Social Science homework help

Public health proposal related to culture(high reward but need excellent quality)

The purpose of the Program Proposal is to synthesize what you have learned about the culture-health relationship and apply it by proposing a health promotion intervention that addresses a specific population and health issue, identifying key cultural issues involved and incorporating them in the program design. You have the option of addressing HIV/AIDS, obesity, or youth violence in a specific population (as we do in the class), or of selecting another health issue/population. The paper should be in the following format:

 

Health issue (3 points): Health Issue, target population and epidemiology 

Population and cultural issues (7 points): Description of affected population, including cultural factors relevant to the impact of the health problem

Program (5 points): Proposed program approach and components 

Incorporation of cultural issues (5 points): Explanation of cultural factors incorporated into program design and rationale for inclusion

 

The paper should be between 5 and 7 pages, double-spaced. Make sure to include citations and references wherever necessary, and format the references in APA style (posted on Blackboard) and listed at the end of the report under the heading of “References”. The references should not be counted in the 5 to 7 page limit

Sociology of Law and Order

Question
Assume that the Ministry of Law (Singapore) has invited you, as an academic, to write a research paper focusing on juvenile delinquents and their involvement in gangs and rioting.
In light of the concepts and theories you have learned in SOC355 Sociology of Law and Order, your paper should demonstrate evidence of academic research and depth of analysis, and should, minimally, include discussions revolving around:
• Examining definitions of crime and deviance: What laws are in place to address ‘rioting’? Singapore criminal justice system? Is it a ‘crime’ or ‘deviance’? Are there any changes in the laws and penalties over the years? How do society and the youths themselves understand the terms ‘gangs’ and ‘rioting’ and do their understanding(s) adhere to the legal definitions? Should ‘juvenile delinquents’ be considered ‘criminals’ or ‘deviants’? Is the term ‘juvenile delinquent’ appropriate?
• Social norms and values: Who are the stakeholders? Who are the offenders? How does Singapore society view such offenders and the laws and penalties surrounding this issue? To what extent do the laws reflect societal norms and values? What are the views of the experts with regard to this group of offenders? Why there is a need for punishment – deter, justice, equity, rehab, integrate?
• An analysis of the role of the media and appraisal of the statistics: How has the media depicted ‘youths’, ‘gangs’ and ‘rioting’ over the decades? Are there any stereotypes created, affirmed, or debunked? What are the numbers (or estimates) on the offenders involved?
(Notes from client: should include “dark figure” if able to find any information in relation to that in Singapore. Victim surveys? Self-report surveys?
Roles of media: Moral Panic, Deviance amplification, Exerting undue influence over judges.)
• Consideration and appraisal of theories (this section should form the bulk of your paper): Consider all the theories covered in the course. Which theory or theories do you think applies/apply to ‘juvenile delinquents’ and their involvement in gangs and rioting? Also consider theories of punishment and crime prevention in your report.
(Notes from client: The theories that are covered in my course are listed in the table below. If you feel that the theories are inappropriate, please let me know which theory/theories should be used and I would make a check if it is covered in my course.)
Crime prevention should include primary, secondary and tertiary crime prevention. To also consider the situational, community safety and social approaches to crime prevention.)
• Recommendations: Appraise and critique the current measures with regard to the crimes or issues you have identified. Are they sufficient? Do they reflect societal norms and values? You are also free to suggest any alternative or complementary measures.
The ECA, which takes the form of the research paper you have to write, allows you to develop research and analytical skills. While your paper should cover the above pointers, you should not write in a step-by-step manner in accordance to the suggested pointers raised. Rather, your paper should take the form of a coherent, continuous essay.
Marks Allocation (general guide to the weight of each criterion only):
• Relevant discussion of issues; application and appraisal of theories (70 marks)
• Appraisal and recommendations of measures (10 marks)
• Quality of research (15 marks) (NB: Do not cite from Wikipedia.)
• Language and adherence to the word limit (5 marks)
Remember to include in-text citations and a reference list in the APA style format (6th ed.) (2010), available at http://www.apastyle.org
Points from client
• Please write the research paper in Singapore context
• Juveniles in Singapore refer to children under the age of 16
• In Singapore Law Statutes (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;page=0;query=CompId%3Aa1c73f65-d6c9-471b-978e-a39ec5683eff%20ValidTime%3A20151015000000%20TransactionTime%3A20151015000000;rec=0;resUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fstatutes.agc.gov.sg%2Faol%2Fbrowse%2FtitleResults.w3p%3Bletter%3DP%3Btype%3DactsCur ), Rioting is an offence under Section 147 of the Penal Code, Chapter 224
• For an offence of rioting to be made out, the number of assailants in the group must be more than 5. For example, a fight between 3 vs 2 is not rioting whereas in a fight between 6 vs 3, the group of 6 has committed rioting.
• Statistics can be retrieved from Singapore Police Force (SPF) website or Ministry of Social and Family Development (MSF) website
• Should follow the pointers in the question as closely as possible.
• Please cite from (i) books—academic textbooks or non-academic books, (ii) academic journals, (iii) newspapers—online or print (preferably local media eg. Straitstimes, TNP, AsiaOne) and (iv) government websites.
• Please have headers for the paragraphs.
• You may exceed the required number of references.
Classical Theories of Crimes The State and Criminality
Utilitarian
Rational
Moral Calculator
Scientific method Functional
Anomie
Social Disorganisation (Chicago School)
Differential association
Stress and Strain
Social Bond
Social Control
Labelling
Social Construct
Social Interaction
Status Frustration
Drift Conflict criminology
Left Idealists
Left Realists
Business Govt vs Society
Positivist Conservative Criminology
Determinism
Atavism
Labelling
Pre-emptive
Social Darwin
Predict Right Realists
Right Idealists

Cultural Autobiography

A cultural autobiography is a summary of the major influences on your personal cultural lens and the value systems and beliefs that are embedded in your unique lens. These influences may come from your social locations related to race, ethnicity, religion, social class, gender, or sexuality, but may also be related to pivotal experiences, or identity shifts such as becoming a parent, or moving away from home. In this assignment, you have the opportunity to incorporate your thinking about “self-awareness” into your uniquely written personal narrative. Use the assignment to clarify the foundations of your cultural lens – those learned through your childhood – along with the changes that have occurred in your value systems, beliefs, and worldviews over time.
In this assignment, you will have the opportunity to apply principles derived from the readings and lectures while describing the development and evolution of your cultural lens over time. Your narrative will describe the unique cultural environments of your formative years and later development. It will explore how your personal values have been shaped by your culture, noting which of those values you have maintained and which you have discarded.
In the final analysis, you are the judge of what you are comfortable discussing about your identity formation in order to assist the reader in understanding your unique cultural lens. Deep thinking about your own cultural identity will, in turn, deepen appreciation for the cultural identity of others, bringing greater understanding, acceptance, respect, and empathy. Although the paper will necessarily be graded, the purpose of the assignment is a close examination of your own cultural experience in order to further the critical self-awareness process and to increase sensitivity to the cultural experiences of others.

Sociology of Law and Order

Please write in argumentative essay.
Do not use wikipedia as reference.
The number of references is at least 15, you may have more than 15 references.
Question:
Assume the role of a researcher who is working for the Ministry of Law (Singapore). With reference to (i) theories of crime and (ii) theories of punishment, analyse the following case scenario. How do you think the accused ought to have been dealt with? Also, do you think juveniles like the accused should have been spared from the gallows? Give reasons (via concepts or theories learnt) for your answer.
This assignment tests your knowledge and understanding of the purposes and aims of the criminal justice system. In deciding the appropriate sentence, explain the substance of your deliberations and the reasons for your decisions. If you feel that you do not have all the information you need, then outline what further information you require and why. Where appropriate, please also comment on any current penal policy issues.
Scenario
‘X’, the accused, is a 15-year-old female who has been charged with murder. At the time of the incident, she had been living alone for four months. A year before the incident, her mother, whom she was close to, had died from lung cancer. Her father remarried soon after and she was initially living with her father and her stepmother. Soon after her mother’s death, she was diagnosed with depression, and her emotional problems escalated after her stepmother moved into the household. She was previously at the top of her class academically and showed no conduct problems, but she began to skip classes and stayed at home. In the four months that she was living with her father and stepmother, she had, in fact, only attended school thrice. Her form teacher had visited her with a guidance counsellor weekly, but her father pleaded with them to not to raise further alarm and ruin her “bright future”.
A month after her stepmother moved into the household, she hit her father with a baseball bat after a quarrel. Her family brought her to see her psychiatrist again and this time she was diagnosed borderline personality disorder and depression. As the stepmother was pregnant and she did not get along well with her stepmother, her father suggested that she lived alone—a suggestion she accepted. Her father was a lawyer with a busy practice, and as such she only saw her father fortnightly when he passed her a fortnightly allowance of $2000. By the time she had started living alone, she had already stopped attending school altogether, although she did not withdraw from school officially.
Evidence retrieved from her computer also led to the discovery that she had killed and dissected a stray cat before, and that she had spent most of her time at home visiting online depression and anatomy forums. Her father had visited her the Thursday before the murder occurred, and in the course of his visit, they quarrelled and she cut her wrist right in front of him. She was rushed to a private hospital, and her father wanted to commit her to a psychiatric ward for that weekend, but as the beds were unfortunately full, she was discharged after she received stitches for her wounds.
After her discharge, she turned up at school on her own accord on Monday, and on Tuesday she approached the victim—‘L’, and invited her to hang out after school. ‘L’ was her classmate and she was a popular girl in school. The two were not known to be particularly close nor were they known to have bad relations. After school, they went shopping and stopped by a café for a drink, and ‘X’ invited ‘L’ over to her place to hang out further and have dinner together as she was “bored and didn’t want to be alone”.
According to the accused, an hour after they reached her place and had some pizza in the living room, she invited the victim to view her photo albums in her bedroom. The two moved to the bedroom and while the victim was distracted by the photo albums, the accused took her baseball bat and hit the victim on her head from the back, and after the victim fell down onto the floor, the accused sat astride on the victim and strangled her to death.
The accused proceeded to dissect and dismember the victim’s body—effectively decapitating her, opening up her abdomen and chopping off her limbs. The victim’s face was also found disfigured with slashes across her face. At the time of arrest, the police also found medical and anatomy textbooks, medical tools, ropes, etc sprawled on the floor near the body. When the accused was asked why she committed the act, she answered, “I just wanted to feel something…I wanted to know how it feels to kill, to dissect someone.” Evidence retrieved from her computer also revealed that she had written the following entries on an online medical forum:
“Do you all know how to warm up a body? I tried to warm the body the moment it got cold, but it doesn’t warm up well.”
“Hey guys, do you want to know what colour is the brain? I will take good care of it and the spinal cord. They look so pretty in a solution.”
The father of the accused committed suicide a week after the incident, and besides her stepmother, she has no other family.
Student notes
This question requires you to demonstrate knowledge of theories learnt in class, but you need to go beyond providing definitions of the theories. This question tests your ability to analyse, appraise and compare points made in theories and academic writings; to research journal articles and scholarly writings, and apply the theories to specific, real life cases. To do well for this assignment, you would also have to clearly and narrowly define and critique the issues, and integrate your analysis into a coherent, persuasive essay.

weakening of the family

Sociologists cite the weakening of the family as one of the causes for some of the problems that American society faces today. Do you agree? In your paper, include the following information:

  • Identify important or significant changes in families since 1960. What factors are responsible for this change?
  • On the balance, are families becoming weaker or simply different in society? What evidence can you cite?
  • If you agree that the family has become weaker in American society, what proposals do you have to strengthen the family?
  • If you disagree and believe that the family has become stronger in American culture in recent decades, please explain why.

 

Reference need to be cited and in Apa Format

Sociology assignment

In 2014, former Spanish Justice Minister Mr. Alberto Ruiz-Gallardo proposed a Bill that aimed to allow abortion only in cases of rape reported to the police or in cases where the pregnancy is medically certified as a threat to the mother\’s physical or psychological health. It would have ended a woman\’s right to opt for an abortion on the grounds of foetal abnormality.
If you were a member of the Singapore Parliament, and in light of our dismal total fertility rate, would you have supported such a Bill? Demonstrating use of some of the concepts we have covered so far in this course (e.g., social norms and values; changing definitions of crime and deviance; individual rights; cultural relativism, etc), explain your stand.
*You do not need to use every single concept listed above, but you should focus on those that are relevant and helpful in answering the question.

This question requires you to go beyond describing definitions of the concepts learnt in class. You are expected to do additional research using academic journals and credible news sources such as Factiva, Jstor, etc. Please cite from (i) books—academic textbooks or non-academic books, (ii) academic journals, (iii) newspapers—online or print and (iv) government websites. Do NOT cite from generic sites such as www.sociology.com, Cliffnotes, Wikipedia, or online study guides from universities worldwide.

Sociology of Law and Order

Question
Using the concepts learnt (e.g., classicism/positivism, deviance amplification, moral panic, etc), critique the case of Mr. Andreas Lubitz, who was the co-pilot when Germanwings Flight 4U9525 crashed in March 2015.
Your analysis must address the following:
(1) Analyse the role of the media and its impact on our understanding of the crime/deviance in question. For example, who are the criminals/deviants or what is the crime/deviance in question? Is Lubitz the only criminal/deviant? Are there any stereotypes or prejudice affirmed or debunked? Did the media amplify the deviance in question? If so, how? If not, why not? (Provide specific examples in your answer).
(2) Appraise the classical and positivist approach to this case.
(In your paper, do not focus solely on presenting the facts of the case. You should also write in one continuous essay and not break your paper into two sections.)

Student notes
This question tests your ability to analyse the case using concepts learned in the course (i.e., to go beyond simple facts), to evaluate and critique facts and information, and to develop critical thinking. To do well for this assignment, you must clearly explain the concepts, examine and think through the issues, and be able to integrate the information and analysis into a coherent, persuasive essay. Do NOT cite from generic sites such as www.sociology.com, Cliffnotes, Wikipedia, or online study guides from universities worldwide.

Sociology of Law and Order

In 2014, former Spanish Justice Minister Mr. Alberto Ruiz-Gallardo proposed a Bill that aimed to allow abortion only in cases of rape reported to the police or in cases where the pregnancy is medically certified as a threat to the mother\’s physical or psychological health. It would have ended a woman\’s right to opt for an abortion on the grounds of foetal abnormality.
If you were a member of the Singapore Parliament, and in light of our dismal total fertility rate, would you have supported such a Bill? Demonstrating use of some of the concepts we have covered so far in this course (e.g., social norms and values; changing definitions of crime and deviance; individual rights; cultural relativism, etc), explain your stand.
*You do not need to use every single concept listed above, but you should focus on those that are relevant and helpful in answering the question.

This question requires you to go beyond describing definitions of the concepts learnt in class. You are expected to do additional research using academic journals and credible news sources such as Factiva, Jstor, etc. Please cite from (i) books—academic textbooks or non-academic books, (ii) academic journals, (iii) newspapers—online or print and (iv) government websites. Do NOT cite from generic sites such as www.sociology.com, Cliffnotes, Wikipedia, or online study guides from universities worldwide.

The Importance of Play

The Importance of Play w3

Overview

A local parenting agency has contacted you to write a short article for their community magazine, “Ages and Stages” section. This month’s theme is “The Importance of Play in Child Development.” In the article you are asked to give your opinion on play as it relates to toddlers. Support your position with current research that demonstrates how play contributes to a toddler’s development.

Initial Post – In your 200 word article, address  the following:

  • Explain your opinion on play and how you believe it affects toddler development.
  • Justify your opinion with at least one scholarly resource that supports the concept of play. You can use the Ashford University Library or the Internet to locate a scholarly article.
  • Describe what a developmentally appropriate environment would include. Explain the significance of designing an environmental space to nurture a child’s physical, socio-emotional, cognitive, and language development. You can include a description of the physical space as well as any play materials that you would recommend.
  • List ideas for play that you would share with families. These could be games, activities or ideas that they can use in their home.

Toddlers are on a fast moving developmental trajectory

Toddlers are on a fast moving developmental trajectory – they are no longer dependent babies focused on survival. Instead, they are running, jumping, and problem-solving with unique personalities. Toddlerhood is a fun and exciting time as children are developing physically, cognitively, linguistically, and socially. There is a significant increase in language acquisition during toddlerhood as they are producing more words and following simple directions.

According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, families and professionals can serve as role models during this stage by demonstrating kindness, respect, and patience. As professionals we must recognize that toddlers need guidance, support, and understanding, as they are trying to navigate their own independence.

Initial Post – Choose two of the following topics below:

  • Individuation/separation
  • Separation anxiety
  • Language development
  • Object permanence
  • Egocentrism
  • Conservation
  • Zone of proximal development
  • Self-help skills
  • Safety for toddlers

Next, address the following:

  1. Explain and define the specific topics that you selected.
  2. Discuss how you, as an educator (or other professional role such as therapist, social worker, etc.) can support a toddler in this stage of development by giving specific examples.
  3. Explain what is happening during this stage from a developmental perspective. (e.g. what are the cognitive, physical changes they are experiencing and why are they experiencing these changes)
  4. What advice would you give to parents and families who are having a difficult time adjusting to their toddler?

“The War on Drugs: Winners and Losers”

BSHS 455 week 5 Take A Stand

After watching the “The War on Drugs: Winners and Losers” video and reading Chemical Dependency: A Systems Approach, take a stand on legalization, decriminalization, or status quo regarding how drug use is treated in our society.

Write a 1,750- to 3,450-word paper that responds to the following question:

  • Would you apply this strategy across the board or employ different stances depending on the substance?

Defend your position with at least three peer-reviewed articles in addition to the text and video.

Include a discussion about the victims of the approach you would select and how you would advocate for that population.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Note. For this paper, it is not acceptable to use political websites that are not based on sound research. You must use scholarly works that have taken a critical thinking approach versus an unsupported emotional one.

***Would you apply this strategy across the board or employ different stances depending on the substance?**

this is what the paper is based around

**you can find all information on the film “War on Drugs:  Winners and Losers” (Films on Demand) and the book Chemical Dependency: A system approach (4th ed)

“Identifying Truth or Fiction”

 

“Identifying Truth or Fiction”

“Identifying Truth or Fiction”  Please respond to the following:

•The video clip ‘The Baloney Detection Kit’ in the Webtext this week discusses the many ways in which an effective critical thinker assesses the claims made by others. Explain what you believe is the real difference between ‘science’ and ‘pseudoscience’.

 

•Examine the key reasons why so many people might seem to be attracted to more pseudoscience-type claims. Describe at least two (2) such claims that you have heard people make, and analyze the main reasons why such claims do or do not meet rigorous scientific methodology standards. Determine at least two (2) ways in which the material discussed this week has changed your own thinking.

 

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

 

http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/03/07/pseudo-science-and-the-age-of-irrationalism/

 

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/13/the-truth-wears-off

 

http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/the-placebo-phenomenon

 

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml#overviewofthescientificmethod

 

PLEASE NOTE THIS QUESTION ARE FOR ONLINE CLASES APA FORMAT, ORIGINAL WORK, NO PLAGIARISM, 1 REFERENCE EACH PARTS, PLEASE RESPONDED  NO LESS THEN 275 WORDS

"Identifying Truth or Fiction"

 

“Identifying Truth or Fiction”

“Identifying Truth or Fiction”  Please respond to the following:
•The video clip ‘The Baloney Detection Kit’ in the Webtext this week discusses the many ways in which an effective critical thinker assesses the claims made by others. Explain what you believe is the real difference between ‘science’ and ‘pseudoscience’.
 
•Examine the key reasons why so many people might seem to be attracted to more pseudoscience-type claims. Describe at least two (2) such claims that you have heard people make, and analyze the main reasons why such claims do or do not meet rigorous scientific methodology standards. Determine at least two (2) ways in which the material discussed this week has changed your own thinking.
 
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
 
http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/03/07/pseudo-science-and-the-age-of-irrationalism/
 
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/13/the-truth-wears-off
 
http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/the-placebo-phenomenon
 
http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml#overviewofthescientificmethod
 
PLEASE NOTE THIS QUESTION ARE FOR ONLINE CLASES APA FORMAT, ORIGINAL WORK, NO PLAGIARISM, 1 REFERENCE EACH PARTS, PLEASE RESPONDED  NO LESS THEN 275 WORDS

ethnocentrism

• Select a movie or TV show that effectively communicates the culture, values, and norms of a society that is different from your own culture.
o The movie or TV should meet the following requirements:
 Must be a foreign film with subtitles
 Provide you with a glimpse of what life is like in another culture
 The process of watching this movie or TV show should provide you with a unique cultural experience.
• Watch the movie or TV show that you selected, and use your reactions as part of your response to the following topic:
o Define ethnocentrism. Discuss how ethnocentrism affects individuals and societies.
Write a paper of 2–3 pages addressing the following:
• Provide a comprehensive overview of the concept of ethnocentrism.
• Use your cultural experience of watching the selected movie or TV show to discuss the effect of ethnocentrism on individuals and societies.
• Use any personal experiences that you may have had visiting different countries around the world as part of this paper; however, do not let your personal experiences with other cultures be the focal point of this paper.
• The focal point of the paper is your cultural experience watching the selected movie or TV show and your comprehensive overview of the concept of ethnocentrism.
• Please note that this paper is not intended to be a summary of the movie or TV show.
• This paper is not a book review or overview of the movie or TV show you selected.
• Focus on the cultural observations that you are able to make based on this experience and your discussion of the concept of ethnocentrism.

Sociology

We use information to better understand our fellow society members.  However, the group classification notion also works inversely.  Because we classify ourselves, we are then creating an obvious divide and separation among ourselves.  The divide creates cultural responses such as cultural bias or an unequal treatment of a person because they possess a certain quality or attribute as set forth from the pre-conceived divisions socialized through culture.

soc304 The Aging Connection

The Aging Connection
How to Begin: Watch the videos below:

Task: Write a paper that identifies at least three sociological concepts that are alluded to in the videos, pulling from aging, discrimination, and social stratification theories. At minimum, you should refer to one video, if not multiple videos, to support your ideas.
For each concept:

  1. Identify the concept using sociological terminology.
  2. Indicate how the concept is associated with a particular theory or theorist.
  3. Describe the concept in your own words.
  4. Describe the part of the video that you think exemplifies this concept.
  5. Explain how the concept relates to your personal life and/or to your community (city, state, or country).

You need to accurately cite your sources, including any videos, the textbook, and at least one scholarly source. The scholarly source may be pulled from class readings.
The paper must be 800 to 1,200 words, or about three to four pages in length (excluding the title and reference page), and formatted according to APA style. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
 

Sociology has mounted a powerful attack on biological determinism

ASSESSMENT
The assessment for this module will be: 50% Examination
                                                               50% Coursework
 
Examination – (2 hour paper ) 12 May 2015
 
Coursework – 1 essay – to be submitted 10 March 2015
“Sociology has mounted a powerful attack on biological determinism.” Discuss. (1500 words)
We want to encourage students to develop their ability to reflect critically on their own work – both outcome and process. To this effect you will have an opportunity to complete a short reflective commentary – 200 words in total. The following questions should form the basis of your discussion:-

  • What do you consider to be a fair mark for your assignment?
  • What are the strengths of the essay?
  • What are the weaknesses of the essay?
  • If you were given the opportunity to start the essay from the beginning – what would you do differently?  

Although there will not be a penalty for non-submission of this exercise, you can gain up to 10% for a discussion which shows an ability to think perceptively, critically and creatively about the learning process. In effect, a mark of 35% can become a mark of 45% or a mark of 70% can become one of 80%.

 

The commentary should be submitted as an appendix to your essay.
 
 
 
 

communication sociology

Discuss any ten theories of communication in a contemporary society.remember to support ur explanation..this is my final paper and I need to pass.kindly upload the best paper to earn me marks.Thanks

homeless drop in centers

Research Paper
10 pages
APA cover page. go to this link http://211online.unitedwayatlanta.org/search.aspx click on homeless/shelter than clink homeless services than click homeless drop in center for more information

Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion with SPSS

The statistics for this week become the basis for several other tests you may do. These are the foundational concepts of statistics.
To prepare for this Application:

  • Review Chapter 15 and Appendix E in the course text Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
  • Review the video programs for this week, located in the Learning Resources.
  • Review Lessons 20 and 21 in the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data.
  • Access the gss04student_corrected dataset in the Course Information area of the classroom to use for this Application.
  • Select one variable that is measured as a continuous or metric variable (age, Likert scale item, etc.) and one that is measured on a nominal scale (marital status, ethnicity, etc.).

The assignment:

  • State the statistical assumptions of this test.
  • Using the data set and variables you have selected, use SPSS to calculate the following:
    • Mean
    • Median
    • Mode
    • Range
    • Minimum
    • Maximum
    • Standard deviation
  • Generate syntax and output files in SPSS. You will need to copy and paste these into your Application document.
  • Use one kind of chart (any kind) to describe the data.
  • Based on your SPSS analysis, craft up to a one page double-spaced write up of the statistical results (include any additional pages needed for any APA tables or graphs and the SPSS syntax and output). Your report should include:
    • SPSS syntax and output files
    • 1 chart

Inter-group bias

Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 575-604.
Key Words conflict, discrimination, prejudice, social categorization, stereotyping
* Abstract This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of ingroups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modem theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.
INTRODUCTION
Intergroup bias refers generally to the systematic tendency to evaluate one’s own membership group (the in-group) or its members more favorably than a nonmembership group (the out-group) or its members. Bias can encompass behavior (discrimination), attitude (prejudice), and cognition (stereotyping) (Mackie & Smith 1998, Wilder & Simon 2001). More precisely, this group-serving tendency can take the form of favoring the in-group (in-group favoritism and/or derogating the out-group (out-group derogation). Use of the term “bias” involves an interpretative judgment that the response is unfair, illegitimate, or unjustifiable, in the sense that it goes beyond the objective requirements or evidence of the situation (see Brewer & Brown 1998, Fiske 1998, Turner & Reynolds 2001). Intergroup bias is a general, but not a universal, phenomenon (see Hagendoorn 1995, Hagendoorn et al. 2001), and contemporary social psychology has contributed to a more differentiated and context-dependent view of bias.
In the limited space available we focus on five specific issues. We review first, measurement and conceptual issues; second, the competing claims of currently prominent theories of bias; third, some key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias; fourth, theory and research on interventions to reduce bias; and, finally, we consider the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility. We are forced to give a selective overview, and we highlight more recent developments as well as perspectives that we feel offer a unified perspective on why bias occurs, how it is moderated, and what can be done to reduce it.
MEASUREMENT AND CONCEPTUAL ISSUES
Measures of Intergroup Bias
Forms of intergroup bias range from prejudice and stereotyping, via discrimination, injustice, perpetuation of inequality and oppression, to ethnic cleansing and genocide (Hewstone & Cairns 2001). In practice, however, the vast majority of social-psychological studies have investigated weaker forms of bias, as expressed by participants with relatively mild prejudice. A major recent development has been the emergence of implicit measures of bias and analysis of their relationship with explicit measures.
EXPLICIT MEASURES Researchers often use a large number of well-established explicit measures in the same study. Responses are made consciously and are typically assessed by traditional self-report measures including attribution of group traits (stereotypes), group evaluations (prejudice), and differential behavior toward in-group and out-group targets (discrimination). However, measures of these three cognitive, affective, and behavioral components, respectively, are often empirically dissociated (e.g., Stangor et al. 1991; see Mackie & Smith 1998), with modest-to– weak overall relationships between measures (see meta-analysis by Dovidio et al. 1996).
Studies using multiple measures of bias have tended to show a pattern of inconsistent responses across different measures, which can sometimes be attributed to perceivers making a compromise between the desire to evaluate their own group positively and the wish to maintain a self-image of fair-mindedness (Singh et al. 1998).
IMPLICIT MEASURES Implicit measures of bias are evaluations and beliefs that are automatically activated by the mere presence of the attitude object (i.e., the target group) (see Dovidio et al. 2001). Implicit measures tap unintentional bias, of which well-intentioned and would-be unprejudiced people are largely unaware; they include (a) the relative concreteness-abstractness of written language in response to expectancy-consistent vs. inconsistent behaviors (for a review, see Maass 1999); (b) indirect self-report measures (e.g., involving attributional biases) (Von Hippel et al. 1997); (c) response-latency procedures following priming (e.g., Dovidio et al. 1997, Fazio et al. 1995, Judd et al. 1995, Wittenbrink et al. 1997); (d) memory tasks (e.g., Crisp & Hewstone 2001, Sherman et al. 1998); and (e) psychophysiological measures (e.g., Phelps et al. 2000, Vanman et al. 1997). Implicit measures have even been developed for use with the minimal groups paradigm (Otten & Moskowitz 2000, Otten & Wentura 1999).
The promise of implicit measures is to assess the. true extent of people’s bias, given pressures to conform to socially desirable or politically correct norms (see Devine et al. 2001, Judd et al. 1995). The most powerful implicit measures can tap biases despite these norms, because they are beyond both intentional control and awareness. Response latency procedures following priming and the Implicit Association Test (Dasgupta et al. 2000, Greenwald et al. 1998) are especially useful, because they yield individual differences in implicit responding that can be used to predict other responses and behaviors (see Maass et al. 2000).
Priming techniques (with either category labels or faces as primes) (e.g., Fazio & Dunton 1997, Fazio et al. 1995) can be used to assess implicit prejudice by comparing response latencies to differently valenced words (prejudice implies faster responses by white respondents to negative traits after black vs. white primes and to positive traits after white vs. black primes) (e.g., Dovidio et al. 1997, Fazio et al. 1995, Judd et al. 1995, Wittenbrink et al. 1997).
Although popular, questions have been raised about the stability of individual differences for implicit measures of bias and the modest relationships between different measures (see Dovidio et al. 1997, 2001; Fazio et al. 1995; Kawakami & Dovidio 2001). Dovidio et al.’s (2001) meta-analysis yielded a significant, but modest, relationship between different implicit measures of prejudice, but implicit measures appear to have substantial reliability and convergent validity (Blair 2001, Cunningham et al. 2001, Devine et al. 2001).
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT MEASURES There are both theoretical and methodological explanations for the generally weak relationship found between explicit and implicit measures (see Blair 2001). If indeed explicit and implicit measures tap different constructs and involve different processes, we should not expect them to be highly correlated (Dovidio et al. 1997, Maass et al. 2000); weak correlations may also reflect the nature of contemporary prejudice, rather than weak measures per se (Dovidio et al. 1998).
The major factor determining the correspondence between explicit and implicit measures appears to be the normative context (Dovidio et al. 2001). Not surprisingly, because implicit measures were designed for use in situations in which explicit measures were unlikely to tap bias, correspondence tends to be weaker for socially sensitive issues, including race (Fazio et al. 1995, Greenwald et al. 1998, Vanman et al. 1997; but see Wittenbrink et al. 1997). Thus, researchers have begun to develop measures of the extent to which people are motivated to inhibit or suppress their biases (Dunton & Fazio 1997, Plant & Devine 1998), which is seen as a precursor to initiating efforts to control prejudice (see Macrae & Bodenhausen 2000).
As Dovidio et al. (1997) argued for racial attitudes, intergroup attitudes may be examined at three levels: public and personal (both explicit) and unconscious (implicit). No one level represents true racial attitudes (any individual having multiple context-dependent attitudes) (see Wittenbrink et al. 2001a,b; cf. Fazio et al. 1995) and different levels predict different types of behavior (public, where social desirability is salient; personal, where responses are private but controlled; unconscious, where behavior is spontaneous).
The development of implicit measures of intergroup bias has facilitated research on important socially sensitive issues, but future research should continue to explore the psychometric properties of both explicit and implicit measures, to uncover the moderators of dissociation between them (Mackie & Smith 1998), and to develop implicit measures for use with children.
In-Group Favoritism vs. Out-Group Derogation
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL PREDOMINANCE OF IN-GROUP FAVORITISM Selfcategorization as an in-group member entails assimilation of the self to the in-group category prototype and enhanced similarity to other in-group members (see Turner & Reynolds 2001); and the in-group is cognitively included in the self (e.g., Smith & Henry 1996). Trust is extended to fellow in-group, but not out-group, members (see Insko et al. 1990, 1998), based on group living as a fundamental survival strategy (Brewer 2001). The extension of trust, positive regard, cooperation, and empathy to in-group, but not out-group, members is an initial form of discrimination, based solely on in-group favoritism, which must be distinguished from bias that entails an active component of aggression and out-group derogation (Brewer 1999, 2000; see also Levin & Sidanius 1999, Singh et al. 1998).
The bias uncovered in social-psychological research predominantly takes the mild form of in-group favoritism, rather than out-group derogation (see Brewer 1999, 2001), as reflected in three distinct lines of research: (a) positivity biases associated with in-group identification arise automatically and without awareness, and generalized positive evaluation from in-group pronouns is stronger than generalized negative evaluation from out-group-pronouns (Otten & Wentura 1999, Perdue et al. 1990); (b) subtle racism is characterized by the absence of positive sentiments, not the presence of strong, negative attitudes, towards out-groups (e.g., Dovidio & Gaertner 2000, Pettigrew & Meertens 1995, Stangor et al. 1991); (c) patriotism (positive national pride and attachment) is distinct from nationalism (belligerence and claimed superiority over other nations) (Feshbach 1994). However, changes to our methodological practices could identify more evidence for out-group derogation (e.g., more frequent inclusion of members of highly racist groups and more potent target groups, and more research in situations of extreme intergroup conflict).
METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES Various methodological paradigms allow us to separate the two components of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation by including independent assessment of in-group and out-group evaluations (e.g., Bettencourt & Dorr 1998, Brewer et aL 1993, Islam & Hewstone 1993a, Singh et al. 1997). The most accurate conclusions about intergroup bias are likely to be drawn from studies that incorporate two methodological refinements. First, the effect of being categorized should be separated from the effect of judging a target who is categorized as a group member. This can be done, experimentally, by including control conditions in which some participants, as well as some targets, are uncategorized (e.g., Cadinu & Rothbart 1996, Crisp & Hewstone 2000a, Singh et al. 1997). Second, where participants rate individual target group members’ performance, products, or outcomes, the valence of these outcomes should be manipulated (e.g., Crisp & Hewstone 2001, Islam & Hewstone 1993a), ideally including positive-, negative- and neutral-outcome conditions.
FROM IN-GROUP FAVORITISM TO OUT-GROUP DEROGATION Because out-group antagonism is not a necessary extension of in-group positivity and enhancement, when does in-group favoritism give way to derogation, hostility, and antagonism against out-groups (e.g., Brewer 2001, Mummendey & Otten 2001)?
Several recent analyses argue that the constraints normally in place, which limit intergroup bias to in-group favoritism, are lifted when out-groups are associated with stronger emotions (Brewer 2001, Doosje et al. 1998, Mackie & Smith 1998, Mummendey & Otten 2001; M Schaller, submitted). There is ample scope for these emotions in the arousal that often characterizes intergroup encounters, which can be translated into emotions such as fear, hatred, or disgust (Smith 1993, Stephan & Stephan 2000), and emotions experienced in specific encounters with groups can be important causes of people’s overall reactions to groups (e.g., Eagly et al. 1994, Esses et al. 1993, Jackson et al. 1996). Threat (see Key Moderators of Intergroup Bias, below) is one factor that triggers these emotions.
Smith (1993) differentiated milder emotions (e.g., disgust) from stronger emotions (e.g., contempt, anger) most likely to be aroused in an intergroup context, and linked specific emotions, perceptions of the out-group, and action tendencies (see Mackie et al. 2000). Thus, an out-group that violates in-group norms may elicit disgust and avoidance; an out-group seen as benefiting unjustly (e.g., from government programs) may elicit resentment and actions aimed at reducing benefits; and an out-group seen as threatening may elicit fear and hostile actions. Weaker emotions imply only avoidance, but stronger emotions imply movement against the out-group, and these emotions could be used to justify out-group harm that extends beyond in-group benefit (Brewer 2001).
MODERN THEORIES OF INTERGROUP BIAS
In this section we briefly outline and review five relatively recent motivational theories of intergroup bias that have each accrued a substantial literature.
Social Identity Theory
According to social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner 1979), successful intergroup bias creates or protects relatively high in-group status, thereby providing a positive social identity for in-group members and satisfying their need for positive self-esteem. Hogg & Abrams (1990) derived two corollaries from this self-esteem hypothesis: (1) successful intergroup bias enhances self-esteem and (2) depressed or threatened self-esteem motivates intergroup bias. An exhaustive narrative review (Rubin & Hewstone 1998) and meta-analysis (Aberson et al. 2000) of over 50 experiments reveals that the majority of evidence supports corollary 1, but there is little evidence for corollary 2. Before discounting the self-esteem hypothesis, however, it is important to consider some of the controversy surrounding the manner in which it has been tested.
Social identity theory qualifies the self-esteem hypothesis in a number of ways: (a) The need for self-esteem is only thought to motivate intergroup bias that is designed to bring about social change (social competition) (Tajfel & Turner 1979); (b) only specific social state self-esteem is thought to be related to this type of intergroup bias (Rubin & Hewstone 1998, Turner & Reynolds 2001); (c) the need for self-esteem is only thought to motivate intergroup bias among people who identify with their in-group (Branscombe & Wann 1994, Gagnon & Bourhis 1996, Tajfel & Turner 1979); (d) only intergroup bias that is perceived to be successful in bringing about social change is thought to increase self-esteem (Turner & Reynolds 2001). Considering that researchers have tended to ignore these qualifications, it could be argued that the role of positive self-definition and self-esteem in intergroup bias has not yet received a fair test.
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory
Optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer 1991) proposes that social identity involves a compromise between two opposing needs: the need for assimilation and the need for differentiation. People are motivated to identify with groups that provide an optimal balance between these two needs. Optimal distinctiveness theory puts forward two motivations for intergroup bias. First, bias is motivated by the need to affirm the satisfaction derived from identification with an optimally distinct group (Leonardelli & Brewer 2001). Second, given a certain degree of identification, intergroup bias is motivated by the need for intergroup differentiation (Brewer 1991).
Leonardelli & Brewer (2001) found evidence to support both motives for minimal intergroup bias. Members of optimally distinct minority groups showed greater in-group identification, greater satisfaction with their in-group, and higher selfesteem than members of nonoptimally distinct majority groups. Consistent with the affirmation motive, a positive relationship was found between in-group satisfaction and intergroup bias for minority group members. Consistent with the differentiation motive, a negative relationship was found between in-group satisfaction and intergroup bias for majority group members. Manipulations of distinctiveness have also been conducted independently of group size. Hornsey & Hogg (1999) found a positive association between the perceived inclusiveness of a superordinate category and intergroup bias at the subgroup level. This evidence supports the differentiation motive. Optimal distinctiveness theory is unique in putting forward a dual process model of intergroup bias. However, the specifics of these processes need further elaboration and testing.
Subjective Uncertainty Reduction Theory
Subjective uncertainty reduction theory (Hogg 2000, Hogg & Abrams 1993) proposes that people are motivated to reduce subjective uncertainty. One way to reduce subjective uncertainty is to identify with social groups that provide clear normative prescriptions for behavior. Hogg & Abrams (1993) proposed that the reduction of uncertainty caused by in-group identification imbues people who are associated with this reduction (i.e., in-group members, including the self) with a positive valence. In-group favoritism is explained as a reflection of the resulting perceived differences in intergroup positivity.
Some evidence shows that manipulations of subjective uncertainty influence levels of both in-group identification and intergroup bias. Grieve & Hogg (1999, Experiment 1) showed that participants who completed practice trials prior to taking part in standard minimal group experiments showed lower group identification and intergroup bias than participants with no practice trials. Additional manipulations of pretest task and situational uncertainty produced congruent results (Grieve & Hogg 1999, Experiment 2; Hodson & Sorrentino 2001; Mullin & Hogg 1998; for a review see Hogg 2000). Furthermore, consistent with Hogg and colleagues’ research, a positive relationship has been found between the need for closure and both in-group identification and intergroup bias (Shah et al. 1998, Webster et al. 1997).
The evidence suggests that manipulations of uncertainty motivate in-group identification, although some of the operationalizations could surely have affected more than simply uncertainty. Evidence for concomitant increases in self-esteem and reductions in uncertainty is less convincing (Hogg 2000). Given this gap in the evidence, it is possible that subjective uncertainty motivates in-group identification and that identification then moderates the impact of the social identity self-esteem motive.
Terror Management Theory
Terror management theory (see Solomon et al. 1991) proposes that people have a need for self-preservation, and that this need is frustrated by their awareness of the inevitability of their own death. To deal with the potentially paralyzing prospect of their own mortality, people adopt a cultural worldview that imbues subjective reality with stability and permanence (and hence the possibility of symbolic and/or literal immortality) and provides standards of value against which judgments of self-esteem can be made. According to terror management theory, people with high self-esteem feel that they are meeting the values espoused by their cultural worldview, and therefore feel more confident in attaining some form of immortality. Hence, cultural worldviews and, more specifically, self-esteem provide buffers against the anxiety caused by the awareness of death.
Terror management theory proposes that people evaluate in-group members positively because similar others are assumed to support, and therefore validate, their own cultural worldview; but they evaluate out-group members negatively because dissimilar others are assumed to threaten their worldview. Consistent with terror management theory, there is extensive evidence (from studies with minimal and real groups, and with adults and children) that people show greater intergroup bias when they are made aware of their own mortality (Florian & Mikulincer 1998; Greenberg et al. 1990, Experiment 1, 1992; Harmon-Jones et al. 1996; Nelson et al. 1997).
One of the more common criticisms of terror management theory is that the effects of mortality salience can be reinterpreted as the effects of self-relevant threats in general (Greenberg et al. 1994; see also commentaries on Pyszczynski et al. 1997). Consequently the motivational effects of mortality salience on intergroup bias can be reinterpreted as being consistent with corollary 2 of the selfesteem hypothesis (Harmon-Jones et al. 1996). In distinguishing between terror management theory and social identity theory, the crucial question seems to be whether the need for self-esteem stems from a more general need to reduce anxiety about death, or whether the need to reduce anxiety about death stems from a more general need for positive self-esteem.
Social Dominance Theory
Social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto 1999) proposes that society contains ideologies that either promote or attenuate intergroup hierarchies. Individual differences in the extent to which these competing ideologies are accepted are represented by social dominance orientation (SDO). Individuals with a high SDO have a strong desire to promote intergroup hierarchies and for their in-groups to dominate their out-groups. According to social dominance theory, men should have a stronger SDO than women. The hypothesized gender difference in SDO is used to explain why men tend to show greater intergroup bias than women (Sidanius et al. 2000; for reviews, see Pratto et al. 1993, Sidanius et al. 1991; cf. Gaertner & Insko 2000).
Jost & Thompson (2000) noted that a problem with the concept of SDO is that it is defined as both a specific desire for one’s in-group to dominate outgroups, and a general desire for groups to exist within a hierarchically ordered social system, regardless of whether the in-group dominates out-groups in this system (see Sidanius et al. 1994). Social dominance theory has tended to focus on general, rather than specific, SDO. Hence, there is a large body of evidence showing that SDO (which is only weakly related to authoritarianism) (see Altemeyer 1998) correlates positively with nonegalitarian political and social attitudes, including sexism, racism, chauvinism, patriotism, and nationalism and that men support these attitudes more than women (for reviews, see Sidanius & Pratto 1999, Sidanius et al. 2000). However, there is less evidence showing that people with high SDO engage in specific instances of intergroup bias in order to achieve or maintain in-group dominance (see Pratto & Shih 2000, Pratto et al. 1998 in Pratto 1999). Jost & Thompson (2000) confirmed empirically the distinction between specific and general SDO but found different patterns of correlation with in-group favoritism. There was a positive correlation between specific SDO and ethnic in-group favoritism between African and European Americans. But for European Americans there was a positive correlation between general SDO and favoritism (explained in terms of their trying to maintain their relatively high status), and for African Americans there was a negative correlation (because they are trying to improve their relatively low status). This evidence highlights the need to distinguish between specific and general SDO, especially when considering the relationship between SDO and group status (Federico 1998, Jost & Thompson 2000).
General Issues
Modern theories of intergroup bias tend to explain intergroup bias in terms of various social psychological motivations, and future research should focus on competitive tests between theories, and on how to integrate them (see Turner & Reynolds 2001). We conclude this section by discussing two general issues.
PROXIMAL AND DISTAL MOTIVATIONS Motivational theories of intergroup bias can be divided into theories that propose proximal motivations and theories that propose distal motivations. Proximal motivations are specifically and directly related to the behavior in question (e.g., social dominance theory); distal motivations are more broad-ranging and less directly related to the behavior in question (e.g., terror management theory and subjective uncertainty reduction theory).
Theories that posit motivations that are too proximal run the risk of providing redescriptions, rather than explanations, of the behavior in question. The problem is not that these redescriptions are incorrect but that they are relatively uninformative. Theories that posit motivations that are too distal also run the risk of losing explanatory power but for a different reason. Distal motivations may be too abstract to relate coherently to specific behaviors and may trivialize and oversimplify the phenomenon to be explained (Hogg & Abrams 1993). Hence, theorists face a difficult balancing act of conceptualizing motivations that are not so proximal as to become redescriptive but not so distal as to become reductionist.
TESTING FOR SATISFACTION With the exception of social identity theory, researchers have tended to test the effects of motives on intergroup bias without also testing the effects of intergroup bias on motives. Assuming that motives for intergroup bias operate according to the principles of a negative feedback loop, it is important to establish whether bias results in drive reduction. Hence, optimal distinctiveness researchers should investigate whether intergroup bias reduces the need for identity affirmation and differentiation; uncertainty reduction theorists should investigate whether in-group identification reduces subjective uncertainty; terror management researchers should investigate whether intergroup bias bolsters confidence in one’s cultural worldview and reduces anxiety about death; and social dominance researchers should investigate whether intergroup bias reduces the need for in-group dominance. The evidence remains incomplete without these confirmatory tests.
KEY MODERATORS OF INTERGROUP BIAS
Whereas Mullen et al’s (1992) meta-analysis provided an impressive demonstration of in-group bias, it also pointed to important moderators of the effect. Potential moderators range from culture (more bias in collective than individualist societies) (see Heine & Lehman 1997, Triandis & Trafimow 2001), to education (negatively associated with bias) (see Hagendoorn & Nekuee 1999, Wagner & Zick 1995), to intrapersonal manipulations of affect (positive affect in minimal group settings increases bias) (Forgas & Fiedler 1996; for a review see Wilder & Simon 2001). Future research needs to investigate more thoroughly how these moderators interact with one another. Having mentioned some theory-specific moderators above (e.g., self-esteem, gender, social dominance orientation), here we simply highlight some of the general moderators investigated in recent research.
Identification
There has been a great deal of inconsistency in the way in which identification is conceptualized and measured (see Jackson & Smith 1999). We believe it should be interpreted in the context of intergroup relations, rather than as a stable personality variable (Turner & Reynolds 2001), and when this is done, identification determines whether social categorization results in bias (Oakes 2001). Some scholars argue that in-group identification and bias should be positively related (Hinkle & Brown 1990; cf. Turner & Reynolds 2001), with the theoretical assumption being that identification drives out-group attitudes, rather than vice versa (Jetten et al. 1997; see Duckitt & Mphuthing 1998 for evidence of the reverse causal direction, at least for disadvantaged and subordinate group members). Correlational data point to only a weak and unstable association (Hinkle & Brown 1990, Mullen et al. 1992), but experimental data show that manipulations of identification can increase bias (Branscombe & Wann 1994, Perreault & Bourhis 1999; see also Bourhis et al. 1997).
Group Size, Status, and Power
Although size, status, and power tend to become confounded outside the laboratory (see Simon et al. 2001), there is theoretical and empirical justification for considering their independent effects. Groups in a numerical minority express more bias than those in a numerical majority, whether the groups are real or artificial (Mullen et al. 1992; see also Otten et al. 1996), with the effect of in-group positivity for numerical minorities being mediated by salience (Bettencourt et al. 1999, Study 3). However, when identification is experimentally induced, both majority and minority groups show bias (Leonardelli & Brewer 2001).
Members of high-status groups tend to show more bias than members of lowstatus groups, especially in laboratory, compared with field, studies, but with several qualifications (for a review, see Brewer & Brown 1998; for meta-analyses, see Bettencourt et al. 2001, Mullen et al. 1992). Members of high-status groups show bias especially on relevant dimensions that favor their own group, and not on status-irrelevant dimensions; they are more likely to show bias when the status gap is perceived to be closing and when the status hierarchy is perceived as legitimate, but they may also show magnanimity when the status gap is very wide (Bettencourt & Bartholomew 1998, Sachdev & Bourhis 1991). Members of lowstatus groups show more bias when status differentials are perceived as unstable and/or illegitimate and group boundaries are seen as impermeable (Ellemers et al. 1993, Reichl 1997) and on dimensions unrelated to status differences (Brewer et al. 1993, Reichl 1997). However, members of low-status groups may simultaneously show out-group favoritism (see Jost 2001), especially on status-relevant evaluations and when the status difference is large and clear, and they define their inferiority as legitimate and stable (e.g., Boldry & Kashy 1999). To distinguish bias from a consensual description of reality, participants from a third group should also be sampled (see Brauer 2001 on separating asymmetrical intergroup biases from target-group effects).
Finally, intergroup relations between real groups tend to involve groups of unequal power. Members of high- and equal-power groups show more bias than members of low-power groups, and discrimination by members of numerical minorities with high power is especially strong (Bourhis 1994, Sachdev & Bourhis 1991).
Threat
Threat is a central explanatory concept in several of the theories reviewed above and elsewhere in the literature on intergroup bias (see Brewer 1999, Hagendoorn et al. 2001, Stephan & Stephan 2000), although its interpretation varies widely. Threat can be perceived in terms of the in-group’s social identity, its goals and values, its position in the hierarchy, even its existence. Threat can be realistic (e.g., intergroup competition over scarce resources) (see Esses et al. 1998) or symbolic (e.g., blocking the in-group’s values, customs, and traditions) (Esses et al. 1993).
Threat is frequently conceived, and experimentally manipulated, in terms of heightened intergroup similarity, which poses a potential threat to the in-group’s distinctiveness (perceived threat may also moderate the effects of similarity on bias) (Henderson-King et al. 1997). A similar, relevant out-group tends to be perceived as a threat to group identity, leading to attempts to differentiate from it (e.g., Jetten et al. 1996, 1998; Roccas & Schwartz 1993). Jetten et al. (1998) found a curvilinear relation between distinctiveness and differentiation in both laboratory and natural groups, with strongest bias against an out-group that was similar to, but clearly separate from, the in-group. Differentiation was relatively low or nonsignificant when in- and out-groups were too similar or too dissimilar.
Brewer (2001) conceptualized threat in terms of the needs for distinctiveness and assimilation. For example, peripheral group members (who presumably need to assimilate) show more out-group derogation in public than private, whereas context does not affect core members (Noel et al. 1995); core members, however, are more motivated to protect or defend threatened distinctiveness, and show more in-group favoritism (Jetten et al. 1997).
Analyses of xenophobia and hate crimes against social and ethnic minorities provide extra-laboratory evidence of the role of threat. Perceived threat and incidence of violence is greatest when there is a conjunction of faltering economic growth and a high percentage of immigrant minorities (Quillian 1995), with bias fomented by far-right political elites (Green et al. 1998, Pettigrew 1998a).
Positive-Negative Asymmetry
In-group favoritism is generally not found when participants are forced to rate target groups on negative as opposed to positive scales or to make negative rather than positive allocations to in-group and out-group members (e.g., Mummendey et al. 1992, Mummendey & Otten 1998, Otten & Mummendey 2000). Whereas benefiting the in-group is considered normative (Blanz et al. 1997, Platow et al. 1995), normative constraints make it more difficult to justify relative harm towards others, simply because they are out-group members, and participants use strategies to equalize or minimize the amount of aversive stimulation used.
The negative domain tends to be characterized by more elaborate cognitive processing and greater concern with normative inhibitions (Blanz et al. 1997) and may lead groups to recategorize themselves at a superordinate level (Mummendey et al. 2001). Reynolds et al. (2000), however, argued that in-group favoritism is shown on both positive and negative dimensions when both provide a meaningful and relevant basis for self-definition in in-group/out-group terms. A 2 x 2 x 2 taxonomy of social discrimination can be created (see Mummendey & Otten 2001) by crossing valence of resources (positive vs. negative) by type of behavioral mode (direct-inflicting vs. indirect-withdrawing) by target (in- vs. out-group). Gardham & Brown (2001) reported significant in-group favoritism only for instances of beneficiary decisions (i.e., allocating positive, and withdrawing negative, stimuli). Bias in both positive and negative domains can be instigated by aggravating conditions (e.g., when numerical or socially inferior status increases the salience of the intergroup distinction and elicits a threat to social identity and/or the stability of the status hierarchy) (see Mummendey et al. 1992, Mummendey & Otten 1998, Otten et al. 1996).
Personality and Individual Difference Variables
There is a long tradition of attempts to relate personality and individual-difference variables to bias (typically prejudice); recent work points to a positive relationship between prejudice and both right-wing authoritarianism (submitting to established authorities and adhering to social conventions) (e.g., Altemeyer 1998) and strong religious beliefs (e.g., Batson & Burris 1994).
Other individual differences that predict prejudice include general value orientations and more specific social orientations. Endorsement of protestant work ethic values is related to the rejection of out-groups, whereas egalitarian values are associated with more favorable responses to all groups (Biernat et al. 1996; for a discussion of social orientations in the minimal-groups paradigm, see Bourhis & Gagnon 2001). Given the long list of potential individual-difference predictors of bias, and the overlap between some measures, the most useful studies are those that show prediction of bias with a specific measure (e.g., entity vs. incremental lay theories), while controlling for other measures (e.g., need for closure) (see Levy et al. 1998).
Correlations between individual-level predictors and intergroup bias may be generally rather weak for two reasons: (a) Measurement of the predictor is usually taken when an individual’s personal identity is salient, whereas intergroup behavior is characterized by the salience of social (in-group) identity (Mackie & Smith 1998, Turner & Reynolds 2001); (b) when people are depersonalized, acting as group members, intragroup homogeneity is enhanced, modifying correlations between intergroup responses and a priori scores on individual-difference measures (see Reynolds et al. 2001, Verkuyten & Hagendoorn 1998).
REDUCTION OF INTERGROUP BIAS
Intergroup bias has both psychological and social components; hence, individual and intergroup approaches can make important contributions to the reduction of intergroup bias (Dovidio et al. 2000a, Eberhardt & Fiske 1996, Oskamp 2000).
Individual Processes
Social-cognitive factors underlying perceiver differences in prejudice can be challenged, especially in young children and adolescents (Aboud & Levy 2000, Levy 1999), to target subtle, unintentional and implicit biases, which may be especially difficult to recognize and, consequently, particularly resistant to change (Gaertner & Dovidio 2000).
DIRECT APPROACHES Some interventions, often based on motivational processes, attempt explicitly to decrease bias; prejudice must be brought to mind, but in situations that provide solutions to combat it. Monteith’s (1993) notion of “prejudice with compunction” makes low-prejudiced individuals aware of “is-ought” discrepancies between their personal values and how they actually respond to minority members. This self-directed guilt should activate control mechanisms aimed at inhibiting and ultimately reducing bias across multiple settings (see Devine et al. 2000). Whereas this approach seems successful (Dovidio et al. 1998), it capitalizes on the good intentions of low-prejudiced individuals (whose bias is surely not the main problem) and demands appropriate levels of awareness, effort, and practice over time.
A controversial idea is that individuals can be made to suppress their biases (see Macrae & Bodenhausen 2000, Monteith et al. 1998). Although this can increase accessibility of negative thoughts, feelings, and behavior when suppression is relaxed, the goal is to help individuals to develop “auto-motive” control of their actions by frequently and consistently pursuing the goal of not being biased. An alternative is more explicit retraining (e.g., Kawakami et al. 2001), but the amount of retraining required is prodigious and, on a large scale, impractical; despite such intensive intervention, change may not be long lasting (Dovidio et al. 2001). Other direct approaches to reducing bias include emphasizing broader, more positive ideologies (e.g., resource allocation) (Pratto et al. 1999); increasing the salience of positive values (e.g., tolerance) (Greenberg et al. 1992); value confrontation (e.g., of right-wing authoritarians) (Altemeyer 1994); and making individuals rationalize or account for their bias (Dobbs & Crano 2001).
INDIRECT APPROACHES Leippe & Eisenstadt (1994) used dissonance principles to reduce bias indirectly by inducing nonprejudiced behavior from individuals who subsequently showed less biased attitudes, in line with their behavior. Empathy, which has cognitive and emotional aspects, also seems a promising route to generalized positive feelings towards a group as a whole (Batson et al. 1997, Finlay & Stephan 2000, Galinsky & Moskowitz 2000). Empathy can also help decrease threat and reduce anxiety over interacting with members of the out-group (Stephan & Finlay 1999).
Several interventions try to reduce bias by teaching individuals, especially children, to classify others on multiple dimensions (e.g., Bigler 1999, Bigler & Liben 1992). These approaches are indirect because they, for example, teach children about similarities and differences among fictitious children, who are not explicitly related to category memberships but can provide cognitive skills to target prejudice (Aboud & Fenwick 1999).
Intergroup Processes
Many intergroup approaches to bias reduction focus on the need to increase the quantity and quality of intergroup contact. Pettigrew’s (1998b) review of recent research on cooperative intergroup contact, supplemented by meta-analytic evidence (Pettigrew & Tropp 2000), pointed to our increased knowledge of the mediating processes by which contact can reduce bias, including empathy and anxiety. Complementing Pettigrew’s (1998b) review, we focus here on one major moderator of contact, namely the categorization process underlying intergroup contact (see Brewer & Gaertner 2001, Gaertner & Dovidio 2000, Hewstone 1996, Pettigrew 1998b). We review the three main categorization approaches to contact, considering for each the structural representation of the contact situation that is recommended and the psychological processes that are thought to promote reduced bias in the contact setting (Brewer & Gaertner 2001). Our two primary criteria for evaluating the models are whether contact experiences can be generalized from the target-group members) encountered in the contact setting to the out-group in general and whether each model can work in the real world.
REDUCING THE SALIENCE OF CATEGORY DISTINCTIONS
Decategorization This approach seeks to eliminate categorization via two mutual and reciprocal cognitive processes: “differentiation” (distinctions are made between out-group members) and “personalization” (out-group members are seen in terms of their uniqueness and in relation to the self). Decategorization seeks to reduce bias by moving (former) in-group members (once individuated) away from the self and towards out-group members (thus removing in-group favoritism as the source of bias) (e.g., Brewer 1999). Experimental studies have shown that within contact situations an interpersonal focus is more effective at reducing bias than a task focus (e.g., Bettencourt et al. 1992) and that these effects can generalize to other members of the out-group not involved directly in contact. However, direct individual-to-group generalization is unlikely, because the very conditions that promote personalization will sever the link between the exemplar and the category. More likely long-term positive effects of decategorized contact are that categories are seen as less useful and hence used less often, and the largely atypical out-group members encountered increase the perceived variability of the out-group as a whole (Bettencourt et al. 1992). Decategorization also claims support from survey research showing that having out-group friends reduces bias (e.g., Pettigrew 1997, Phinney et al. 1997).
It is important to note that experimental studies claiming support for decategorization maintained, and did not erase, categorization, and that none of the survey research measured whether categorization was salient for those with out-group friends. Hence, it is not clear that these are pure forms of personalization (as opposed to personal contact moderated by the salience of category distinctions; see below). A further limitation is that the benefits of decategorization may be restricted to majority groups, with members of minority groups showing more bias under interpersonal conditions than when focusing on the task (Bettencourt et al. 1997, 1999).
Recategorization The common in-group identity (CII) model of recategorization seeks to alter which categorizations are used and to replace subordinate (us and them) with superordinate (we) categorizations (Gaertner & Dovidio 2000). There is extensive experimental support for the CII model (there is also support from survey research, but here the evidence for cognitive mediation is generally weaker) (e.g., Gaertner et al. 1994). Key findings of these experiments are that (a) inducing a one– vs. two-group representation of intergroup relations (e.g., via cooperation) reduces bias via its effect on cognitive representations of social categorization (Gaertner et al. 1989, 1990); (b) distinctive two-group representations predicted more bias, and stronger superordinate representations predicted less bias (Dovidio et al. 1995). Overall this research finds, as predicted, that bias is reduced primarily by improving attitudes towards former out-group members, owing to their recategorization from out-group to in-group. Intergroup relations are likely to improve over time, rather than immediately, as positivity biases associated with a new superordinate group membership encourage more self-disclosing interactions with former out-group members, which leads later to more differentiated impressions of them (Dovidio et al. 1997, Gaertner & Dovidio 2000).
Most studies of the CII model have not looked at generalization, because the more inclusive superordinate identity is intended to replace the prior in-group/outgroup categorization. However, Gaertner et al. (1989) did include a “one group/two groups again” condition in which participants were devolved back into their original groups; bias was intermediate between standard one-group and two-groups conditions. There are, however, two major limitations to the CII solution (Brewer & Gaertner 2001, Hewstone 1996). First, a common in-group identity may only be short-lived, or unrealistic in the face of powerful ethnic and racial categorizations (e.g., former Yugoslavia). Second, for groups with a history of antagonism, and for minorities who are likely to resist assimilation into a superordinate category that is dominated by a majority out-group (Van Oudenhoven et al. 1998), the prospect of a superordinate group identity may constitute a threat, which actually increases bias (Brewer 2000, Hornsey & Hogg 1999).
The fundamental limitation of both decategorization and recategorization models is that they threaten to deprive individuals of valued social identities in smaller, less inclusive groups (Brewer 1999). By eradicating or replacing original categorizations, neither model is likely to meet the needs of assimilation and differentiation, or of cognitive simplicity and uncertainty reduction (Brewer 2000, 2001; Hogg & Abrams 1993). Thus, decategorization and recategorization are temporally unstable solutions to the problem of intergroup discrimination (Brewer & Gaertner 2001).
MAINTAINING THE SALIENCE OF CATEGORY DISTINCTIONS This approach (Hewstone 1996) argues that, to protect against loss of distinctiveness for groups involved in contact, two factors are important: (a) The salience of group boundaries should be maintained during contact to promote generalization across members of the target out-group; (b) each group should be distinct in terms of the expertise and experience it brings to the contact situation, resulting in mutual intergroup differentiation, in which groups recognize and value mutual superiorities and inferiorities.
Positive effects of contact are more likely to generalize to the out-group as a whole when the group membership of a contact partner is made salient (e.g., Van Oudenhoven et al. 1996) or the partner is typical, rather than atypical, of the out-group as a whole (Brown et al. 1999, Study 1). Research has also shown that the intergroup, rather than interpersonal, nature of contact moderates the effect of contact on bias. Positive contact is more likely to be associated with favorable outgroup attitudes when contact takes place with a typical out-group member and/or references to nationality are relatively frequent during contact (Brown et al. 1999, Study 2, Brown et al. 2001). Consistent with the mutual intergroup differentiation model, contact more effectively reduces bias when two groups are provided with distinct roles that maintain their positive distinctiveness while cooperating (e.g., Dovidio et al. 1998).
There are two main limitations associated with maintaining category distinctions during contact. First, contact risks reinforcing perceptions of group differences and increasing intergroup anxiety, which increases bias (e.g., Islam & Hewstone 1993b). Second, salient intergroup boundaries are associated with mutual distrust (Brown & Gardham 2001), and this undermines the potential for cooperative independence and mutual liking. To overcome these problems, the intergroup model of contact needs to be integrated with the personalization model. Interpersonal and intergroup contact should be viewed as orthogonal dimensions, which can together create highly effective conditions of out-group contact (i.e., contact should be highly intergroup and highly interpersonal) (Hewstone 1996). Thus, recent approaches have integrated the personalization and intergroup contact models. N. Ensari & N. Miller (submitted) reported that generalization was achieved by the interactive effects of self-disclosure with typicality (Study 1) or salience (Study 2); Hewstone et al. (2000) showed that contact with out-group friends has a stronger effect on reduced bias when participants report being aware of their respective group memberships during contact.
INCREASING THE COMPLEXITY OF SOCIAL CATEGORIZATIONS
Dual Identity The dual identity model (Gaertner et al. 1990, 1994; Gaertner & Dovidio 2000) aims to maximize the benefits of both the CII and the mutual intergroup differentiation models and reduce bias between subgroups who share a common superordinate identity, rather than consider themselves as members of separate groups (Dovidio et al. 1998; Gaertner et al. 1999, 2000; Gaertner & Dovidio 2000). Because the subgroups are both members of the same group at a superordinate level, bringing them together should not arouse motivations to achieve distinctiveness, increase perceived threat to identity, or exacerbate bias; and because the associative link to others beyond the contact situation remains intact, the benefits of a revised common in-group identity should generalize.
Consistent with the dual identity model, equal-status interaction reduced bias when original group identities were salient and not threatened by contact, and reduced bias was mediated by more inclusive group representations (Dovidio et al. 1998, Gaertner et al. 1999). Positive affect added to a dual-identity condition reduced bias further, whereas it led to less inclusive group representations and increased bias in a two-group condition (Dovidio et al. 1998). A dual identity also led to more positive out-group attitudes than a superordinate identity alone (Homsey & Hogg 2000), especially if the superordinate category was too inclusive and did not afford adequate distinctiveness (Hornsey & Hogg 1999). Gaertner et al’s (1994) correlational study in a multi-ethnic high school found less bias the more the student body was perceived in terms of different ethnic subgroups, but “all playing on the same team” (i.e., the school), and when students identified themselves at both subgroup (i.e. ethnic group) and at superordinate (i.e., Americans) levels, rather than at the subgroup level only.
A major problem for the dual-identity approach is that members of majority and minority groups may have different preferences for what model of intergroup relations to adopt. Dominant majority ethnic groups tend to favor assimilation, whereas racial and ethnic minorities favor pluralistic integration (Berry 1997; Dovidio et al. 2000a,b; Van Oudenhoven et al. 1998; Wolsko et al. 2000). Thus, a dual identity may reduce bias for the minority, but not the majority (Zagefka & Brown 2001). A successful superordinate category and identity must be inclusive, and able to represent group differences in a complex way, rather than reflecting too strongly the superior characteristics of a dominant majority group (Mummendey & Wenzel 1999). But even if this is the case, subgroup categorizations and identities are likely to be stronger and more stable than superordinate ones (Brewer 2000).
Crossed Categorization This approach is based on horizontal, cross-cutting categories, where ‘others’ can be simultaneously classified as in-group or out-group members on multiple dimensions. Shared or overlapping category memberships reduce bias because they: (1) make social categorization more complex; (2) decrease the importance of any one in-group/out-group distinction; (3) make perceivers aware that the out-group consists of different subgroups; (4) increase classification of others in terms of multiple dimensions; and (5) increase the degree of interpersonal interaction and trust across category boundaries (Brewer 2000, Brewer & Gaertner 2001, Hewstone 1996).
Crossing two categories (i.e., the target is in-group/out-group or partial) does not typically result in less bias than is found in a simple categorization (i.e., the target is only out-group) condition (e.g., Crisp et al. 2001, Singh et al. 1997; see metaanalysis by Mullen et al. 2001), but it reduces the pronounced bias directed against double-out-group targets (i.e., out-group on both available dimensions) (e.g., Crisp et al. 2001, Vanman et al. 1997; see review by Crisp & Hewstone 1999 and metaanalyses by Migdal et al. 1998, Urban & Miller 1998). Cross-cutting social identities or role assignments manipulated as part of cooperative intergroup contact are especially effective, increasing intracategory differentiation and decreasing perceived intercategory differences (Ensari & Miller 2001, Marcus-Newhall et al. 1993). Perceivers may abandon more complex multiple group representations and reduce bias by personalizing new team members from a former out-group (see Urban & Miller 1998), even when groups are asymmetrical in terms of size or status (Bettencourt & Dorr 1998). Positive affect can also augment effects of crossed categorization (Ensari & Miller 1998), generally increasing positive attitudes towards others who share in-group membership on any dimension (see meta-analysis by Urban & Miller 1998).
Several different patterns of bias can be found when categories are crossed (see Crisp & Hewstone 1999, 2000a,b; Hewstone et al. 1993), and bias is not always reduced (for moderators, see Urban & Miller 1998). In particular, the effectiveness of crossed categorization is limited when (a) one category dimension is functionally dominant (Crisp & Hewstone 2001, Hewstone et al. 1993, Urada & Miller 2000), (b) categories are correlated (Eurich-Fulcer & Schofield 1995), and (c) groups are under threat and social identities are defined in more exclusive and less complex terms (Brewer 2000).
INTEGRATION OF INTERGROUP APPROACHES TO BIAS REDUCTION The three main intergroup approaches (and five models) should be seen as complementary and reciprocal, not competing and exclusive (Brewer 2000, Brewer & Gaertner 2001, Hewstone 1996). This integrative approach responds to the fact that each model can be effective under particular contact conditions, but it also has weaknesses and limitations, particularly with respect to generalization and to finding an intervention that works for both majority and minority groups (Brewer & Gaertner 2001, Gaertner & Dovidio 2000, Hewstone 1996, Pettigrew 1998b). Future research needs to specify how to combine multiple models into high-impact interventions, and to integrate further developmental and social-psychological approaches.
Finally, we need to ascertain which models have the greatest impact on which outcome measures. Many interventions focus on improving out-group attitudes, but because in-group favoritism and out-group derogation are relatively independent components of bias, reduction of extreme negative affect towards an outgroup does not necessarily increase positive affect towards out-group members (Brewer & Brown 1998). Given the corrosive nature of many real-world conflicts, out-group liking is often unlikely; achieving other outcomes may be more realistic and as important, including increases in perceived out-group variability, out-group knowledge and perspective taking, and decreased intergroup anxiety. To reduce full-blown intergroup conflict, effective interventions also need to build trust (Kramer & Carnevale 2001), address collective guilt and its related emotions (Doosje et al. 1998), and build intergroup forgiveness (Hewstone & Cairns 2001, Hewstone et al. 2000).
CONCLUSION: BEYOND INTERGROUP BIAS
As we noted earlier, most of the relevant research and theoretical developments on intergroup bias have been directed at its relatively mild forms; they provide a better framework for understanding in-group bias and intergroup discrimination of the positive type than out-group hostility (Brewer 2001). Faced with ethnic cleansing in Bosnia or genocide in Rwanda, there is an evident mismatch between the effect that most research on intergroup bias has studied and most theories have sought to address and the most striking social problems that this research area ought to be able to address.
Social categorization clearly contributes to the most extreme forms of intergroup bias. R.B. Zajonc’s (unpublished) analysis of massacres points to several socialpsychological processes closely linked to intergroup bias and conflict. These include delegitimizing victims (assigning them to an extreme social category, which enjoys no protection) (Bar-Tal 1990), and morally excluding them (placing them outside the in-group boundary of justice, fairness, and morality) (Opotow 1995, Staub 2001). It would be a mistake, however, to consider ethnic and religious mass murder as a simple extension of intergroup bias. First, the motives of those implicated in ethnic violence may be more complex than simple hatred for an out-group (see Fearon & Laitin 2000) and some perpetrators participate only under duress, and in fear of their own lives. Second, the paradigmatic instances of ethnic and nationalist violence are large-scale events, extended in space and time; hence, they differ from the phenomena that social psychologists normally study, although not necessarily those they (should) seek to explain (see Brubaker & Laitin 1998). Third, social conflict is more complex than intergroup bias and cannot be equated with the outcome of just one psychological process, nor should it be analyzed from just one disciplinary perspective. Real-world intergroup relations owe at least as much of their character to intergroup history, economics, politics, and ideology as they do to social-psychological variables such as self-esteem, in-group identification, group size, and group threat (Tajfel & Turner 1979). Turner & Reynolds’ (2001) outline of the general requirements of a social-psychological theory of intergroup conflict includes, but also goes well beyond, theories of intergroup bias (Hewstone & Cairns 2001, Tajfel & Turner 1979).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This chapter was prepared in part while Miles Hewstone was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford. He gratefully acknowledges financial support provided by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. All three authors are grateful to the following who provided critical and constructive commentary with commendable celerity: Marilynn Brewer, Richard Crisp, Vicki Esses, Sam Gaertner, Jeff Greenberg, Louk Hagendoorn, Sheri Levy, Sabine Otten, Kate Reynolds, Mark Schaller, Terri Vescio, and Alberto Voci. Finally, we thank Susan Fiske for her own advice, and for her support, encouragement, and patience.
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AuthorAffiliation
Miles Hewstone1, Mark Rubin2, Hazel Willis3
1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, United Kingdom; e-mail: miles.hewstone@psy.ox.ac.uk
2School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; e-mail: mark.rubin@newcastle.edu.au
3School of Psychology, Cardiff University, PO Box 901, Cardiff CF10 3YG, United Kingdom; e-mail: Willishj@cardiff.ac.uk
Copyright Annual Reviews, Inc. 2002
Indexing (details)
Cite
Subject
Social psychology;
Stereotypes;
Discrimination;
Group dynamics
MeSH
Conflict (Psychology), Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Prejudice, Psychological Theory, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t, Social Dominance, Social Identification, Social Perception, Stereotyping
Title
Intergroup bias
Author
Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel
Publication title
Annual Review of Psychology
Volume
53
Pages
575-604
Number of pages
30
Publication year
2002
Publication date
2002
Year
2002
Publisher
Annual Reviews, Inc.
Place of publication
Palo Alto
Country of publication
United States
Publication subject
Biology, Psychology, Medical Sciences–Psychiatry And Neurology
ISSN
00664308
CODEN
ARPSAC
Source type
Scholarly Journals
Language of publication
English
Document type
Feature, Journal Article
Accession number
11752497
ProQuest document ID
205801786
Document URL
https://login.libproxy.edmc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/205801786?accountid=34899
Copyright
Copyright Annual Reviews, Inc. 2002
Last updated
2012-02-07
Database
ProQuest Central
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SOC101 Principles of Sociology

Assignment: Topic Selection and Outline


Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Activity Instructions
Step 1 – Topic Selection: Review the three research paper topic selections below. Select one topic theme to serve as the basis for the critical review paper:

  • Compare, contrast, and evaluate the effects of socialism versus capitalism. Analyze the differences in the two current systems in regards to its social, economic, political, educational, cultural, and health systems. Provide current data, statistics, and information by comparing two countries operating within the compared systems.
  • Compare, contrast, and evaluate the family as a social institution. Explain the challenges to family life in the United States today. Analyze current data pertaining to traditional, blended, and extended families; contributing factors to divorce rates and the role of learned behavior through home and community environment.
  • Compare, contrast, and evaluate the public education system in the United States and a foreign country of your choice. Discuss how the systems are similar and distinguish the differences. Provide current data, statistics, and information validated by relevant and meaningful resources.

The final draft of the critical review paper is an expansion of the material presented throughout the course and should represent student perspective blended with scholarly material.
Step 2 – Outline: Develop a formal outline to serve as a guide for the research project. A formal outline is an excellent writing tool to help discover, analyze, and organize the writing process. The formal outline should include the topic, purpose, thesis statement, and outline body. Use the following outline format as a guide for this assignment.
Formal Outline Format
Topic: Key statement describing topic selection. (Topic selection listed above – select one)
Thesis Statement: The central idea of the paper (should predict, control, and obligate)
I. Introduction
a. Attention getter: Grab the attention of the reading audience. Examples: startling statistics, stories, rhetorical question, quotation, scenario.
b. Reason to read: Why should the reader read the paper?
c. Thesis statement: Same as the thesis statement listed above
d. Credibility statement: What is connection and research to establish topic?
II. Transition – Main Point #1
a. Statement of first main point.
b. Idea of development for first main point
c. Support material (statistics, quotations, data, – cite sources)
III. Transition – Main Point # 2
a. Statement of second main point.
b. Idea of development for first main point
c. Support material (statistics, quotations, data, – cite sources)
IV. Transition – Main Point #3
a. Statement of third main point.
b. Idea of development for first main point
c. Support material (statistics, quotations, data, – cite sources)
V. Transition – Main Point #4 and above
a. Follow similar pattern as outlined above
b. Review the idea for each main point
c. Provide supporting material (statistics, quotation, data, – cite sources)
VI. Conclusion
a. Review the first main point
b. Review the second main point
c. Review the third main point (and subsequent main points)
d. Restate the thesis statement
e. Develop closure to finalize the paper
Any references to articles or texts must be properly cited in the text and listed on a reference page.
Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • 1-2 page (approx. 300 words per page), not including title page or references page
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page with topic and name of student
  • References page (1 resource)

Analyzing a Social Policy

In this course, you have learned that social policies are formulated to solve social problems considered important by a mass of voters, media, and political actors. Social policy is but one solution to the problem—not necessarily the most rational, effective, or socially just. Social policies are human creations and, as such, can be changed. In this paper you will analyze a social policy as a tool for social justice.

Research one social welfare policy using your textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet.

Analyze the policy and address the following:

The social problem addressed by the policy

  1. What is/are the problem/s to be solved in the most fundamental terms?
  2. What is the history of the problem/s in the United States?
  3. What are the various theories about the causes of the problem/s? Based on this, what do you think is/are the most important causes/s of the problem/s?

The policy objectives, value premises, expectation, and target populations

  1. Policy objectives—overt and covert objectives: What are the stated objectives of the policy? In your judgment, what are the covert objectives of the policy?
  2. What are the values underlying the policy objectives? What values are revealed by the overt and covert objectives?
  3. What did the policymakers expect would be the result of the policy?
  4. Target segments of the population at whom policy is aimed: Discuss the direct target of the policy in terms of size and other demographic characteristics. Who are the indirect targets of the policy?

Effects of the policy

  1. Intended effects: What effects did the lawmakers intend?
  2. Unintended effects: What effects did the lawmakers not foresee?
  3. Distinguish between short-range (less than five years) and long-range (over five years) effects of the policy.

Implications of the Policy

  1. Changes in the distribution of material resources: Are there any changes to the distribution of material resources, including income and other tangible benefits, as a result of the policy for direct or indirect target groups?
  2. Changes in distribution of services, rights, and statuses: Are there any changes in services, rights, or statuses as a result of the policy?

Alternative Policies

  1. What alternative policy/policies would more effectively address the social problem discussed in the policy analysis while advancing social justice?

Write a 4–6-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Make sure to include research in addition to the textbook from credible, scholarly sources.

Evaluating Bias in Research

Read the article titled, “As drug industry’s influence over research grows, so does the potential for bias,” located at http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/as-drug-industrys-influence-over-research-grows-so-does-the-potential-for-bias/2012/11/24/bb64d596-1264-11e2-be82-c3411b7680a9_story.html.
Review the six (6) rules of critical thinking (Chapter 1) and the steps of “Doing Sociology: A Student’s Guide to Research” (Chapter 2).
Student Success Tip: As you review the steps, jot a few notes or thoughts down. Relax and prepare to write a concise and accurate essay.
Write a one to two (1-2) page essay in which you:

  1. Identify the first step in the student’s guide to research.
  2. Define the first step of research in your own words.
  3. Identify the major assumptions and bias of the drug industry that underlie drug research.
  4. Identify the personal bias that you, as a consumer, have on the drug industry’s influence over research.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • To keep this essay short and manageable, your only sources for the essay should be the article from The Washington Post and the sections noted in your text. For this reason, APA citations or references are not required for this assignment.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Define the basic concepts used in the discipline of sociology.
  • Define the various methodologies for sociological research.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in sociology.
  • Write clearly and concisely about sociology using proper writing mechanics.

Alcohol in US Society

Research Project Instructions Research Project (25%) Assignment: Alcohol and Special Populations Research and describe the effect of alcohol on your selected special population. Identify unique problems or considerations that apply to your group. Compare and contrast your group to the overall U.S. population Describe best treatment practices for specific issues relevant to the selected population. References: Start with information from the Kinney textbook Chapter 11. Locate 7-10 journal articles or book chapters related to your special population. Use only scholarly, objective sources for your project. Peer-reviewed articles found in the UMUC Library databases are generally good sources. Web-based information such as Wikipedia and About.com and popular news outlets such as Time or Newsweek are NOT acceptable sources for this project. If you are unclear as to whether a source is acceptable, contact the instructor or visit the UMUC Library’s page on locating and evaluating scholarly articles: http://www.umuc.edu/library/database/articles.shtml#evaluatingcitations Guidelines: APA format and citation style 2500 words minimum (does not include graphs, tables, pictures, etc.) Separate title page and reference list (this is not included in your minimum word) 12 point font Numbered pages 1″ margins

Religion Analysis

Format: MLA Format Required
Content: Field research and supplementary research
Length: 1800-2000 Words, Not Including Your Works Cited Page
Double –Spaced, 12-Pt Font, Arial Or Times New Roman Font
Sources: 3 Academic Sources Minimum
Works Cited Page required
At the top of your paper, please include the name of the place you visited, the date you visited, and the names of any people you may have interviewed. Also include the particular sect of the religion. [If you visited a Muslim mosque, was it Sunni or Shi’ite? If you visited a Jewish synagogue, was it Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform? If you visited a Buddhist temple, was it Theravadan or a Mahayana sect?] You may want to ask this when you call to find out if you visit is acceptable.
Full details below:
For the Site Visit, the student must perform field research by attending a religious service outside of their own religious tradition. For this assignment, I’d like you to immerse yourself in something unfamiliar (example: Christians should perform field research on a non-Christian religion, like Buddhism, Hinduism etc.)
Your research should ideally progress in three stages:
(A) Preliminary Research. Before going to the service, it is a good idea to do some preliminary research on the religious tradition. For example, if you’re attending a Hindu ceremony, you will want to read the textbook chapter and watch the PowerPoint presentation on Hinduism. Additionally, I strongly recommend that you call the site you’ll be visiting and let them know you’re coming to do research for a class project. Ask them if there’s any dress code requirements, or anything else you should keep in mind. You may also want to ask if they will allow you to take notes during the service. (Some Jewish denominations, for example, do not allow writing on Shabbat {Saturday}.)
(B) Field Research. Attend the service and observe closely. You may want to take notes. Some students have found it helpful to attend services in groups, and you’re welcome to do this.
(C) Supplementary research. After your visit, you’ll need to do research on things that may have been unfamiliar to you. If you go to a Jewish service and you see the men wearing kippahs (or yarmulkes), you don’t want to write in your essay, “There were these men and they were wearing these funny hats but I don’t know why.” This is where your additional research comes in. Find out what the hats are called, and find out why they’re worn. If you go to a Muslim mosque and you see the worshipers washing their hands and feet, you don’t want to write in your essay, “Everyone was washing their hands and feet but I don’t know why they did that and it was pretty weird.”
Research the practice and find out why it’s done.
Finally, after completing these three stages, write a detailed and insightful essay. You should demonstrate a general understanding of the religious tradition, but make most of your essay about your visit. Use your research to explain your experience. What did you see around you? What did the place of worship look like? Did you see any religious art or religious symbols there? How were people dressed? What rituals were performed? Finally, include your personal reaction to the service. How did you respond? Did you enjoy the visit or did you feel uncomfortable? Was your opinion on the religion changed at all?
These are the instructions from the professor. I obviously understand that you won’t be attending a religious ceremony, but if you have expertice on a specific religion I would suggest choosing that religion to write about since this paper is going to have to be very detailed.

Sociological Theory

This is part of a chapter of a thesis.
This section should outline the theories which explain criminality and discuss the differences between them. The paper needs to have an international or comparative criminal justice approach (not be US-centric). The subsections should include: 1) Biological Perspectives 2) Psychological Perspectives 3) Strain and Cultural Deviance Theories 4) Social Control Theory Each subsection should include a review of the original source material (not textbook material) and theories which created this body of thought, its relationship to the other theories historically, and the assumptions it makes about why people engage in crime and the best ways to rehabilitate adult offenders. All sources should be from the original theorists or from peer reviewed academic articles from the past 7 years. Content should be original and not reused.
40 pages, APA

Consumer Influences Analysis Paper

Select a product or service with which you are familiar.
Prepare a 1,250- to 1,500-word paper in which you analyze factors that affect consumer purchasing decisions related to your product or service.
Identify the demographic, psychological, and social factors that influence consumer behavior toward your product or service.
Examine how each external factor listed below affects consumer behavior, and how they influence the consumer’s decision-making process and the consumer behavior toward your product or service.
 

  • Political-Legal
  • Economic
  • Social- Cultural
  • Ecological
  • Technological
  • Business ethics

 
You must properly cite at least four (4) peer-reviewed academic sources.
 
Hint: You may want to preview the materials in Week Four before you begin.
 
Format your paper consistent with APA (6th edition) guidelines.
 
Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Gender discrimination

it’s an argumentative essay with an clear thesis.the main question is why gender discrimination is a social issue? please make the thesis the last sentence of the introduction. the thesis has to have to main points that has to be discussed in the three body paragraphs. and also put the work cited in one page by itself and also in MLA style. it’s a please write me a almost perfect essay…… thank you

The current and past issues related to sexual orientation as they're related to human services

PART I – PRESENT THE ISSUE(S) OR TOPIC YOU WILL BE DISCUSSING. a. Topic sentence to introduce your issues presented ( or topic) b. Definitions of issues and/or topic area. c. Other issues presented in this topic area
PART II – PRESENT CASE STUDY THAT IS RELATED TO YOUR TOPIC AREA AND/OR ILLUSTRATION OF YOUR THESIS STMT (ISSUES(S) OR TOPIC)
a. Present the Case study – all facts and storyline that correlates with your thesis statement and/or topic areas.
b. Analyze the case with the coursework concepts c. In closing, connect your thesis statement with the case study, which should be support with the coursework concepts.
PART III – CONCLUSION: This is where you bring it back to your original thesis statement
a. Connect your thesis statement (issue presented) to the case study.
b. Summarize the evidence used to support your hypothesis.
c. Provide personal commentary as to what you feel about the subject, and what things can be done to change.

Social policy and legislation for children and families

Critically analyse and assess the impact of government legislation and policy on the issues surrounding child protection since 1997 and, in this regard, consider the potential impacts of new legislation and policy brought in since 2010- Using Harvard citation

Working at a Domestic Violence Shelter

Vignette: Working at a Domestic Violence Shelter
You are a case worker in a domestic violence shelter. You assist shelter residents with identifying community resources that they need. Such resources may include legal and law enforcement aid, transportation services, medical care, and other functions of living. Your shelter provides housing for the battered women and men as well as their children. The agency also provides individual, family, and group counseling services.
The assignment (2–3 pages): Not including Title Page or Reference Page
•Identify the community partners with whom you might collaborate to provide services to your residents, and, for each, explain why this collaborative relationship might be necessary.
•Explain the role you might play and the actions you might take in facilitating these relationships.
•Explain which services might be most challenging to provide to shelter residents, assuming this shelter is located in your community, and why.
•Explain at least two specific ethical issues you might consider or have to address while working with the shelter residents.
Reference
James, R. & Gilliland, B. (2014) Crisis Intervention Strategies

Sociological Perspectives Assignment

write a 5-7 page paper using APA standards for citation of sources that focuses on the following:
Interview two different individuals regarding their positions in society.  Analyze their responses regarding:

  1. Identify each person’s class, race, and gender.
  2. What role has class, race, and gender played in their lives?  How do you see these stratifiers as playing a role, even if the interviewee is unaware of it?
  3. Apply one of the sociological perspectives (structural-functional, social-conflict, or symbolic-interaction) to the individuals’ lives.  Why did you choose this particular perspective?  How does it explain each person’s life and life choices?
  4. What are some the benefits and limitations to using interview as a research methodology?
  5. Analyze each person’s components of culture (language, symbols, material objects, and behaviors) and relate them to his/her stratified position in society.

Race, class or gender

Race, Class, or Gender? For this paper, I would like you to consider these three social categories (or any others that you feel are important) in the role of facilitator or deterrent in enhancing one’s life chances. Oftentimes our sense of these issues comes from our own social background. For example, if you are female, you may have felt discriminated against based on your gender from time to time. If you are a person from a dominant group, you may be sensitive to times you have noticed that you received privileges due to your ‘racial’ or ethnic background. This assignment is not intended as a screed against groups you feel are privileged, nor as a way for you to simply recount what the textbook includes, but as YOUR sociological reflection upon social chances based on social location. Bring material from our textbook into your paper, but bring your own observations and examples in also. Paper must be at least 1,000 words and double spaced. YOU MUST CITE OUR TEXTBOOK (PAGE & EDITION INCLUDED!) AT LEAST THREE TIMES IN THIS PAPER. Remember, three citations is a minimum – for a higher grade, put in as many as you can! http://setcom.ee/tanno/info/is/teave/ained/sot/sot_alu_pearson_rowell_sociology_book_2006.pdf Text: Henslin, James M. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, Core Concepts, 6th edition. Pearson.

the influences of race as it relates to your community

the influences of race as it relates to your community

” Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word autobiographical research paper that analyzes the influences of race as it relates to your community. In your paper, write your first-person account of how human interactions in your community have been racialized. For the community, you may consider relations within your neighborhood, local government, service groups, clubs, schools, workplace, or any environment of which you are a part.
· Answer the following questions and provide examples:
o Do members of your community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different?
o How do leaders within your community treat people who are like you? How do they treat people who are different?
o How do other members of your community treat people who are like you? How do they treat people who are different?
o Do your texts or work manuals contain information by or about people like you?
o Do the local media represent people like you? If so, in what ways?
o What are some similarities and differences between you and the people who are in leadership positions in your community? Do you think minority group interests are represented within your community?
o If you could resolve any inequities within your community, what would you change? How and why?
o Which main concepts from the text relate to race? Apply some of these concepts to your project.
· Include the following elements in your paper:
o The thesis addresses racial issues in your local community.
o The content is comprehensive and accurate.
o The paper itself draws on your personal experiences with and opinions about cultural diversity in your community.
o Three sources are used, and one source is a community member, leader, or representative from a local community organization.
o The paper is written in first-person point of view, with an autobiographical approach.
o Text concepts are applied to your observations.
o Assignment questions are answered.
o The paper includes perspectives from supporting sources.
o The conclusion is logical, flows from the body of the paper, and reviews the major points.
o Paragraph transitions are present.
o The tone is appropriate.
o Sentences are well-constructed.
o The paper, title page, and references follow APA standards.
o Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.
o Spelling is correct.

Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology Unit 5 Project
Textbook Help: Macionis, J. J. (2011). Society: The basics (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.   Chapter 11 Race and Ethnicity & 13 Family and Religion
Portfolio Project 3:
The third portfolio entry requires the construction of a document that reflects the information you have learned in Unit V. The assignment will also test your ability to think critically about the concepts within the unit. This portfolio entry should be in one word document with proper headings for each section.
This project allows you to develop some interviewing skills, generate tables, create a timeline, and write a debate. These different mini projects allow you to think outside of the box of the traditional assignment and assessment format, stretching your academic capabilities and applying them to the sociology discipline.

  1. Ask five people how they would define racism, religion, and family, and then summarize the definitions. Identify the similarities and differences in the definitions. Provide your own definitions of each and how they relate to each other.
  2. You can use any means you want to interview people. Social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), email, or personal interviews are all acceptable.
  1. Generate a table with a list of the different patterns of interaction between minority and majority groups. The table should have three columns:
  2. One column for the models
  3. One column providing three facts about each model
  4. One column providing two different examples for each model
  1. Develop a K-W-L table for each of the racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Create three columns for each table with the following categories: What I KNOW (K), what I WANT to know (W), and what I LEARNED (L). Complete the “K” and “W” sections, listing at least three things you know and three things that you want to know about each of the racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Then, perform research on the different associated cultures, and list three things you learned about the different cultures, and fill them in the “L” section.
  1. Create a timeline listing the different stages of family life. Make note of any events, significant milestones, or problems that may occur.
  1. Argue both sides (supporting and rejecting) the following statement in one to two paragraphs: The religions in the world will never get along because they are too different.

Personality Theory of the Psychoanalytic

I need an outline and paper on Personality Theory of the Psychoanalytic Theory see the details below;
In a one- to two-page paper (excluding title and reference pages), create an outline containing the framework for the topic chosen for your Final Research Paper (Psychoanalytic Theory). The outline should describe how your theory choice fulfills the genetic, social, and individual factors that create a total personality in addition to the following:
• The theory’s origin and principles
• An assessment of the theory’s validity and utility
• How the theorist might have been influenced by his or her culture, ethnicity, gender, and social status
• An explanation of why you feel this theory works best for your personal approach to the helping profession.
Use a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the course textbook, that were published within the last 10 years and are formatted according to APA style
For your Final Research Paper, you will create a comprehensive study defining your personal choice of the personality theory (Psychoanalytic Theory ) you identified. In a six- to eight-page paper, respond to the following:
• Provide three detailed examples of how this theory would be used in the application of skills and techniques, communication, basic problem-solving, ethnic diversity, and establishing and using the helping relationship.
• Describe, in detail beyond the outline, how your theory choice fulfills the genetic, social, and individual factors that create the total personality.
• Describe, in detail beyond the outline, the origin principles, and assessment of validity and utility with regard to your particular personality theory.
• Expand upon your assessment of ways in which the culture, ethnicity, gender, and social status of the theorist influenced the theory.
1. Must be six to eight double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
2. Must include a title page with the following:
a. Title of paper
b. Student’s name
c. Course name and number
d. Instructor’s name
e. Date submitted
3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
6. Must use at least four scholarly resources from the Ashford University Library.
7. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined

Migration and Immigration

Globalization has caused extensive shifts in the mobility of people between countries. Economics, political shifts, and increased opportunities for travel have made migration and immigration pervasive. This assignment will explore immigration patterns, focusing on global migration and US immigration.

Consider the recent trends in migration and immigration in the U.S. Using the readings for this module, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, respond to the following:

  • Examine how and why migration is increasing globally. Address the increasing immigration situation in the U.S.
  • State and explain your perspective on whether the U.S. is inclusive or exclusive to migrants.
  • Evaluate the positive and negative aspects of immigration. Be sure to represent both sides.

Support your statements with examples and scholarly references.

Write your initial response in 1–2 pages. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Emerging Economies and Globalization

Markets in developed economies are approaching saturation level. Therefore, MNCs are searching for new untapped markets in emerging countries such as India and China. Since the healthcare industry will continue to grow in the future due to the size of the global population and its age composition, General Electric Healthcare (GEH) is trying to capitalize on these trends. It is expanding its operations and development of new drugs and manufacturing of the medical equipment in India and China.

Directions

Read the following articles:

  • Articles related to the trade theories in general as well as for China and India.
  • Articles related to the human resource management for MNCs, cross-cultural management, expatriate training, and expatriates’ success/failure in overseas assignments.
  • Articles related to GEH.

Then, respond to the following:

1        Select two trade theories that best explain why GEH expanded its operations of developing new drugs to India, and manufacturing X-ray business to China.

2        Explain the selected theories, and then evaluate GEH’s reasoning.

3        Explain possible pitfalls for such strategy from GEH’s perspective.

4        Identify solutions to the possible pitfalls for the strategy.

5        For each operation (India and China), evaluate GEH’s human resource strategy.

6        Identify how you would design training for preparing expatriates for their assignments to India and China if you were in charge of their training prior to the overseas assignment.

 

Write a 7–10-page paper in Word format. Utilize at least five to seven scholarly sources in your research. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Make sure you write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Humanities Reflective Essay

What role should religion play in society? (Note, I am not asking you to describe what role it does play, but what role it should play.)

The purpose of the reflective essay is to give you a chance to think more deeply about the topics we cover in this course. To write the essay, you will need to do the following:

1) Write an introduction which clearly identifies the topic and clearly indicates what you will say about it.  If the topic includes a question to be answered, a clear answer to the question must be in the intro.

2) Write a description of the topic.  The description must contain at least three properly-cited references to the relevant class texts.

3) Write an argument that supports the stand you take on the topic.  Your argument should be as free as possible from logical fallacies.  It should also not depend on particular cultural or religious views.  It should contain rationally-believable premises which logically support their conclusion.

4) The whole essay should be written at a stylistic level appropriate to a college-level liberal arts class.  Clear and proper citations must be used throughout.

I will score your essays as follows:

1) Introduction – 10 points

2) Description – 40 points

3) Argument – 40 points

4) Style – 10 points

Essays should be 650 – 900 words in length.  Please consult the numerous writing links for general help with writing.

 

http://www.slideshare.net/MrFinlayson/seven-dimensions-of-religion

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/revealing-world-religions/id117762189?mt=2

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/atheism/ataglance/glance.shml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/paganism/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/ataglance/glance.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/ataglance/glance.shtml

 

Sociology: Thesis and Outline of Final Paper

Thesis and Outline of Final Paper

This assignment is to be a thorough outline, including components as detailed below, of your Final Paper.

Your Final Paper is to be a comprehensive research study on one of the following public policy topics:

Environmental Concerns

Immigration

Health Care

Primary and Secondary Public Education

Social Security

Welfare

Your outline of the topic will include:

The scope and nature of the public policy problem.

How the problem came to public and political awareness.

The evolution of related public policy.

Level of government and the actors involved.

The intergovernmental structure and political concerns.

Conflicting public opinion and impact on policy solutions.

The approaches to policy formulation, adoption, and evaluation.

The suggested policy direction (continuation, change or termination) and future impact.

This assignment is to include a title page, introductory paragraph with thesis statement, outline of your major points, summarizing or concluding paragraph, and reference page.  It must be at least four pages in length and include a minimum of five scholarly sources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library. Your paper must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Your outline should be organized as follows:

Title page (one page)

Introduction with thesis statement

Outline of topic

Concluding paragraph

Reference page (one page)

Final Paper will be between eight to ten pages (including title and reference pages) in length, with at least six to ten scholarly sources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library. The sources should be from a variety of resources including literature databases, academic journals, books, and other scientific sources.

The Modern State

So you are here in this course……I am wondering why should we even bother about world…..I love New York City and I am sure you do too….so you have to convince me after reading and watching two movies…..Why it is important to learn about World?  Remember your short essay should be at least 5 pages long and should reflect the readings in this section as well as the movies….. I promise you this is going to be an amazing course provided you do all the work on time…..Due May 30
Required Readings:

1. The Modern State 
2. Why the Reaction is Different When the Terrorist is White

Movies: (Order thru Netflix or whatever you have)

1. Ghost of Rawnada (PBS Frontline)

2. Crash _ 2004  ( http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0375679/ )

HINT: Do the readings first, think for a day? Watch Ghost of Rwanda (get freaked may be cry a little bit; think for another two days) watch CRASH (ask yourself few thoughtful questions) and then sit down and write your essay…create and outline…. remember there is no right or wrong answers…it is all about PERCEPTIONS.

  • What do you think about the two movies? Do not summarzie the movies. Write your original opinions.

  • Response Paper: 1

    At least 5 pages long and should be linked with readings

Cultures in Transition Constructing A Modern State

In this era of globalization and human migration the world has tilted from traditional ideas of filial piety toward a modern life of doing your own thing. It’s ever more intense and confounding once you watch this.  Based on your observations so far of several countries and after watching A Separation what do you think is the future of traditional societies? Feel free to use you own personal stories.  Your essay should be reflective and at least 5 pages long. 

Required Movie: A Separation

Here is a link to the movie:

http://www.movie2k.to/A- Separation-subtitled-watch- movie-953983.html

It should be five pages long. No discussion post required. Do not summarize the movie. It is not about the daughter or Iran per se; it is about the woman. Hint. Hint

Sociological Imagination/ Sociological Perspective

1A. Explain what is “Sociological Imagination”, also known as “Sociological Perspective”, with one example for illustration.

1B.  Discuss how a person’s identity is developed in relation to social context and at least one aspect of the context which helps you to form your identity.

answer this two questions within in sociological views. use at least one paper length to answer this two question.

about 400 word, a page length?

Describe the following sociological theories of crime:

    • Social control theory
    • Strain theory
    • Differential association theory
    • Neutralization theory
  • List the basic premises of each of the theories and how they differ from one another.
  • Discuss 1 strength and 1 weakness for each theory that is unique to that theory.
  • Include the background of the offender assessed when it is relevant to the theory being used to analyze the offender

Development in Adolescence and Late Adulthood

Development in Adolescence and Late Adulthood

 

Use the Learn Psychology text, the University Library, and/or other resources to answer the following questions. Your response to each question should contain at least 150 words.

 

  1. Puberty can be a difficult time for adolescents. What are some of the challenges they face?

 

 

 

  1. How and when is peer pressure harmful? Can it ever be helpful? Why?

 

 

 

  1. What types of changes occur in the brain in late adulthood?

 

 

 

  1. Why is novel problem-solving particularly difficult in late adulthood?

Social Disorganization

Social Disorganization Question-and-Answer

Write a 700- to 1,050-word response to the following questions:

  • What is social disorganization?
  • How does social disorganization relate to organized crime and its evolution?
  • How well does social disorganization meet the criteria for organized crime and its various relationships? Why? Explain your answer.
  • What is the correlation of corrupt political machines and social disorganization to the development of organized crime?

Format your resources consistent with APA guidelines.Provide in-text citations and references.

Taking Action

Assignment 2: LASA 1: Taking Action

In this course, you have been introduced to ethics, social problems, and social policy. This assignment will prompt action from you to help resolve a social issue. You must learn about a problem, find a piece of legislation addressing your concern, and act to help solve the problem.

Using the textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, do the following:

1. Identify the Problem

Select and research a social issue based on the course readings or personal interest.

Then, address the following:

  • Define and describe the social issue in detail using a variety of relevant outside sources.
  • Explain the social context of the social issue.
  • answer questions in 3 paragraphs

Social Issues 2 pages assignment

  • In this course, you have been introduced to ethics, social problems, and social policy. This assignment will prompt action from you to help resolve a social issue. You must learn about a problem, find a piece of legislation addressing your concern, and act to help solve the problem.

    Using the textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, do the following:

    1. Identify the Problem

    Select and research a social issue based on the course readings or personal interest.

    Then, address the following:

  • Define and describe the social issue in detail using a variety of relevant outside sources.
  • Explain the social context of the social issue.
  • Identify and describe ethical concerns related to the social issue.
  • Determine what population is most impacted by the social issue.

Taking Action

In this course, you have been introduced to ethics, social problems, and social policy. This assignment will prompt action from you to help resolve a social issue. You must learn about a problem, find a piece of legislation addressing your concern, and act to help solve the problem.

Using the textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, do the following:

1. Identify the Problem

Select and research a social issue based on the course readings or personal interest.

Then, address the following:

  • Define and describe the social issue in detail using a variety of relevant outside sources.
  • Explain the social context of the social issue.
  • answer questions in 3 paragraphs

Health & Illness

Read the hypothetical scenario below. Post at least 3 times in debating the topic, with each comment making substantive contributions toward the subject matter.  Focus on thinking critically about ALL potential ethical implications.

An area in rural South Africa has been located where residents have an extremely high HIV infection rate. These persons have virtually no access to health care, and absolutely no access to medication to treat HIV and thus slow its progression. They are dying in substantial numbers. The University of Texas Medical Branch is developing a new HIV treatment, and they would like to test it in this population. They consult with you to sort out the ethical implications of this research. What are their ethical obligations to this population? Can they ethically carry out this research?What recommendations or considerations would you make them aware of?

Health & Illness

Read the hypothetical scenario below. Post at least 3 times in debating the topic, with each comment making substantive contributions toward the subject matter.  Focus on thinking critically about ALL potential ethical implications.
An area in rural South Africa has been located where residents have an extremely high HIV infection rate. These persons have virtually no access to health care, and absolutely no access to medication to treat HIV and thus slow its progression. They are dying in substantial numbers. The University of Texas Medical Branch is developing a new HIV treatment, and they would like to test it in this population. They consult with you to sort out the ethical implications of this research. What are their ethical obligations to this population? Can they ethically carry out this research?What recommendations or considerations would you make them aware of?

Family Genogram and Autobiography

  1. The purpose of this paper is to promote self-awareness so that students will be able to work ethically with their future clients. It will provide you with an opportunity to explore family systems theory within your own family of origin and apply a specific theory to the dynamics within it. You will complete and read the “Family Genogram Workbook” (2006) and apply your findings here. I will upload my family genogram I want you to use Bowen’s theory  There are 2 parts to this assignment:
    1. Part A: The first part of your assignment will be a 5-7 page paper (APA style) in which you cover the following topics:

i.     Share your family history. Start with your earliest memory and develop specific, key experiences and situations that shaped your family of origin into the dynamic system it is today.

Note to writer: you can choose any thing here as long as you follow the genogram I uoad for u

ii.     Use the “20 Questions” in the Workbook to develop your family history, relate which events you have struggled with and wish could have been different.

  1. Part B: In addition to the above paper, you will also complete a second section of 3-4 (APA Style) pages in which you will choose one of the family systems theory discussed in the course and use it to cover the following:

BOWEN’S FAMILY THEORY SYSTEM—

i.     A basic outline of the theory concepts, goals and methods.

ii.     How does your family of origin fit into this theory?

iii.     A discussion of how this approach integrates with a Christian perspective.  Be specific in your conceptualization, discussing how you feel this theory aligns with Biblical principles, and areas that it may agree or disagree with a Christian perspective.

iv.     A discussion of the awareness you have gained after completing this exercise and how it will influence future therapeutic contexts (positive and negative).

 

Your final product should include both parts A and B.  The assignment should adhere to APA format, which includes a title page and a references page.  Please note: the title and references pages do NOT count in the minimum page requirement for Part A.

Clifford’s evidentialist argument vs nonevidentialist position

Clifford’s evidentialist argument vs non evidentialist position

For this assignment, please revisit and review Clifford’s evidentialist argument and then contrast Clifford’s position with one of the nonevidentialist positions encountered. Decide which position, evidentialism or nonevidentialism, more closely aligns with your own point of view and argue for that position.

Here are some generic requirements to be observed for all Writing Assignments include that all papers must:

– Defend a thesis and should proceed according to the following format: Thesis, Argument, Objection(s), Response(s), and Conclusion.

– Include citations to the primary required class readings. These and any additional sources must be properly cited using MLA format.

– Fall within the following length requirements: 1200-1500 words.

– Use a standard 10-12 pt. font and be double-spaced.

Clifford's evidentialist argument vs nonevidentialist position

Clifford’s evidentialist argument vs non evidentialist position

For this assignment, please revisit and review Clifford’s evidentialist argument and then contrast Clifford’s position with one of the nonevidentialist positions encountered. Decide which position, evidentialism or nonevidentialism, more closely aligns with your own point of view and argue for that position.
Here are some generic requirements to be observed for all Writing Assignments include that all papers must:
– Defend a thesis and should proceed according to the following format: Thesis, Argument, Objection(s), Response(s), and Conclusion.
– Include citations to the primary required class readings. These and any additional sources must be properly cited using MLA format.
– Fall within the following length requirements: 1200-1500 words.
– Use a standard 10-12 pt. font and be double-spaced.

Cultural Diversity

DELIVERY LENGTH 1-2 PAGES

Details: Gender typing is defined as the way in which people acquire “gender-appropriate” preferences, skills, personality attributes, behaviors, and self-concepts. Data have shown that gender typing can begin at a very young age, even in infancy. What effect does gender typing during early childhood have on attitude towards gender later in life? Please provide research to answer the following questions:

  • When parents or caregivers direct children away from toys that are associated with the opposite gender, what message is being sent?
  • If there is a message, do children take this message with them into teen years and adulthood?
  • Does gender typing result in gender discrimination and negative attitudes toward the opposite sex? Or toward homosexuality?

Adhere to APA formatting and reference guidelines when writing your response. Additionally, your response should be free of grammatical errors, use complete sentences, and give specific details to support statement.

Tobacco Program Coalition

BSHS 485 Week 5 Tobacco Program Coalition

Navigate to the CDC Website.

In the search bar type in, “Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs“.

Please note, this assignment will require you to locate a document from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 

Now that you already identified possible barriers and obstacles in the Developing a Coalition assignment due in Week Four, you can organize and implement the Tobacco Program Coalition.

Use the Best Practices User Guide: Coalitions – State and Community Interventions document located using the CDC Website.

 

Create a 15- to 20-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that describes the steps that you will take to develop the coalition, implement it, and make sure it is sustainable in the community and beyond.

Include the following:

  • Explain the history and core values of the coalition.
  • Describe the need that propelled this coalition.
  • Describe the mission, vision, and purpose.
  • Describe the steps you will take to develop the coalition.
  • Explain how you will implement it.
  • Discuss how you will sustain the coalition in the community.
  • Discuss how this coalition will benefit other communities.

Cite at least two peer-reviewed sources.

Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines.

Evaluating Resources

sociology

Evaluating Resources

Personal experience and perception lend a great deal to addressing a social issue. However, as individuals, there are limits to one’s knowledge on any topic. The ability to conduct research on a social issue allows for a more comprehensive perspective on multiple aspects of an issue, insight into the communities impacted, and lessons learned for other like-minded groups who have done similar work.

In this Journal Assignment, you explore the concept Discovery as it relates your group’s research on a social topic.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Consider the assigned readings from the first 3 weeks of this course.
  • Review the explanation of Walden University’s DEEP-C Model General Education Learning Outcome “Discovery” in the Syllabus.
  • Consider “Discovery” as it relates to the work you are doing in this course.
  • Bearing in mind the amount of information that is readily available in current times, think about how people involved in social movements of the past gained information on the social issue and related topics.

The Assignment:

Writea 2- to 3-paragraph journal entry in which you address the following questions:

  • What appropriate sources of information will be used to support your group’s claims about your topic?
  • At this early stage in the process of investigating your topic, what advantages do you see in conducting research to discover various factors associated with the topic?
  • In what ways does the ability to conduct research strengthen your group’s approach?

Group topic is : Domestic Violence

  • Consider any ethical issues that emerge from this social issue
  • Provide an analysis of the core problem

Social Organized Crime

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you discuss and explain the term social institution, as it applies to organized crime. Which empirical and speculative theories are most applicable when applied to organized crime and criminal behavior?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Include in-text citations and references.

Sociology

Personal experience and perception lend a great deal to addressing a social issue. However, as individuals, there are limits to one’s knowledge on any topic. The ability to conduct research on a social issue allows for a more comprehensive perspective on multiple aspects of an issue, insight into the communities impacted, and lessons learned for other like-minded groups who have done similar work.

In this Journal Assignment, you explore the concept Discovery as it relates your group’s research on a social topic.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Consider the assigned readings from the first 3 weeks of this course.
  • Review the explanation of Walden University’s DEEP-C Model General Education Learning Outcome “Discovery” in the Syllabus.
  • Consider “Discovery” as it relates to the work you are doing in this course.
  • Bearing in mind the amount of information that is readily available in current times, think about how people involved in social movements of the past gained information on the social issue and related topics.

The Assignment:

Writea 2- to 3-paragraph journal entry in which you address the following questions:

  • What appropriate sources of information will be used to support your group’s claims about your topic?
  • At this early stage in the process of investigating your topic, what advantages do you see in conducting research to discover various factors associated with the topic?
  • In what ways does the ability to conduct research strengthen your group’s approach?

Group topic is : Domestic Violence

  • Consider any ethical issues that emerge from this social issue
  • Provide an analysis of the core problem

The Interconnection of social problems

This is 3 separate assignments

Assignment #1

The events of September 11, 2001, contributed to an increase in hate crimes against Muslims around the world and especially in the United States. In the first year after the September 11 attacks, anti-Islamic hate crimes in the United States rose more than 1,000%.

Please address each of the following questions:

  1. How has post-9/11 anti-Muslim and anti-Arab backlash and discrimination affected local and global communities? Please provide examples.
  2. How are hate crimes related to fear and/or ignorance?
  3. Why do some individuals and groups believe that violence directed at Muslims, as a form of revenge, is acceptable more than a decade after 9/11?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Assignment #2
Drug abuse has been defined as a significant social problem. This discussion provides an opportunity to examine this problem as well as the consequences of our reliance on punishment as a solution to drug abuse.
Please answer each of the following questions:

  1. Discuss the differences between a culture’s folkways, mores, and taboos.
  2. Why are some deemed infractions of normative expectations termed criminal and others social?
  3. How does this definitional process lead us to incarcerate fellow citizens?
  4. What sociological factors contribute to the criminalization of individuals in society?  Explain your answer.
  5. Does the seriousness of drug abuse justify our reliance on the social consequences of incarceration?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Assignment #3

The Interconnection of Social Problems
Review the article, Race, poverty and punishment: The impact of criminal sanctions on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequality, as you to prepare for this paper. As Wheelock and Uggen (2006) point out, “the association between crime, punishment, and poverty has long been the subject of sociological and criminological investigation” (p. 1). This assignment is intended illustrate the interconnection of social problems.
Write a paper discussing the overlap of crime, punishment, and poverty. In your paper, please explain the following five core arguments made by the authors:

  1. Criminal sanctions and victimization work to form a system of disadvantage that perpetuates stratification and poverty.
  2. Punishment impacts individuals convicted of felonies, as well as their families, peer groups, neighborhoods, and racial group.
  3. After controlling for population differences, African Americans are incarcerated approximately seven times as often as Whites.
  4. Variation in criminal punishment is linked to economic deprivation.
  5. As the number of felons and former felons rises, collateral sanctions play an ever-larger role in racial and ethnic stratification, operating as an interconnected system of disadvantage.

The paper must be three to four pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least two scholarly resources other than the textbook and required readings to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page.

 

***LINK TO PAPER****

http://npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper06/paper15/working_paper06-15.pdf

 

Obedience to Authority

Obedience to Authority

Based on Stanley’s Milgram’s Behavior Study of Obedience, 1963, discuss two current (within in the last 10-15 years) researches on obedience  Will most individuals tend to conform to authority? Why or why not? Does current research support or refute Milgram’s findings? Explain.

The instructions for the paper mention “conforming to authority,” and I just want to point out that conformity and obedience are two distinct concepts. Conformity refers to the influence of the group on individual behavior, while obedience refers to the influence of authority on subordinates’ behavior. Conformity does not imply the involvement of authority figures, while obedience does. Because this paper focuses on Milgram and obedience, please focus your attention on obedience, not conformity.

Please DO NOT use Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment

When describing the studies and the authors’ conclusions, be sure to address any limitations you saw in the studies. Limitations in the research can affect the conclusions drawn, so it’s important to at least mention the limitations in respect to the conclusions.

Developmental Parenting

Developmental Parenting Paper

Write a paper on any stage of Childhood Development that interests you (birth to age two, 2-5 years old, elementary school, early adolescence, etc.  Please address these issues:

 1-      Why is childhood development important to understand when it comes to parenting?

 2-      Describe and give examples of effective parenting techniques for this developmental stage.

3-      In your opinion, what are the most challenging behaviors of this stage? (a way to state this without using the word “I” might look like ” Many may feel    the most challenging behaviors are…..”    )

4- Explain how you (or any parent) can apply the parenting techniques/styles from the books to those challenging behaviors.

5- What do you think is the most important aspect/concept and/or theory of the stage you chose and why? ( a way to write this without using the word “I” could start like ” Perhaps the most important aspect……”

Your conclusion should summarize your paper as well as answer:  What is the most interesting thing you learned from writing this paper and why?

Remember-  with all APA papers- you will need to use third person only, and, I will need to see an abstract please!

This paper will be a minimum of 3-5 pages long, not including title and reference pages. APA format required.  Your text book could be a source  for this paper along with other scholarly source (s).  You may not use Psychology Today, Redbook, Wikipedia, WebMD or similar sources for your material. This paper must be submitted as an attachment. This is in MS word or RTF format ONLY.

Applying Family Structural Theory and the Family Developmental Theory

NRS 429V Week 5 Topic 5 DQ 1- Mrs. Jones, a widow, is no longer able to live

Family Centered Health Promotion – Health Education, Promotion, and Current Challenges for Family Centered Health Promotion

Grand Canyon University (NRS-429V-O103)

 

Mrs. Jones, a widow, is no longer able to live independently and is requiring more and more help with her self-care. Her daughter, Susie, who is married with three school-aged children, agrees to let her mother move in with her. Susie is concerned with balancing the demands of her career and the needs of her family, especially now that her elderly and chronically ill mother will need assistance. She is also unsure about how she feels with the reversal of roles, having to now be the primary caregiver of her mother.

How can the nurse, caring for this family, assist with the changes they are about to undergo?

How can both the family structural theory and the family developmental theory be applied to this scenario?

 

How can health education enhance health promotion for this family?

When A family is considered to be dysfunctional

NRS 429V Week 5 Topic 5 DQ 2 – A family is considered to be dysfunctional when conflict

Family Centered Health Promotion – Health Education, Promotion, and Current Challenges for Family Centered Health Promotion

Grand Canyon University (NRS-429V-O103)

 

 

A family is considered to be dysfunctional when conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse occur continually and regularly, leading to members to accommodate such actions as been normal. This usually goes from generation to generation until something is done to convert these actions. You can use the family structural theory to determine if a family is dysfunctional or not.

Assisting the Unemployed Older Adult

Post Discussion: Assisting the Unemployed Older Adult

Wagner and Niles-Yokum (2014) point out that, due to increasing popularity of continuing work in late life, there are a growing number of organizations emerging to provide training, support, and job-search services to older adults (page 128).

 

Investigate an organization that provides employment services to older adults. In your post:

 

  • Explain the program(s) and/or service(s) provided and how an individual can access them.
  • Imagine you are 65+ looking for employment services. How easy was it to find the resource, access the information, and was it useful?

    Support your statements with evidence from the Required Studies and your research. Cite and reference your sources in APA style.

     

    References

    Niles-Yokum, K. & Wagner, D. (2014). The aging networks: A guide to programs and services (8th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Balance of Individual Rights with the Rights of Society

COM 400 Week 5 Individual Assignment New Social Issues

Consider the following:

The law attempts to balance individual rights with the rights of society. Two areas in which this conflict is particularly challenging are intellectual property rights as they relate to online materials and the new kinds of surveillance that digital media enable.

Writea 700- to 1,050-word paper on whether you think the law has achievedan appropriate balance in protecting conflicting rights regarding copyright protection and digital surveillance.

Addressthe following points in your paper:

·The ease of copying and sharing materials on the Internet and its effect on copyright

·The influence of the open-source movement on attitudes toward copyright

·The relationship between creativity and innovation with intellectual property rights

·The personal and professional effects of digital surveillance versus organizational needs for information and control, such as employer monitoring of employee computer use, business monitoring of customers’ Internet behavior, government monitoring of citizens, and so on

·Whether foreseeable changes in copyright protection and digital surveillance will improve or impair the balance in the future

Cite at least twopeer-reviewed sources to support your work.

Formatthe paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Teen Pregnancy as a social problem

ASSIGNMENT #1

 

To prepare for your Final Paper (due in Week Five), complete the following assignment and submit it to your instructor for feedback.

Problem Statement: Describe the social problem you have selected for your paper.

Overview: Using the Final Paper instructions in Week Five as a guide, provide an overview of the topics you will discuss in your Final Paper. Your overview, just like your Final Paper, is expected to include a problem statement or description of the social problem you have selected, a discussion of the scope and consequences of the problem, and a discussion of society’s responses to the problem, including at least one alternative solution to the problem.

Academic Research Reminder: Academic research papers must meet university level standards of quality recognized by the academic community. What constitutes quality, academic research?

  1. Primary (original) sources written by experts in the field of study.
  2. Secondary sources supported by research in primary sources.
  3. Credible sources (experts in the field; well-known theorists; sources which use primary and secondary sources to support claims).
  4. Relevant research (materials are pertinent to the area of study).
  5. In graduate work, the use of peer-reviewed journal articles (journal articles reviewed by recognized experts in the relevant field of study) is required.
  6. Educational and government websites (those ending with a web URL suffix of .edu or .gov) may be appropriate in some cases but should be evaluated carefully.

The overview of your Final Paper must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including the title page and reference page) and formatted according to the APA style guide. You must use a minimum of three scholarly sources (at least one of which must be found in the Ashford University Library) other than the textbook to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your sources in the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation menu.

 

 

 

2nd ASSIGNMENT

FInal Paper

 

Your Final Paper should include a problem statement or description of the social problem you have selected, a discussion of the scope and consequences of the problem, and an assessment of society’s responses to the problem (including public policies and other less formal responses). Papers should also present a clearly reasoned alternative that is supported by scholarly research.

While the following example can be modified to suit your needs, using this outline as a guide will likely result in a high quality final paper:

  1. Title
  2. Describe the social problem.
  3. Explain why this problem qualifies as a social problem.
  4. Indicate the sociological theory or theories that may explain this social problem.
  5. Discuss the individual and social implications of this problem. Your discussion of implications should be supported by accurate research data.
  6. Summarize what social science experts have to say about this social problem. Are their conclusions methodologically sound?
  7. Explain what we, as a society, have done about this problem, considering public policies and other less formal responses.
  8. Explain how well societal efforts to solve the social problem are working.
  9. Describe an alternative.
  10. Discuss why the alternative is, or can be, an effective response to the problem. Remember to consider negative consequences of the alternative response.
  11. Conclude with reflections and thoughts about your chosen social problem.
  12. References

Systems and Multicultural Approaches Paper

Read the four case studies in the University of Phoenix Material: Systems and Multicultural Case Studies located on the student website.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that integrates all four case studies. Address the following in your paper:

•Define systems theory.

•Define multicultural approaches

•Compare each case study by doing the following: ◦Identify the approaches—systems, multicultural, or a combination of both—you would use for each case study.

â—¦Describe why one approach would work for one case and not for other cases.

•Explain the value of systems and multicultural theories.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Historical figures in social work

For assignment, select one of the individual fro the following list of important historical figures in social work I chose:

” Josephine Shawn Lowell”

Write a 2- Page document in which you highlight the important contributions of the individual you selected. Your document should:

1. Outline the individual’s path to working in the social work field

2. Describe the the most important contribution(s) of the individual to the field

3. Explain how the study of this individual would inform your practice as a social worker.

4. Adhere to APA conventions

 

please make sure you save your document in ” doc” file and name it WK2Assgn Last name + first name intitial

Thank you zeek willing to pay you $30.00thank you for such short notice need it done asap actually need it before Sunday….

Critical Thinking Exercise – case study is model Cindy Jackson

Critical Thinking Exercise – Manufacturing Beauty

 

This assignment involves the critical analysis of a case study.  The case study subject is model Cindy Jackson,

 

The TCOs that are associated with this assignment are:

  • TCO 3 as it applies to psychological disorders and their effects on the self is a social world
  • TCO 9 as it applies to interpersonal attraction
  • TCO 13 as it applies to the role of the media

Process:

Explore Cindy Jackson’s official website at http://www.cindyjackson.com/

Critically analyze the contents of the complete website

Based on your findings answer the following four questions:

  1. What does your critical analysis of the website reveal to you about Cindy Jackson’s sense of her social self, her self-concept, her self-esteem and her self-presentation?
  2. How does the physical attractiveness stereotype of interpersonal attraction factor into your findings about Cindy Jackson?
  3. How does the mass media influence Cindy Jackson’s lifeworld?
  4. What do you perceive that the theme of “manufacturing beauty” means?

 

Sociology Theories

For each of the eight theoretical perspectives listed below, please provide an example of a family you know (from TV, movies, literature, or real life) that demonstrates that perspective. Provide a brief explanation.

1) The Structural Functional Perspective

2) The Conflict Perspective

3) The Symbolic Interaction Perspective

4) The Family Systems Perspective

5) The Social Exchange Perspective

6) The Feminist Perspective

7) The Ecological Perspective

8) The Family Development Perspective

Age Discrimination

Unit 8 Discussion 2

Age discrimination is another current topic of discussion. The data seems to indicate that age discrimination continues to exist even though it may be a costly practice due to the declining birth rates. For this discussion, answer the following:

  • Based on the readings, how did changing social conditions (such as increased life expectancy) and economic conditions (such as industrialization) change attitudes toward aging?
  • Briefly summarize the 2 competing views of age discrimination.
  • For the final portion of this discussion, you will be assigned to a group. Based on your readings and your interpretation of the concepts for this unit, should we legally support mandatory retirement cutoffs?
    • Group A: Present the argument for legitimacy of requiring the aging worker to leave the marketplace.
    • Group B: Present the opposing side, that we should not create or legally support mandatory retirement policies

Social Stratification

Assignment 1: LASA 2: The Application Paper

By Monday, June 15, 2015, using the textbook and Argosy Online Library, write a 5-7 page paper using APA standards for citation of sources that focuses on the following:

Interview two different individuals regarding their positions in society.  Analyze their responses regarding:

  1. Identify each person’s class, race, and gender.
  2. What role has class, race, and gender played in their lives?  How do you see these stratifiers as playing a role, even if the interviewee is unaware of it?
  3. Apply one of the sociological perspectives (structural-functional, social-conflict, or symbolic-interaction) to the individuals’ lives.  Why did you choose this particular perspective?  How does it explain each person’s life and life choices?
  4. What are some the benefits and limitations to using interview as a research methodology?
  5. Analyze each person’s components of culture (language, symbols, material objects, and behaviors) and relate them to his/her stratified position in society.

Please post your completed paper in the M5: Assignment 1 Dropbox.

Social Implications

To complete this assignment, read through the scenario below and address the specific questions and issues indicated. Review the “Introduction to the Miller Family” document for specific information on each member of the family.

Grandmother Ella has been dealing with cancer for years now and has tried alternative remedies and juicing.  She went into remission for some time, but now the cancer has returned and she is in the hospital.  Her husband, of American Indian descent, has his ideas about what needs to be done as Ella comes to the end of her life.  Ella has her preferences, though she is now so weak that she has given up in many ways.  The family members are each experiencing their own fears and are grieving as they face the loss that will occur as Ella’s life comes to a close.  Ella prefers to die at home and has felt stressed by the discord and discomfort of family members since being hospitalized.

You are the social worker for this case.  You meet this family in the hospital setting as they are considering whether the patient will remain there for her final days or whether hospice and palliative care will be provided for her in her home.

For this assignment, you will:

Synthesize the current research that is relevant to this scenario.

  1. Discuss the cultural or traditional issues that could arise at this time.  Consider how the integration of alternative and complementary medicine and beliefs, mainstream medical practices, and cultural/traditional rituals and practices might create issues and what they might include.
    • Describe how the family might react to the following possible scenarios:
      • Ella wishes to stick with alternative and complementary practices.
      • Ella is coerced into following mainstream medical advice.
      • Ella’s husband insists that, as father and husband, his family traditions should be adhered to.
    • Examine the biological basis for care and describe how the choices for care might affect the other family members with respect to their individual problems, if at all.
      • Son Sam, the alcoholic
      • Daughter Lila, with diabetes
      • Grandson Josh, starting to have drug problems
      • Granddaughter Lucy, bipolar with more entrenched drug problems
      • Daughter-in-law, Sarah’s stress related to her family’s medical issues (nephew with leukemia, brother with HIV, and her father’s perspective that they are all “crazy!”)
  2. Discuss the micro, mezzo, and macro influences affecting both the patient and the diverse family members in this scenario as impacted by Ella’s medical condition and prognosis.
    • What are the pertinent and likely family (micro) conflicts and differences, and concerns that could be encountered?
    • How is the neighborhood and extended family (mezzo) reacting to the situation?
    • If she returns home, what considerations need to be taken into account as part of her discharge plan? Using your local area, research and present the needed or preferred community resources (macro) that would be available to them.  Critique the ability of these community resources to adequately meet the needs of this diverse family’s circumstances.
  3. Discuss the relevant medical issues and the advantages and disadvantages of hospital versus home.  When discussing medical issues in this case, use appropriate medical terminology.
  4. Discuss the psychological and social issues that are present and will possibly be more pronounced at this stressful time.  How has the fact that this illness has been ongoing (chronic) impacted the family?
  5. Analyze the current scenario as it pertains to diversity, as well as to cultural, psychological, and social perspectives and influences, taking into account the stories that you have been discussing throughout the course.
  6. Discuss the impact of lifespan development on the perspectives of the various members of the family (i.e., their intellect, cognitive abilities, insight, and judgment) as well as their sociocultural perspectives, preferences, understandings, and positions on the situation.

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:

  1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least three scholarly sources.
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Eight to Ten Pages in length…

Issues in Sexuality: Scholarly vs. Popular Media

This assignment will help you explore the way a topic in human sexuality is covered in two very different sources: 1) a scholarly journal; and 2) a popular media source.

Instructions
Choose a topic on sexuality that interests you. Use the textbook as a guide in selecting your topic.

Find a scholarly article
Select an appropriate topic, and search the APUS online library databases to find an article from a “peer-reviewed” evidence-based scholarly journal.
If you have questions on appropriate types of articles, you can use the library tutorials or contact a librarian.

Summarize the scholarly article
Write a 300-400 word summary of the scholarly article you selected, including:
The hypothesis of the study (what was he author trying to prove or disprove?)
How the study was conducted, including:

The group of people researched and written about (colleges students? adolescents? the elderly? military members? sexual minorities? etc.)
The research method used (i.e. naturalistic observation, lab experiment, survey, etc.)
The results of the study, the interpretation of the data by the authors and any conclusions they include at the end of the article.
Find and summarize the popular media article
Find and analyze/summarize an article from the popular media that covers the same topic as the scholarly paper. Acceptable popular media sources include sources like:

Traditional newspapers
Magazines
Credible websites

Unacceptable popular media sources include:
Blogs
Wikis
Wikipedia
TV shows
Movies
Tabloids (National Enquirer, etc.)
Write a 300-400 word summary and review of the popular media article.
Summarize the key points and include any information that identifies the group and the methods described.
Describe any conclusions drawn by the authors.

Critique (about 500 words)
Compare the article from Step 3 with the article from Step 4, addressing the following:
What do they have in common?
Other than visually, how are they most different?
What is the value for consumers reading each?
What are the cons associated with the way each presents the information?

Both sources can be important means of communicating information about your topic. Explain what is best about the scholarly approach and why, and what is best about the popular media approach and why. Consider:
Reasons professors require students to use papers from peer-reviewed and professional organizations.
Reasons for studying sex formally instead of just learning about it from popular media sources.
Conclusion (about 500 words)
Conclude your paper. Include insights you gained from conducting the review, summary, and comparison of the two forms of information. You may comment on their relative interest to you or the average reader.
General Writing Requirements
Total paper length should be 1500-2000 words.

Use appropriate APA formatting, in-text (parenthetical), and Reference citations. APA formatting guides are available in our class Resources link. APA tutorials are also available on the APUS Library page. If you’re not sure how to do this, take the APA tutorial available in the APU library.
APA formatting requires a separate cover page and a separate References page. Neither counts toward the word length.
Sources must be cited in the body of your paper (in-text or parenthetical citations) and on a page titled: References
Paraphrases should be used instead of quotes unless the quote is VERY short and necessary for complete understanding or to make a particular point. Place quotes inside quotation marks and properly cite them. Failure to correctly quote or cite, even if not intended is plagiarism and will result in a zero on the paper for a first instance and course failure for a second occurrence in any other assignment. Rewrites are not permitted for plagiarized work.

Double spacing is required.

Run a spelling and grammar check.

Cultural Production

Soc 419 Short Paper Assignment #3 – Cultural Production

Sociology 419 Short Paper Assignment #3 – Cultural Production, due 10/13/14 Think of a particular genre of cultural production (painting, digital art, music, movies, etc.). Within that genre, think of a particular piece of art. It can be a particular film, a painting, and a song, whatever. For the paper, briefly describe the work of art, and then use your sociological imagination and write about the process through which that piece of art was produced. This should not require any additional research outside of what you’ve already read. You don’t have to write about exactly what happened in the production of the particular piece of art you’re writing about. Just think about Becker’s “Art Worlds” or Peterson & Anand’s production of culture perspective, and write about some of the social and material conditions that must have been present in order for your chosen piece of art to have been produced. So, for example, if you’re talking about a particular film, you could talk about the necessity of technology, labor markets, etc. Or for a painting, you could talk about the industries required to produce the materials that painters need. The paper should simply be a reflection on the process of production behind your chosen piece of art. Again, it doesn’t have to be 100% accurate to what actually took place. I just want you to think about it in terms of the two readings we did on cultural production, and speculate on the social process behind the art’s production. Make sure you are specifically referencing at least one of the readings and talking about it in terms of the theory we learned about cultural production. Formatting Instructions: The paper must be a minimum of 700 words (double spaced, 12pt. Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins), make sure the reference is documented at the end of the paper.

World Cultures

Analyzing World Cultures

Media play a very large role in both the development and the perpetuation of cultural elements. You may never have watched a foreign movie or even clips evaluating other cultures. In this assignment, you will explore online videos or movies from a culture of your choice and analyze how cultural elements are presented, compared to your own culture. Complete the following: Choose a world culture you are not familiar with. Identify two–three online videos or movies representative of this culture. These could be examples of cultural expressions such as a Bollywood movie from India or Anime videos from Japan. Evaluate two hours of such a video. Using the readings for this module, and the Internet, research articles about your selected culture. Select a scholarly article that analyzes the same culture presented in the videos you have observed. Write a paper describing the cultural differences you have observed in the video. How are these observations supported by the research article?

Social Structure Theory

This paper discusses social structure theory, through describing the following subjects. I will examine how the feature underpins social structure hypothesis, social issues examined, and significant standards of sociology theory. I am likewise going to consider, in the last piece of this paper, what are some possible ramifications for an approach social change. The feature that I have chosen to run as one with this paper is the State Prison of Pelican Bay to fits very well with my convictions of the social structure hypothesis being the top purpose behind criminality developing.

The social issues that elapse in this feature are the controlling of packs through the jail in a broad range of ways. The posse pioneers in Pelican Bay run drugs through communication methods utilized while as a part of the prison.If there is an issue that should be taken care of through homicide, then it is up to the group pioneer to request the call. Pelican Bay needs to stop this running that the posse pioneers do yet it is not as simple as it appears. The clash of keeping the posse pioneers from running the group still while in jail is even more war rather than a battle. There is such a variety of distinctive perspectives that the prison staff needs to take a gander at in every skirmish of this war that goes on every single day in the State Prison of Pelican Bay.

There is two fundamental rule that I see that are tended to in this feature. The two standards are the absence of stable home growing up and posse life being the main home these detainees of Pelican Cove has ever had. The detainees that are in Pelican Sound State Jail have never had whatever other life aside from the group that they originate. The life of posse viciousness is what happens every day in the jail. The group pioneers manage the homicides of individuals who have acted against the pack in a way that the posse feels debilitated in some way. The pack individuals and pioneers that are in this jail have all they know in the group that they have a place in and will give their life for the gang.

This theory was achieved by scholars that have concentrated criminals’ lives and where they originated from beginning to start with of that lawbreakers’ life. As the criminals lives were mulled over, it got to be obvious that there was a connection to how the adolescents got to be culprits in this life. The most seen guiltiness originates from people that neglect to master’s level college. Hence, when an individual proceeds to instruction the demonstration of wrongdoing turns out to be less and less.

At the point when a person neglects to graduate, it is generally because the absence of family backing is not there as it is required. The family bolster helps massively, however when a family gets to be broken the youngster endures. At the point when the kid experiences that broken family, that child will search for the backing from another source. The bolster that a child, the larger part of the time, finds is not a decent sort of support. There are gatherings. For example, enormous siblings and huge sisters clubs that can help a tyke in a suitable manner, yet tragically that kid winds up searching for the backing in packs which prompts the criminal existence of that child.

In the world of criminal justice the great is law requirement and the awful is wrongdoing. If society somehow happened to connect with youngsters as opposed to being frightened of the young, then the wrongdoing will decrease, and law authorization will win. So if society would just change their social policy and begin tending to different people then, in my convictions of the social structure hypothesis. The world could turn out to be more tranquil as the outcome from less wrongdoing.

The building of the State Prison of Pelican Bay is not care for every other jail. That is an issue that I accept to keep detainees from needing to change their life. In all structures, the architecture in it can keep a disposition set a certain way and can keep satisfaction from occurring. The structural engineering of the Pelican Bay State Prison is not a cheerful one by any stretch of the imagination, and it is verging on like being in an isolation all through the whole inside of the jail. Every one of the cells does not have a window and only rather a metal all over, which makes for a cool ghostly feeling to be encompassed by dimness and frosty. (Treadwell, 2006)

“Long term solitary confinement, which is either for months or years or goes on forever, as at Pelican Bay, connected with absolute idleness. The individual is separated socially to the compelling, additionally has nothing significant to do: This reasons human breakdown. This crushes individuals as people,” says Terry Kupers, a specialist who spends considerable time in scientific work. Kupers has been an expert witness on more than 20 legal claims concerning jail conditions. He says there’s an entire reiteration of impacts that single can have with a man, including enormous tension, distrustfulness, a sleeping disorder, sadness and self-destructive considerations. Kupers says individuals regularly pace and clean their cells impulsively. Besides, their vision experiences not being able to take a gander at a separation. Detainees think that it difficult to focus enough to peruse, Kupers says.

A sentence to jail is one thing for a prisoner to need to manage, yet to be condemned to prison and afterward invest a decent measure of energy in isolation is another. The fundamental reason that a prisoner returns to their same lifestyle and improves their self is that while in jail, the treatment they receive. This will set in their brain that they are evil individuals, and there is no desire for them. The sentence alongside isolation sends the detainees’ brain more remote into a more profound and darker setting that won’t leave the life of crime.

“Just about 95% of prisoners in Pelican Bay are planned to be discharged once more into the overall population sooner or later. They will spend a several weeks in a nearby jail before getting back society, with little readiness for how to stay with individuals all things considered. (Sullivan, 2006)”

References

Treadwell, J. (2006). Criminology. London: SAGE.

Sullivan, L. (2006) Life in Solitary Confinement at Pelican Bay Prison, a Life in Solitary Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyld=5584254

Religion

Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber each devoted some time to writing about religion and society, including questions such as the following:

  • What do people believe?
  • How do people talk about religion?
  • How is religion organized?
  • How do a person’s beliefs impact other aspects of social life?

Review this Web site, and answer the following questions:

  • What social purpose does religion serve?
  • Define and give examples of each of the following terms:
    • Profane
    • Sacred
    • Faith
    • Ritual
  • Choose 1 of these theorists: Max Weber, Karl Marx, or Emile Durkheim. Describe his thoughts and views on religion.
  • Discuss how religion can exert social control over its believers.

Be sure to incorporate at least 2 outside resources, and cite your sources following APA format.

Reference

Boundless. (n.d.). Understanding religion. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/religion-0012a374-36c5-4342-b187-15b13aa53bad/

Popular American Culture

Popular American Culture Paper

Individual Assignment: Popular American Culture Paper •Record your interactions with popular culture by documenting different ways that you consume popular culture. Examples might include, but are not limited to, what television shows you watch and why, the types of clothes you like to wear and what they say about you, or what magazines you buy and why. Please submit the completed paper to the Plagiarism Checker and submit a copy of this report with the paper you post to your individual form. Please be sure to include at least two academic, peer-reviewed references within your paper according to APA standards. In addition, you must provide a reference page at the end of your paper according to APA standards. •Prepare a 350- to 700-word paper in which you examine popular American culture. In your essay, answer the following questions: oWhat is culture? What is popular culture? What are three major trends in popular American culture? oHow does popular American culture affect personal decision making? •Include the journaling activity with your essay submission. •Format your papers consistent with APA guidelines.

Obesity and Homelessness

Obesity and Homelessness

~This are 2 separate assignments~

Assignment #1

Discuss Obesity as a social problem.

a.Using the definition provided by the text, define how obesity could be categorized as a social problem.

What are examples of individual and societal factors leading to obesity?

What are the individual and social consequences of doing nothing to address this problem?

b.Theoretical perspectives

How would a conflict theorist explain the problem of obesity?

How would a functionalist explain the problem of obesity?

How would a symbolic interactionist explain the problem of obesity?

c.Based on your research, and personal reflection on which theoretical perspective is most like your own views, which theory does the best job at explaining the causes of obesity?  Based on this analysis, explain why or why not the issue of obesity should be addressed as a social problem.

Additional research, focusing on scholarly sources, is expected. Websites can be included in your research, and eventually included in your list of references, although you are expected to rely on authoritative sources. You may also look ahead in your textbook, since health issues are discussed in several chapters.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Assignment #2

a.In what ways might homelessness be categorized as a social problem?  Explain your reasoning and support your points with examples from the textbook.

b.Some of these policies suggested in this video involve government policies and funds. In your opinion, is this an appropriate use of public funds?  How do you define what is appropriate use of public funds, and how does the use of public funds fit inside or outside of appropriate use?

c.The policies described in this video may be controversial. What concerns do you have about these policies?

d.Complete a web search focusing on policies intended to reduce or eliminate homelessness. Provide an example of a potentially effective response to the problem of homelessness. Define the elements that make this solution effective.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

 

Obesity in America

Obesity in America is considered an epidemic. There are many contributing factors to obesity (both childhood and adult), such as biological, environmental, social, or economic factors. Review the information on obesity on pages 383 to 385 in the textbook. You may also use the Internet or Strayer Library to research obesity and its causes.

Suggested Reading:

Write a one to two page (1-2) page essay in which you:

  1. Describe the effect that obesity (childhood and / or adult) has had on you personally or your community.
  2. Select one (1) contributing factor to childhood or adult obesity. Recommend two (2) preventative measures related to the selected factor that people can take in order to reduce their chance of becoming obese.
  3. Discuss one (1) sociological theory that relates to the selected contributing factor to obesity.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • To keep this essay short and manageable, your only sources for the essay should be the article from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the sections noted in your text. For this reason, APA citations or references are not required for this assignment.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Define the basic concepts used in the discipline of sociology.
  • Explain the major theoretical paradigms of sociology.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in sociology.
  • Write clearly and concisely about sociology using proper writing mechanics.

Aging in Canada and the World Today

Answer the following questions and submit your responses via the dropbox.

1. What is your opinion about what the textbook states about China? “Chinese tradition puts the responsibility for care of the older people on the family. And the law reinforces this. (p.49)

2. What role did each of these demographic forces (immigration, death rates, birth rates) play in the aging of Canada population from 1850s to the present?

3. Define baby boom and baby bust.

4. Watch this youtube Coming of Age in America. Although, some of the information is based on the US landscape, there are similarities with the Canadian one. What are your thoughts about this youtube video and what Peter Laslett emphasized on responses to the increased aging population, “it calls for invention rather than imitation (1976, p. 96) as cited by Novak, Campbell, & Northcott, 2014)? In 100- 200 words, support your opinion.

5. Look at Exhibit 3.9 (p.61) on the Population Pyramids in Canada and read pp. 66-68. How does this “top heavy older population affect the economic situation of the older adults and society?

6. In 50 -100 words, describe the impact of ethnicity and geographic mobility on the population of Canada.

7. Watch this youtube Aging Population, No Problem . Do you agree or disagree with the producer views? Why?

Changing Public Opinion about Social Security

Post Discussion: Changing Public Opinion about Social Security

Research has shown that changes in the way issues are framed can have powerful effects on people’s opinions (Hudson, 2014). Policymakers often use framing to try to change the public’s opinion on policy and programs. Chapters 4 & 9 of your textbook, The New Politics of Old Age Policy, discuss the framing and counter-framing efforts that have occurred in recent years related to Social Security.
Identify a framing or counter-framing effort discussed in Chapter 4 or 9. In your post, explain the effort and whether or not it was successful or made inroads toward the goal of influencing public opinion.
Support your statements with evidence from the Required Studies and your research. Cite and reference your sources in APA style.
References
 
Hudson, R. (Ed). (2014). The new politics of old age policy (3rd ed.). Baltimore, John Hopkins.

Mattel and Toy Safety Case

The Final Case Analysis Paper should focus on real life and real time application of topics covered in this course; the uses you have seen and the uses you can envision.
Read Case Eight, Mattel and Toy Safety (PROVIDED AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE). This case describes the 2007 Mattel toy recalls, which were in response to findings that several children’s toys were coated in lead-based paint.
Write an eight- to ten-page paper (not including the title and reference pages), that addresses the following:

  1. Explain if Mattel acted in a socially responsible and ethical manner with regard to the safety of its toys.
  2. Describe what Mattel should or could have done differently.
  3. Describe who or what was responsible for the fact that children were exposed to potentially dangerous toys.
  4. Explain the best way to ensure the safety of children’s toys and consider how the following groups would respond: government regulators (in the United States and China); consumer advocates, the toy industry, children’s product retailers, and standard-setting organizations. Explain the differences in their point of view.
  5. Describe what you think is the best way for society to protect children from harmful toys and discuss the appropriate roles for various stakeholders in this process.

Writing the Final Case Analysis Paper 
The Final Case Analysis Paper:
 

  1. Must be eight- to ten- pages in length (excluding the title page, references page, exhibits, etc.) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a cover page:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must include an introductory paragraph with a clearly stated thesis or topic.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. That is, state your response to the content, either positive or negative, and then defend your position. If multiple options/alternatives/positions are present and are being rejected, you must also defend the reasons for rejecting an option.
  5. Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis or topic and a closing paragraph that summarizes the main point or points of your paper.
  6. Must use at least four scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.
  7. Must include, on the final page, a reference list that is completed according to APA style

Criminology Quiz

Question 1

Discuss the origin and development of rational choice theory and its basic assumptions.

Question 2

Differentiate between offense-specific crimes and offender-specific crimes.
Incorporate examples of each in your discussion.
 

Question 3

Describe how criminals structure crime.

Question 4

Based on the course readings so far, discuss how one’s moral development influences their risk of committing crime.

Question 5

Discuss the purpose of data mining? When it is used?

Question 6

According to Wolfgang, how is a delinquent offender responsible for more than half of all serious crimes.

Question 7

Describe the victim’s role in the crime process.

Question 8

Discuss the difference between crime and deviance; between a felony and a misdemeanor.

Question 9

Describe and discuss the term, “cycle of violence”.

Question 10

Discuss the association between social class and crime.

Social Change

The future of the world is uncertain. In fact, there are those who predict a wonderful world where technology and creativity provide a good quality of life for most people, while others predict a world of competition, conflict, and strife. Use sociological theories to explain why these polar opposites could both occur, and what needs to happen for peace and prosperity to result.
Post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

How does society define crime?

APA format

 SOC 305

As we learn in the video, Crimes of the Powerful, our justice system tends to focus on street crime, often ignoring much more significant problems such as white-collar, corporate, and state crime. The video also discusses euthanasia, although the point of this reference is to illustrate how the law can be used as a tool for social change. The video also discusses moral values with a focus on media coverage of harm to children. Laws have changed in direct response to these incidents and the resulting media coverage. In effect, this coverage becomes an engine for social change. The video ends with a discussion of crime theory, reminding us that many criminological theories fall short when applied to people with wealth and high status.
Write a paper discussing the myths and realities of crime. Please elaborate on the following points in your essay:
Imagine asking 100 strangers to describe a “criminal.” Are these descriptions likely to focus on street criminals, or the variety of topics covered in this video?
How does society define “crime?” Do not provide a definition – instead, describe how the definition is reached.
How does society decide what to define as a “crime?”
Provide a clear statement about a particular crime – something we know to be absolutely true. How do we know this is an accurate statement?
Provide an example of a widely held myth or misconception about crime and society. How do we know this is a myth? Why is this myth so difficult to abandon?
The paper must be three to four pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least two scholarly resources other than the textbook to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar

Sociology

Select a television program that you know contains a social inequality or social class theme (e.g. racism, sexism, social class categories).

Prepare a 700 word analysis of the program in which you complete the following:

  • Provide a brief introduction that includes the program’s title, describes the type of program, and explains which social theme you are addressing.
  • Describe and explain scenes that apply to the social theme.
  • Aside from verbal language, identify all observed body language, facial expressions, gestures, posture stances, modes of dress, nonverbal cues, symbols, and any other means by which inequalities are displayed.
  • Explain your interpretation of the meanings of the identified nonverbal communications and symbolism.
  • Summarize how these interpretations are important to the sociological understanding of your chosen social inequality or social class theme.
  • Provide a conclusion that summarizes the key points in your analysis.

Format your analysis paper consistent with APA guidelines

Capital Punishment Essay

APA title page An introductory paragraph Three to four main body paragraphs A conclusion paragraph At least one direct quote of fewer than 30 words At least one paraphrased source APA reference page at the end of the paper including at least two sources.  Minimum 650 words

What are the historical and contemporary meanings of the ghetto?

Easy Task: Basically improve my essay according to the comments on turnitin. (see file uploaded). The essay is completed with a score of 84/100, however I would want to improve the essay according to the comments given. 
Reference:

Here is the essay question:
Read chapter 5 on housing and the 3 (three) articles entitled “Ghetto” by Loic Wacquant, “No Two Ghettoes are Alike” by Mario Luis Small and “Ghetto: Five Reasons to Rethink the word” by Izadi (available on my website under Cool stuff/ articles) and ask 2 of your close friends to define the term “ghetto” (which adjectives do they use spontaneously to describe it? Do not interject!).
Address the following prompt in an essay format (integrate the above sources in your answer as well as the comments made by your friends):
• What are the historical and contemporary meanings of the ghetto? What is a ghetto? How do those meanings help us understand the current issues of the ghetto? What conclusions can we draw from those academic sources about where, who and what is represented by this word today?

Articles can be found here: http://www.tsjugephd.com/articles.html

Capitalism vs Socialism

Capitalism or Socialism? Which one do you think is more dominant in the U.S. economy today?
 

Be sure to provide examples to defend your position.

Community Needs Assessment

Imagine that you have identified an issue within your community and are going to do a needs assessment.

Create a detailed outline that you will use to compose a letter that explains the selected community needs assessment tool to your community.

Address the following in your outline:

  • Identify an issue in your community that the needs assessment will be focusing on and provide a brief history of the problem.
  • Describe the necessary steps in the planning process for determining which needs assessment tool will be used.
  • Explain the assessment tool that will be used.
  • Discuss the plans for implementing the needs assessment tool.

health lifestyle model

Health behavior is the activity undertaken by a person who believes him or herself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing health problems (Kasl and Cobb, 1966). Healthy lifestyles, in turn, are ways of living that promote good health and longer life expectancy.

  • How does a healthy lifestyle promote good health and a longer life expectancy? Justify your answer with examples and reasoning.
  • Suggest and then briefly explain two theories that support this viewpoint.
  • What are the various activities involved in maintaining a healthy lifestyle?

The work of Weber and Bourdieu contributed to a model of health lifestyle formulated by Cockerham.

  • What are the various components of this model?
  • How effective is this model in the study of healthy behavior and a healthy lifestyle in the present day?

Submit your answers in a three- to four-page Microsoft Word document.

APA format DOUBLE SPACED(two spaces between each word).

Domestic violence

Your probation officer supervisor, Sarah Harris, explains to you that a majority of her caseload involves adults with substance abuse and domestic violence issues. You will need to prepare a report for her defining domestic violence. The following should be included in your report:

  • Define domestic violence.
  • Identify and explain the characteristics of the abuser and the victim.
  • Explain the cycle of abuse in domestic violence situations.
    1. tension building
    2. explosion/incident
    3. making up/calm
  • Describe 1 treatment theory from any one of the helping professions that is used in a domestic violence situation.
  • Address how substance abuse may or may not impact a domestic violence relationship and the cycle of abuse.

This assignment is in the form of a report; be creative with the format. Cite sources using APA style format, and include a reference section at the end of your submission.

Family and gender roles

Directions: Read, listen, or watch the media listed below then answer the questions that follow.  Your responses should be at least 400 words and double-spaced.  Be sure to incorporate concepts learned from this week’s module into your assignment.
Listen to the audio file, “Defending and Attacking Polygamy in Saudi Arabia.”  Click HERE to access the audio file.
Read the article, “Legal License, Race, Sex, and Forbidden Unions.”  Click HERE to access the article.
Watch the video, “Same Sex marriages and Families.” Click HERE to access the video.
Answer the following questions.
What different interpretations of family and gender roles are being voiced in the items you reviewed?
To what extent do these differing viewpoints correspond or clash with western notions of family?
Concepts:
distinguish marriage and family in a global and theoretical perspective.

  • examine the family life cycle and the impact of family structure, class, and birth order on the raising of a child.
  • evaluate diversity in American families and cross-cultural variations in marriages.
  • analyze trends in divorce and remarriage in different nations.
  • distinguish between the different perspectives on education.
  • analyze problems in United States education and provide recommendations and strategies for improvement.
  • explain religion and the core values in the United States and its reflection on society and the educational system.
  • discuss norms and values encouraged and discouraged by the various religious systems.
  • classify the different types of religious groups in the world.

Sociological Theory

Directions:Choose one sociologist from chapter 1 that you would like to research.  You will then write an essay of at least two pages in length on this theorist.  Make sure to address the following points in your essay:
What was the sociologist’s main contribution to the field of sociology?

  1. What was the primary focus of this person’s work?  For example: Feminism, Interactionism, Functionalism, Positivism.
  2. Why did you choose this particular person?

You must use at least two references for this essay.  The text may be used as one reference.  All references must be properly cited according to APA guidelines.
Sociologists:
 Auguste Comte
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx
Emile Durkheim

Gentrification and urban sprawl

Directions: Listen to the audio file below then answer the questions that follow in the form of a paper that is three pages in length.  All references must be properly cited according to APA guidelines.
 

  1. Listen to the audio file, “Housing First.” Click HERE to access the audio file.
  1. Write a paper on gentrification and urban sprawl answering the following questions.
  2. What factors contribute to gentrification?
  3. Who is impacted by gentrification?

 

  1. What are the effects of urban sprawl?  Are they generally positive or negative?

social normative consumption

Watch an episode of any television show that focuses on normative consumption in some way. The show can focus on body size, fashion, homes or any other venue of consumption. Do a close reading of the show. Look at the use of graphics, use of experts, camera shots, ect. as well as at the narrative content. Focusing primiarily on gender, analyze the implicit and explicit messages about consumption and culutral capital in this shows.
 
Length:2500 words, double space format, TNR 12 fonts.
MLA Refernces if needed.

The Reasons Behind Failed States

Soc Of Develop Countries 300
 Written Assignment: The Reasons Behind Failed States
 No Plagiarism
 Use the Internet to research one developing nation of your choice. Your research should include an examination of the effects that issues such as bad governance, civil war and corruption have on the creation of states that have failed. Include in your research the articles from the discussion questions as well as the material covered by the Webtext and lectures in Weeks 1 through 8.
Write a 6 to 8 page research paper in which you:

  1. Identify the factors that contribute to a state’s failure to deliver good governance to its people. Support your response with concrete examples of each of the results that you have cited.
  2. Analyze why the specific actions taken by the leadership of the selected country have failed.
  3. Discuss the prospects for success in the selected country and support your response with examples.
  4. Use at least eight (8) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, blogs, and other nonacademic websites do not qualify as academic resources. Approval of resources is at the instructor’s discretion.

 
 

Limitations for Elderly

This assignment will help you understand the limitations that the elderly face.

Identity an elderly person in your community or locality. Fix up an appointment with the elderly person and talk to him or her about the limitations that he or she faces in his or her everyday life. The discussion could be on physical impairments, finances, resources, or support.

Based on your discussion with the elderly gentleman or lady, create a 4- to 5-page report in a Microsoft Word document that includes the following:

  • What are the major limitations that the elderly person is facing in his or her everyday life? Explain.
  • What are the factors that contribute to the elderly facing the above-mentioned limitations?
  • What would you recommend or what suggestions would you offer to overcome the above-mentioned limitations?
  • In your opinion, what type of living arrangement is best suited for the elderly? Why?
  • What are the factors that affect an elderly’s ability to remain in an ideal living arrangement?
  • Apply what you have learned about living conditions and housing options to the case of the individual that you interviewed. Present a proposal for a living arrangement that suits his or her impairments.

Support your answers with appropriate research and reasoning.

Cite any sources in APA format.

Chapter review – Essentials of Sociology

Read Chapter 17 in Essentials of Sociology to obtain background information.
 
Do you think home schooling could turn out to be a popular alternative for education? Do you think this movement could eventually become a viable option to U.S. public schools or parochial schools? Would you consider home schooling your children? Why or why not?
 
200 – 300 words MAX!
 
*** CHAPTER 17 ATTACHED ***

Ageism

#1 Ageism

Pre-discussion activity
Search the internet for three images of aging.
Discussion posting
Copy and paste them into the posting. Include the url or the source of the images. Are these images negative or positive? Why?
In 50-100 words, discuss how ageism affects you. Give two specific examples.

Reflective Essay

Reflective Essay Instructions

Here is your first Reflective Essay.
Should there be a greater role for the Humanities in the contemporary college/university?
1) Write an introduction which clearly identifies the topic and clearly indicates what you will say about it.  If the topic includes a question to be answered, a clear answer to the question must be in the intro.
2) Write a description of the topic.  The description must contain at least three properly-cited references to the relevant class texts.
This essay from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy explores the question of what we can learn from art. http://www.iep.utm.edu/art-ep/
In this New York Times opinion piece, Gary Gutting discusses some of the issues surrounding society’s lack of support for the arts. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/30/the-real-humanities-crisis/?_r=1
This article discusses a study that concluded that reading novels can help you make more sense of ambiguity. http://www.salon.com/2013/06/15/book_nerds_make_better_decisions_partner/
This article highlights some of the reasons why the humanities are important to society.
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/114392/christina-paxson-president-brown-humanities-can-save-us
 
This article gives some reasons why students should consider majoring in the humanities.
http://www.businessinsider.com/11-reasons-to-major-in-the-humanities-2013-6
 
This article discusses how some humanities students have transitioned into other careers.
http://chronicle.com/article/The-Humanities-in-Dubious/140047/
 
This article makes the case for advantages that liberal arts degrees afford students.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/edward-j-ray/the-value-of-a-liberal-arts-education_b_3647765.html
 
This article highlights how well philosophy students fare on the GRE.
http://www.physicscentral.com/buzz/blog/index.cfm?postid=5112019841346388353
 
This essay discusses how higher education may have diluted the humanities.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323823004578595803296798048.html
3) Write an argument that supports the stand you take on the topic.  Your argument should be as free as possible from logical fallacies.  It should also not depend on particular cultural or religious views.  It should contain rationally-believable premises which logically support their conclusion.
4) The whole essay should be written at a stylistic level appropriate to a college-level liberal arts class.  Clear and proper citations must be used throughout.
I will score your essays as follows:
1) Introduction – 10 points
2) Description – 40 points
3) Argument – 40 points
4) Style – 10 points
Essays should be 650 – 900 words in length.  Please consult the numerous writing links for general help with writing.
Essays must be submitted as either Word or Rich Text Format documents.  If you simply paste your essay into some kind of text box, I will create a Word document for you, and charge you 10 points for that service.
 

medical sociology

Health plays a major role in the functioning of society. Define the relationship between social behavior and health. Justify your answer using examples and reasoning.

  • What are the social factors that play a critical role in improving health?
  • What are the social factors that are the greatest threat to health?
  • How can sociology help health practitioners better understand their patients and provide improved forms of health care?

Submit your answers in a three- to four-page Microsoft Word document.

DOUBLE SPACED(two spaces between each word)

Combating Juvenile Delinquency

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Identify at least two (2) juvenile delinquency reduction efforts / programs currently in operation in your community.
  2. Determine the main sociological theories that underlie these interventions that shape your community’s public policy for delinquency prevention.
  3. Propose one to two (1–2) ideas that you believe would improve your community’s juvenile delinquency prevention efforts. Justify the response with examples that illustrate your ideas being used successfully in other communities.
  4. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Differentiate between various theoretical explanations for delinquent behavior.
  • Explicate the types of prevention programs that are likely to work with high-risk youngsters.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in juvenile delinquency and justice.
  • Write clearly and concisely about juvenile delinquency and justice using proper writing mechanics.

origin of the Italian mafia

as a power point presentation a minimum of 10 slides
origin of the Italian mafia
how does society view the Italian mafia
how did the Italian mafia grow and did society adapt to it
3 sources (2 internet and 1 book)
 
then a 3-4 page paper double spaced 12 times new roman on the social aspect of the Italian based on the research

Sociology Research Proposal

Sociology research paper
 
Social importance, feasibility, scientific relevant
 
1 Intro   social importance
2 Lit Review   scientific relevant
3 Data & method
4 Discussion & conclusion

Sociology of Law 1500 word essay

Law gives everyone equal access to justice.
Critically discuss this statement, with a focus on
 
one of the following topics: Class
 
You are to build on your essay plan to prepare an academic research essay of 1,500 words (Set Word Limit +/- 10%). Your essay must incorporate at least 8 academic references, and must demonstrate a grasp of the key relevant concepts, issues and perspectives covered in the subject as a whole (including relevant concepts discussed in the later weeks of semester), as well as the relevant research literature you have collected. Your essay must be typed, 12 point font, double spaced, and include a header with your name, student number and page number. You must use in text (Harvard) referencing and include a full reference list at the end (which includes only those sources actually cited in the essay). You must also include a statement (3-5 sentences) at the beginning of your essay which states how you have responded to the feedback you were given for your essay planning document.
Must use key terms of the subject and refer to key thinkers of the subject. e.g Marx and Weber
 
 

Social Issues and Social Institutions

This is TWO SEPARATE ASSIGNMENTS
Assignment #1
 
Answer the following questions:
What factors influence the quality of education that an individual receives?

  • How is social class reproduced through the educational system?
  • How is this continuing educational inequality impacting other social institutions?

Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.
 
Assignment #2
“a society needs a variety of social institutions in order to function adequately. However, it does appear that not all citizens have equal access to participation in them, and that one’s social class and ascribed characteristics may limit one’s ability to benefit from them. This disparity results in unequal access to all that the institutions have to offer”
 
In your opinion, which of these institutions do not provide equal access? If you were asked to implement changes from a sociological perspective, what changes would you suggest? Support your answer with detailed examples.
Your initial post should be at least 500 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Causes and Consequences of Family Violence

As a human services professional, it is important to recognize what constitutes family violence, what its causes and consequences are, and how to recognize it.

Write a 750- to 1,000-word paper, including the following information:

  • Include a basic definition of family violence.
  • Describe what indicators a counselor should be aware of when assessing a child and his or her family.
  • Explore what long-term effects violence has on the family.
  • Determine what triggers could be associated in family violence.
  • What are the implications associated with abuse and neglect.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
 

Social Control and Criminal Deviance: Bullying

Bullying is a difficult concept to understand and reconcile the consequences. This assignment focuses on the critical thinking skills that are needed to analyze an emotionally charged topic.
Student Success Tips

  • Review the Student’s Guide to Research section of the textbook (Chapter 2)
  • Take notes as you watch the video below.

Watch the video titled, “From school yard bullying to genocide: Barbara Coloroso at TEDxCalgary” (19 min 5 s) located below. You may also view the video athttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkG0nssouFg.

ethnocentrism

write more broadly about this important topic. What is ethnocentrism? How can it be both positive and negative? Please share a story from your life in which you’ve either experienced or witnessed ethnocentrism.
 
using sociological theory to give validity to the content of your answer.