROUGHLY IN ORDER TO WRITE THIS PAPER. ALWAYS REFER TO THE PROPOSAL AND CASE WHEN YOUR ANALYSING THE PAPER. REMEMBER THIS IS AN ANALYSIS PAPER!
TASK: I am taking the role of Niel Goodrich, the VICE PRESIDENT of Manufacturing and I am hiring you as my HIGH PERFORMANCE ORGANISATION (HPO) consultant. I need you to advise me on the viability of the PEP going forward. THIS IS A FOLLOW-UP TO THE PROPOSAL IN THE ATTACHED FILE. this is a very stimulating case because it covers a number of issues (not only the motivational/job design issues within the NTAR but also interdepartmental communications etc.). Some have noted this appropriately. But here is a big hint – don’t let the latter issue distract your analysis from the very specific elements of the proposal. The specifics deal with things like fixed station assignment, specialization, new workers etc. These CAN be analyzed at a very deep level in terms of motivating high performance. I am Niel Goodrich and I KNOW of the interdepartmental conflicts (with the sub-context of Long/Singer) and I don’t need you to deal with that – that is my job – your job is to analyze the PEP. Also don’t make this a change analysis or a communications analysis – you might never analyze the “guts” of the proposal. You know and I know there are many communications and change management issues but that is not why I am hiring you – I want to know if the PEP will work or not. you might try to document performance in terms of real change. That is the first step and many of you have done that. Then explain/analyze what Long did to produce those numbers – this is the second step and then as a third step consider the impact of the PEP on what Long did. This should give you insight into your performance predictions – it is an idea anyway.
USE THE P-A-R APPROACH TO WRITE THIS PAPER. THE P-A-R STANDS FOR PROBLEM STATEMENT-ANALYSIS-RECOMMENDATIONS. START WITH THE PROBLEM STATEMENT FIRST, WHERE YOU WILL TALK ABOUT THE STRENGTHS IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. THIS SHOULD BE IN 1 PARAGRAPH. AND THEN, START WITH THE ANALYSIS, WHERE YOU STATE AND BACK UP YOUR POINTS FROM THE PROBLEM STATEMENT. DONT GIVE PERSONAL OPINIONS! THIS SHOULD IN 1 OR 2 PARAGRAPHS. BACK IT UP FROM THE PEP ANALYSIS IN THE ATTACHED FILE. TALK ABOUT HOW YOU MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES/JOB DESIGN AND ALSO, TALK ABOUT INTRINSIC MOTIVATION. AND THEN GIVE REALISTIC RECOMMENDATIONS, WHICH THE MANAGER CAN IMPLEMENT IN THE ORGANISATION. AGAIN, THEY SHOULD BE REALISTIC RECOMMENDATIONS! THIS SHOULD BE IN 1 0R 2 PARAGRAPHS.
THEN DIAGNOSE THE FUNCTION OF MOTIVATION, PERFORMANCE VARIATION, ABILITY, GOALS, CONSTRAINS, AND, MATCH BETWEEN ABILITY AND JOB FIT. ALSO TALK ABOUT EFFECTED JOB DESIGN AND DIMENSIONS OF TASK PERFORMANCE, SKILL VARIETY AND TASK FEEDBACK. MAKE SURE YOU EVALUATE ALL THE ASPECTS THAT I HAVE MENTIONED HERE.

Language Fact Sheet "Korean Language"

Language Fact Sheet “Korean Language”
Order Description
In the fact sheet, you will include:
1. Overview of the language (e.g. history, context, varieties and dialects within the language).
2. Linguistic structures (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics features).
3. Implications for instruction (e.g. similarities and differences between the home language and English, common learner mistakes due to home language influence, instructional methods and strategies).
4. Resources (e.g. resources for learners such as online dictionary, idiom comparison list; resources for teachers, and resources for home literacy.
Shanghai Dialect
??? or ??
Linguistic Structure
?? Dialects in China are not mutually intelligible
?? Phonology:
??30 consonants and 14 vowels;
??syllables are quick and direct;
??average syllable is 30% shorter than Mandarin
?? Morphology:
??rich vocabulary representing local features;
??vocabulary does not always have equivalents in Mandarin;
??has over 100 cognates with Tai
?? Syntax:
??Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) oriented with mandarin influence of
SVO;
??precise particles are used to indicate tense (similar to Japanese)
?? Semantics & Pragmatics:
??mixed-code use is commonly observed in daily conversations: ??
call ? (someone called you)
TESOL for ALL
Fact Sheet
Date: June 2011
Useful Phrases
?? ?? (hueugnin)
— Welcome
?? ?? (non hô)
— Hello
?? ???? (non hôva?)
—How are you?
?? ???,?? (ngû
mhehô, jâja)
— I am fine. Thank
you.
?? ?? (tzewe) / ???
(mintzo-wê )
— Goodbye
?? ??? (cihdih?)
— How much?
?? ??? (tehveqchi)
—Sorry
?? ?? (jaja)
—Thank you.
?? ??? (viô-khaqchi)
—You are welcome.
OVERVIEW
?? Dialect system: Wu Chinese
?? Region:
Shanghai and surrounding areas
?? Speakers: ~14 million
?? History:
?? First appeared in 1077 AD
?? Formed based on dialects in Jiaxing
and Suzhou
?? Experienced rapid growth during
1850-1950
?? Began to wane after 1949 when
Mandarin was introduced as the
official language
?? Revived since 2005 by municipal
government to retain local dialect
http://www.beijingfeeling.com/shanghaitravel/
shanghai-language/
http://wu-chinese.com/zanhei/
????——smart
?????——number one
?????——
?“Chance” (opportunists)
?????——gossip
?????——Russian (refer
to a soup in Shanghai)
??(?)???——lead
(hint)
????——?“dear”,
?????——get??
(make friends)
????——?banker (big
banker, rich people)
???/???——color
(means modern)
????——dashy
????——on sale
?????——cement
?????——s??ck
?????—— cashmere
?????——dacron
????——pass
????——Show Hand
(refer to the card game)
??????——spring
????——charter (taxi)
?????——corner ball
?????——starter
?????——lysol
????——bu??er
Phrases Originated
from English ESL/EFL Instruction
Learner Backgrounds
?? Early exposure to English language: in Shanghai, students typically
start to learn English in Kindergarten or Elementary school; all street
signs in Shanghai have English translations.
?? Interaction with native Engl