Scenario InformationYou are assuming the role of the project manager for a company called SuperPacks to provide a new backpack product with a built-in refrigeration pouch and radio module. Your custom

Scenario Information

You are assuming the role of the project manager for a company called SuperPacks to provide a new backpack product with a built-in refrigeration pouch and radio module. Your customer for this project is the U.S. Army, Ground Forces and Special Operations. As the project manager for your team, you will be submitting to your manager a project management report.

Instructions

Work Breakdown Schedule

As the project manager, your role is to track and manage the projects you are working on; creating a Statement of Work and a Work Breakdown Structure are tools that can help you manage a project or projects. Below you will create a Statement of work consisting of the basics of the project(s) you are working on. Consider this similar to a business or marketing report, but this will define the project, project scope, and overall strategy of the project.

Part One Statement of Work (SOW) Document:

Develop the project Statement of Work document to include the following information:

  • Business need
  • Product scope description
  • Strategic plan

Part Two As part of your Statement of Work for your project, you will create a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The WBS allows for project managers to compose all tasks of the projects into smaller components to ensure a more manageable project(s).

Develop the project Work Breakdown Structure using the WBS Template. 

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

Economic Data and Measures of Inflation Video Questions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXI_ADnp22c&list=PLRZf05zFBLXIKLD3blbnnFIv85OesJaKc&index=1 1.Plea

Economic Data and Measures of Inflation Video Questions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXI_ADnp22c&list=PLRZf05zFBLXIKLD3blbnnFIv85OesJaKc&index=1

1.Please write one or two reasons from the video about how it is difficult to measure economic data?

2.What were the two different measures of inflation referenced in the video?

1.How might changes in household structure be changing the economy today?

2.What might be a challenge to getting the data needed to assess the health of the middle class?

1.What is sometimes called ‘luck’ in this video really is better described by random variation. The concept of regression to the mean is very important. Please think about and write a couple of sentences about a time in your life when you experienced a regression to the mean.

2.What is one major take-away from the video about income mobility? That is, how easily people who start out in one income group can move to another income group?

1.How important is measuring inflation to assessing the effects of economic changes?

2.What is one suggestion to improving how we measure inflation?

Ohio State University Week 5 Graffiti in New York and Elsewhere Quiz Answers The history of 20th-century graffiti art is a long and well-documented story.

Ohio State University Week 5 Graffiti in New York and Elsewhere Quiz Answers The history of 20th-century graffiti art is a long and well-documented story. Still, with the recent popularity of all things urban and street art related that have benefited a high number of contemporary urban artists who now combine street art with studio-based works, it is always good to remind ourselves of the originators. Moreover, Graffiti confirmed that no one had a stranglehold on the development of new aesthetic criteria – its ubiquitous existence – an invention by a diverse group of teenagers – primarily of color.

Readings (note: these links do not work in Chrome. Please use another internet browser)

(Links to an external site.)https://www.bostonherald.com/2009/10/01/judge-tags-utah-graffiti-woman-with-six-months/ (Links to an external site.)
(Links to an external site.)https://news.artnet.com/art-world/5pointz-ruling-upheld-1782396 (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-1980s-cult-artist-rammellzee-mesmerized-basquiat-beastie-boys (Links to an external site.)

Read all of these materials and finish the quiz on the picture I uploaded. ART 138 STU A:
(01437)
WEEK 5 Graffiti
New York and
Elsewhere
Lecture 1

Graffiti (plural of graffito: “a graffito”, but “these graffiti”) are writing or drawings that have been
scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public
view.
Ancient graffito
at Kom Ombo
Temple, Egypt
Ephesus, Turkey An
ancient version of
“No money, no honey”!
pompeii graffiti
Viking graffiti survived at the
Newgrange Mound in Ireland.
The Citadel of Sigiriya (pronounced ‘Si-gih-ree-yah.’,
there were left over one thousand and eight hundred
graffiti on the Mirror Wall.
Graffiti left by Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops on the
Ancient Egyptian temples of Philae.

The Black Panther Party was founded in 1966 in
Oakland, California, by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton.
The SDS was founded in Chicago in 1962 and was active
throughout the sixties on college campuses across the
land. In the mid-sixties, they were active mainly in civil
rights causes, but later they became more concerned
with ending the United States’ involvement in Vietnam.
In 1970, members of the Weather Underground, named
after a Bob Dylan song, were building bombs in
Greenwich Village townhouses, where one accidentally
detonated. Three members died, but two escaped.
Cathy Wilkerson avoided police for 10 years, while
Kathy Boudin was later arrested for driving the getaway
car in the 1981 Brinks robbery.
A pig named Pigasus was
nominated for US Presidency
in 1968. The anti-war activists
responsible demanded that
the Pig be treated as
candidate, including given
security and access to
briefings. Pigasus and his
team were finally arrested
during a “rally” and charged
with disturbing the peace
and bringing a pig to
Chicago

205007424099/
Graffiti

HTTPS://WWW.BING.
COM/VIDEOS/SEAR
CH?Q=BREAKDANC
ERS+NEW+YORK+CI
TY+1980%27S&&VIE
W=DETAIL&MID=4D
1A780834E487256827
4D1A780834E487256
827&RVSMID=5588FF
87CA93BE02B3D5558
8FF87CA93BE02B3D5
&FSSCR=0&FORM=V
DSSRV
https://www.bi
ng.com/videos/
search?q=Brea
kdancers+New
+York+City+19
80%27s&&view
=detail&mid=2
B9DD2BF78557
6FA8D2D2B9DD
2BF785576FA8D
2D&rvsmid=55
88FF87CA93BE
02B3D55588FF8
7CA93BE02B3D
5&FORM=VDR
VRV
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Darryl McCray
covered every conceivable surface in Philadelphia,
stationary and moving, with his nickname “Cornbread.”
Sometimes McCray worked with a compatriot known as
Cool Earl, often he proclaimed his love for Cynthia, and
always his name featured a crown over the letter B. He
was the John Baptist of tagging and modern graffiti.
https://www.inquirer.com/philly/blogs/entertainment/
movies/Graffiti-documentary-Wall-Writers-gets-aPhiladelphia-premiere.html

Art. Vandalism. Blight. Freedom. Crime. Creativity.
Graffiti has divided New Yorkers since it first appeared
on walls, signs and lampposts in the late 1960s. Its
ascent paralleled the city’s sunken financial fortunes,
allowing simple markings to evolve into elaborate
pieces of art. The only problem? The best examples
were on the sides of subway cars which the city
promptly attempted to eradicate, their attempts
thwarted by clever, creative artists and a downtown
culture that was slowly embracing graffiti as New York
City’s defining art form.
TAKI 183 — he didn’t create the graffiti art movement, but
his tags throughout the city inspired a New York Times
investigation into the mysterious 17 year old Greek
teenager’s antics, putting other taggers in the spotlight.
STAY HIGH 149
ESQUIRE TOLD US THAT IT BECAME THE GREAT
ART OF THE 1970S.
HTTPS://CLASSIC.ESQUIRE.COM/ARTICLE/1974/
5/1/THE-FAITH-OF-GRAFFITI
NORMAN MAILER HE SAID THESE WRAITHLIKE FIGURES WERE LEADING US TO “THE BEGINNING OF
ANOTHER MILLENNIUM OF VISION.” COOL DISCO DAN DOESN’T DEAL IN MILLENNIA. HE’S A KID SAYING “I
AM.””
TOPCAT 126
Graffiti, the early years: Clockwise
from right, a COCO 144 stencil, 1971;
JOE 182, 1970; and CAY 161, 1971.
Photo at left, the United Graffiti Artists in
1973. From left, first row: COCO 144 and
Hugo Martinez; second row: Rican 619,
LEE 163, and Nova 1; third row: Rick 2,
Ray-B 954, Cano 1, SJK 171, Snake 1, and
Stay-High 149; fourth row (standing):
Stitch I, Phase 2, Charmin 65, Bug 170.
Photo at right, a LEE mural from 1982.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LANBeFJIkY&pbjreload=10
ART 138 STU
A: (01437)
WEEK 5
Graffiti
New York and
Elsewhere
LECTURE 2
Lady Pink
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=58&v=
7GfkATazG9A
John Fekner
John Fekner
While
campaigning for
president in 1980,
Ronald Reagan
visited a desolate
stretch of the
borough to point
that Carter hadn’t
done anything for
the community
since his 1977 trip.
John Fekner
“…I always felt what we
were doing was so much
more than it was in that
specific moment…graffiti
could be legitimate…” CRASH
CRASH
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=5&v=q
Q08AMH7kBU

Tumi Collaborates With Graffiti Artist Crash
For Limited Edition
Where’s Eric!
Eric Clapton Graffiti
Stratocasters
https://nypost.com/2016/07/29/baz-luhrmanns-the-get-down-offers-dazzling-look-at-hip-hops-rise/
Stills from “The Get Down” including Crash and Daze’s graffiti design
though ot painted by them personally. NETFLIX
https://www.instagram.com/p/BWk6VoiA1ffS6hY85vvw
WYxtTMTjAc5PBWYz180/?saved-by=jslewisthree


Lady Pink

1:15

LP: I painted that when I was about 19 years old and I
have absolutely no memory of painting it or what
inspired me. The white trains were called white
elephants and they came out in the early 80’s,
someone painted them white, and we all thought they
were a great big canvas for us all to work on, so I
think I painted that white train there as soon as it just
appeared.
LADY PINK
Reminisce
Omega
https://www.bostonherald.com/2009/10/01/judge-tagsutah-graffiti-woman-with-six-months/
‘Utah
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=48&v=
fFiU2NBlfSQ
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=women+graffit
i+crews+around+the+world&&view=detail&mid=238ED
35793961A98A616238ED35793961A98A616&&FORM=V
RDGAR
Girl (Women) Power


Lady Pink
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=58&v=
7GfkATazG9A
John Fekner
John Fekner
While
campaigning for
president in 1980,
Ronald Reagan
visited a desolate
stretch of the
borough to point
that Carter hadn’t
done anything for
the community
since his 1977 trip.
John Fekner
“…I always felt what we
were doing was so much
more than it was in that
specific moment…graffiti
could be legitimate…” CRASH
CRASH
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=5&v=q
Q08AMH7kBU

Tumi Collaborates With Graffiti Artist Crash
For Limited Edition
Where’s Eric!
Eric Clapton Graffiti
Stratocasters
https://nypost.com/2016/07/29/baz-luhrmanns-the-get-down-offers-dazzling-look-at-hip-hops-rise/
Stills from “The Get Down” including Crash and Daze’s graffiti design
though ot painted by them personally. NETFLIX
https://www.instagram.com/p/BWk6VoiA1ffS6hY85vvw
WYxtTMTjAc5PBWYz180/?saved-by=jslewisthree


Lady Pink

1:15

LP: I painted that when I was about 19 years old and I
have absolutely no memory of painting it or what
inspired me. The white trains were called white
elephants and they came out in the early 80’s,
someone painted them white, and we all thought they
were a great big canvas for us all to work on, so I
think I painted that white train there as soon as it just
appeared.
LADY PINK
Reminisce
Omega
https://www.bostonherald.com/2009/10/01/judge-tagsutah-graffiti-woman-with-six-months/
‘Utah
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=48&v=
fFiU2NBlfSQ
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=women+graffit
i+crews+around+the+world&&view=detail&mid=238ED
35793961A98A616238ED35793961A98A616&&FORM=V
RDGAR
Girl (Women) Power


ART 138 STU A:
(01437)
WEEK 6 Graffiti
New York and
Elsewhere
LECTURE 1
“The best year for graffiti was 1973,” he
ruminates. “Styles were coming out. We
got into this thing with colors. First it was
two colors, then three colors, then four.
What makes me a powerful artist, ” he
states, ” is that my paintings are alive,
strong and very bright. The color combos
make it. Balance: each color as strong as it
is enhances the color beside it, going
back and forth. Giving style and balance
and movement, that is what makes a good
artist.”
TRACY 168, WHO BEGAN WRITING GRAFFITI IN THE LATE SIXTIES AND INVENTED WILD STYLE IN
THE MID-SEVENTIES, PAINTED THIS TRAIN IN TWO MINUTES IN 1974. AFTERWARD, HE ADDED INK
AND WHITEOUT TO THE PHOTO.
FAB 5 Freddy
https://ok.ru/video/261856430845
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Wild+Style+1983&&view=det
ail&mid=0D21C5224787DAB6A1170D21C5224787DAB6A117&&FORM=
VDRVRV
43:00

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/zmpvkw/hip-hoppioneer-fab-5-freddy-delves-into-the-cannabisindustry-in-new-netflix-doc
Hip-Hop Pioneer Fab 5 Freddy
Delves into the Cannabis
Industry in New Netflix Doc
‘Grass Is Greener’ looks at the
history of weed in music and
how communities of color are
impacted by racist drug
policies.

LA II L.A. Rock or L.A. 2.
LA II L.A. Rock or L.A. 2.
keith haring

ZEPHYR, SAM and FUTURA, May 1980
http://zephyrgraffiti.com/2019/02/the-graffiti-1980studio/
Noc
OMIN RASTA
“ORB” by REVOLT
Crash
Dondi

Lee



It’s important to remember that graffiti was never just
one thing. Within a few short years from when scrawled
tags first went up on walls and trains, graffiti became
marketing, fine art, politics and more. The form evolved
rapidly and spread widely, captured in an eternal tug of
war between external legitimacy and internal
credibility, between the outlaw fringes and solvency.
Admirably, the traveling exhibition “Beyond the Streets”
tells both of those stories side by side, and sometimes
all at once. Curated by Roger Gastman, it takes up two
floors of a huge new development in Williamsburg,
Brooklyn. Less a narratively driven exhibition than a
themed amusement park of all things graffiti and postgraffiti, it embraces the movement’s many tributaries —
even ones that seem at odds with one another, via an
epically scaled show that takes in historical images and
contemporary art, hyper-stylized abstraction and gutlevel immediacy, news accounts and ephemera.
https://beyondthestreets.com/pages/about

This is a long video about 30 minutes. You will not be
responsible for its contents. However, I strongly suggest
you watch it to meet some of the greats in the field, and
get the feel of attending blockbuster contemporary art
exhibition

FUTURA 2000
HTTPS://AMERICANSUBURBX.COM/
2017/12/NYC-SUBWAY-GRAFFITIARTIST-SHARP-INTERVIEW1984.HTML


Kool Koor
https://www.yo
utube.com/wat
ch?v=QA92jxM
RC6A
https://www.bing.
com/videos/searc
h?q=kool+koor+&
&view=detail&mid
=637AA1649F7E2A
FB8ACB637AA164
9F7E2AFB8ACB&&
FORM=VDRVRV

HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=24VLKQ-Q_7W
Toxic “Torrick Ablack” is an international artist from the South Bronx
Now moves between Tuscany, Paris, Monte Carlo, New York, exhibiting his
operas
TOXIC: Torrick Ablack
Toxic – Life, Liberty and the Pursuite of Happiness, 1985
Toxic – 40 Mt and everything in between, 2016, Installation view
Toxic, Joe and Koor, Paris 2015


DONDI

SEEN

BY THE MIDDLE OF 1989, THE MTA
COMMEMORATED A GRAFFITI-FREE SYSTEM,
AND SINCE THEN, GRAFFITI HAS BEEN MORE
OF A CURIOSITY THAN A PROBLEM.
THROUGHOUT THE 1990S, THE TIMES, FOR
ONE, CONTINUED TO PROCLAIM THE RETURN
OF GRAFFITI (1991, 1996, 1999), BUT THE
TRANSIT AUTHORITY REMAINED AGGRESSIVE
IN COMBATTING THE PROBLEM. WHENEVER A
CAR WAS REPORTED BOMBED OR TAGGED,
THE TA WOULD TAKE IT OVER SERVICE FOR A
RIGOROUS CLEANING, AND THE GRAFFITI
WOULD INFREQUENTLY ROLL DOWN THE
TRACKS.
THE END
ART 138 STU
A: (01437)
Week 6
Graffiti
Lecture 2
and Recap
https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwoway/2017/04/03/522463016/the-grammar-vigilantedefender-of-truth-justice-and-the-grammarian-way
GRAFFITI RECAP
Although its beginnings can be traced to
the late 1960s in the United States, the
history of graffiti appears to go much
further back in time — beyond even
ancient times.
Ephesus, Turkey An ancient version
of “No money, no honey”!
1950’s – After the death of Charlie “BIRD”
Parker, the great jazz musician, the
slogan “BIRD LIVES” was scrawled
throughout jazz clubs across the country,
particularly New York; but it was short
lived.
1967-1970: The lates 60’s saw an
explosion of names on buildings
and walls throughout cities. Gang
graffiti weaved its way through
political slogans that reflected the
social change of the times. The
peace sign was certainly ubiquitous
around college campuses
Black militancy was seen with
spray painted messages of
“FREE HUEY”(Huey Newton
Black Panther Leader) and
“OFF THE PIG.”
Innovation
For “CORNBREAD”, what
began as a way to get
attention from a girl he liked
with a few tags, soon turned
into a full time mission,
getting up so much that he
gave himself a “crown” ( an
image that continues to be
repeated over the next
decades until today).
It began in different neighborhoods. But we all had one thing in
common: We wanted to be famous. I started writing in East
Flatbush in 1970. Then slowly I met people from the four other
boroughs. Everybody went to the writers’ bench at 149th Street
and Grand Concourse in the Bronx.
Fashion Moda became “one of the capitals of
graffiti” after an influential exhibition in the
1980s curated by 19-year-old graffiti writer
CRASH, titled Graffiti Art Success for America.
Featuring artists ranging from LADY PINK to
John Fekner, Graffiti Art Success for America
opened up new possibilities for graffiti in a
gallery setting.
The graffiti artists (or “writers” as they prefer to call
themselves) are passionate, skilled, communityoriented, and socially conscious in ways that profoundly
contradict the way they’ve been portrayed as common
criminals and vandals.
John Fekner
FUTURA 2000
NOC
With apparent Pop-Art influences showcased amongst a subcultural
street art foundation, CRASH allows viewers to explore the impartial
quality that art has to offer, reminding us that great art can be found
everywhere, whether it be on the side of a train, encompassing the
surface of a building, or displayed on the walls of an art gallery.
CRASH
FUTURA 2000
LEE
Quiñones, 55, who was
born in Puerto Rico,
says he still feels like
“a creative vandal”
even as his artworks
have made their way
into galleries and
people have become
“very nostalgic about
this art movement.” It
took a while to learn
how “to navigate the
waters of acceptance,”
the avant garde artist
said.
Rammellzee , his selfgiven name is an
esoteric derivation
from a math equation.
LADY PINK
“As the times have changed and
feminism has caught up with society, a
lot of females are into street art and
graffiti because they’re just being
made stronger, tougher, sturdier, and
they’re not all feminine and dainty and
delicate and need to be protected by
some man. Girls are braver and they
are just as foolish and reckless as the
next guy and they’re out their showing
their thing.” LADY PINK
Utah
Shamsia Hassani
Fab 5 Freddy
Was the South Bronx bad?
Yeah, it’s bad. Along with
northern Brooklyn, the south
Bronx is the worst area of
NYC, when you take crime
and poverty rate into
account.
Many people still believe that
those fires were the result of
arson—landlords burning their
own buildings for profit, or even
residents starting the fires. It was
a community of major urban
devastation.
“The context of where you do something is going to have an effect. The
subway drawings were, as much as they were drawings, performances. It
was where I learned how to draw in public. You draw in front of people.
For me it was a whole sort of philosophical and sociological experiment.
When I drew, I drew in the daytime which meant there were always
people watching. There were always confrontations, whether it was with
people that were interested in looking at it, or people that wanted to tell
you you shouldn’t be drawing there…” Keith Haring
CRASH
SEEN
MC’ing
Grand Master Flash
Question 25
Reminder – multiple answer questions will only give partial credit if you answer one part of the question correctly. In
other words, if you answer with two answers and one is incorrect you will not receive partial credit for the question.
Time Elapsed: Hide
Attempt due: May 10 at 11:59pm
O Minutes, 20 Seconds
Question 1
2 pts
Who pleaded guilty to 13 vandalism and tagging charges last week and was ordered to complete five
years of supervised probation, take part in any treatment deemed necessary from a mental health
evaluation and pay restitution to be determined at December court hearing,
Keith Haring
Lady Pink
Futura 2000
LA 2 Roc
Utah
Question 2
2 pts
Who is credited with inventing the graffiti form “Wild Style?”
Fab 5 Freddy
None mentioned
Charlie Ahearn
Tracy 168
Zephyr
Question 3
2 pts
The 1980s was the golden age of graffiti.
True
False
Question 4
2 pts
Name the writer credited with developing top-to-bottom whole car bombing.
Tracy
Futura 2000
John Fekner
SEEN
Dondi
Question 5
2 pts
Which artist said that “Art is a kind of friendly way to fight with every kind of problem”?
Omega
Remy MA
Barbara 268
Jean Michel Basquiat
LA 2 Roc
Shamsia Hassani
Question 6
2 pts
What was the 1st name to become synonymous with graffiti?
Bird
Pigasus
Kilroy
Honey
Ephesus
Question 7
2 pts
Where does the term Graffiti come from?
None mentioned
The claw markings left from an ancient winged creature.
The Egyptian queen Nefertiti.
The ancient Greek verb “graphein”
The crystalline form of the element carbon called graphite used in pencils.
Question 8
2 pts
It was common for those who made graffiti in the 1970s and ’80s to plan what they would create
before painting their pieces.
True
False
Question 9
2 pts
What makes graffiti truly special?
Everybody loved it!
Writers were grateful to have a steady income producing line of work.
Percent for Art programs around the country saw an inexpensive way to place murals on public buildings.
None Mentioned
It was a movement created by an ethnically diverse group of kids
Question 10
2 pts
Name the artist and media entrepreneur that hosted Yo MTV Raps.
Futura 2…
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Saint Leo University Corrections Issues and Trends Paper Book ReviewJackson, M. B. (2008). How to do good after prison: A handbook for successful reentry (

Saint Leo University Corrections Issues and Trends Paper Book ReviewJackson, M. B. (2008). How to do good after prison: A handbook for successful reentry (4th ed.). Willingboro, NJ: Joint FX Press. Assignment: State the author, name of book, date of publication, publisher, and location in the reference section. Provide a comprehensive and thought provocative discussion. In three pages or more, identify, analyze, and discuss the correctional issue, anticipated trend, or management issue encountered. (Be sure to include a cover page and any references). Identify how a criminal justice administrator should handle these situations or issues. Discuss your thoughts on the information that has been posted. Discuss its relevance and implications to the field of Corrections. The paper must be in APA format and include a title page, abstract, discussion, conclusion, and references. Wikipedia is not an appropriate source for any scholarly writing and is not permitted for any assignment in this program.Your paper should go beyond the obvious and must be at least 1000 words in length. APA has a new edition. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (2020). 7th Edition, Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association. Avoid using gender his/her, use they/theirs. The assignments within this class are to be the student’s original work. The student is permitted to use no more than 15% of other’s quoted work. I have attached some of the pages from the book

CBFS Role of Information Technology in Hospitality and Tourism Industry Essay 1000 word Topic of the assignment: Write essay on: Tourism and information

CBFS Role of Information Technology in Hospitality and Tourism Industry Essay 1000 word

Topic of the assignment:

Write essay on: Tourism and information technology Information technology has played an important role in the hospitality and tourism industry over the last decade. Elaborate how information technology has affected the tourism industry, and what are the different information technology systems that may be used by the tourism industry.

All this point you should speak about it in the essay.

Turnitin report. Ne
similarity less than 5%

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=hmep20
Download by: [Griffith University] Date: 20 October 2016, At: 01:54
Media Psychology
ISSN: 1521-3269 (Print) 1532-785X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hmep20
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein
To cite this article: Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, Media Psychology, 1:3, 271-282, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5
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MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 1, 271-282. Copyright O 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein Department of Media & Communication University of Utrecht
This article summarizes a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation on the attractions of violent entertainment. We consider why violence is such a prominent feature of entertainment. The audiences for violent entertainment are examined, as is the nature of the violence that attracts them. The role of sensation-seeking, context, the justice motive, and social control in the entertainment experience are considered. Violent entertainment is placed in historical and social contexts, demonstrating that its appeal varies with the times.
In 1990 the International Herald Tribune reprinted the following in its column, “One Hundred Years Ago”:
1890: Criminal Reading LONDON-The Telegraph mentions the arrest of a youthful burglar, who confessed that he was led into crime by reading the “Life of a Detective.” The Telegraph thinks that such a book ought to have warned the boy of the dangers of a life of crime. “As a matter of fact the book seems rather to have stimulated than weakened the criminal propensities of the precocious student. Detective literature may be as injurious to the morals of the young as stories eulogizing the achievements of robbers, highwaymen and pirates.” It is curious that detective stories are among the favorite books of youthful criminals. [13-14 Oct.]
Whether detective or any other form of violent entertainment stimulates “criminal tendencies” has been widely discussed and studied. With predictable regularity, legislators consider the potentially harmful effects that violent images in mass media may have on our society and our youth, from hearings about
“The Attractions of Violent Entertainment” by Jeffrey Goldstein, from Why We Watch: The Attractions of Molent Entertainment, edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. Copyright O 1998 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jeffrey Goldstein, Department of Media & Communication, University of Utrecht, Post box 80 140,3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
272 GOLDSTEIN
violence in Hollywood films and the Kefauver investigations of juvenile delinquency in 1954-1955, which implicated comic books, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and the Surgeon General’s inquiries into the effects of television violence. But The Telegraph alluded to another issue, one that until recently had been ignored: the attractiveness of violent entertainment to a youthful audience. Whereas many lament the possible consequences of media violence, few have asked why an audience for violent entertainment exists in the first place. After all, no one is forced to watch Jean-Claude van Damme or a Quentin Tarantinio film, go to a boxing match, play Mortal Kombat on their Nintendo platforms, or read Stephen King or Sherlock Holmes. Stallone, Schwarzenegger, and Mike Tyson are among the most highly paid and recognizable figures in the world. In Japan, both men and women read “Manga,” extraordinarily gruesome comic books that feature extreme violence. In The Great Railway Bazaac Paul Theroux picks up a fat comic book left by a girl seated next to him on a train in Japan. “The comic strips showed decapitations, cannibalism, people bristling with arrows like Saint Sebastian . . . . The girl returned to her seat and, so help me God, serenely returned to the distressing comic.” Does this graphic violence appeal to Japanese readers for the same reasons that Arnold Schwarzenegger films appeal to Westerners? The attractions of violence are best explained by analyzing its portrayal, its audience, and the context in which it is consumed.
HOW ATTRACTIVE IS IT?
The attractions of violent entertainment are many and varied. It offers something for nearly everyone. The audiences for images of violence, death, and dying do not share a single motive; some viewers seek excitement, others companionship or social acceptance through shared experience, and still others wish to see justice enacted. Immersion in a fantasy world is conducive to the transcendental experience of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). To keep this in perspective, bear in mind that although violent entertainment is among the most frequent topics of study and controversy concerning the media, it is not the most popular genre. Although there seems always to have been an audience for violent enactments and portrayals, comedy is more popular, in part because it appeals equally to men and women, young and old. Many people seem attracted to, or at least not wholly repelled by, violent imagery, but there may be a small audience that actually demands violent images in its entertainment. For some boys and men, the violence is the thing. But for
VIOLENT ENTERTAINMENT 273
the majority of consumers of violent imagery, the violence is a means to ends, a device valued more for what it does than for what it is.
THE AUDIENCES FOR VIOLENT IMAGERY
It is difficult to think of a group of people that is not in some way an audience for violent imagery. People consume violent images, talk about violence, read about it, and write scientific articles about it. Boys and men are the most avid consumers, the target market. Every study of the subject finds that males far more than females are drawn to violent entertainment. This is true not only in the United States and Europe, but everywhere it has been studied, for example, in India, Japan, and the Philippines. It is boys and young men who play with toy guns, fill soccer stadia every Saturday, watch Faces of Death, and embrace Beavis and Butthead. Violent entertainment appeals primarily to males, and it appeals to them mostly in groups. People rarely attend horror films or boxing matches alone, and boys do not often play war games by themselves. These are social occasions, particularly suitable for “male bonding” and communicating a masculine identity to your mates. Boys may play violent video games alone in their rooms, but they are almost certain to talk about them with their friends. The documentary film Faces of Death, for example, was regarded by adolescent boys as a rite of passage, where the acceptable reaction was to consider the gore “cool” rather than “gross.” Which young men? Those with an above-average level of aggression and a moderately high need for excitement. Not every boy and man finds images of violence enjoyable, and not every female finds them repugnant. Why don’t females find this material as appealing as men do? Is it because men have different needs than women for excitement, for example, or because women have alternative means of satisfying the same needs, such as expressing emotion more openly? Individuals differ in their need for excitement and tolerance for stimulation. Those with a moderately high need for sensation find portrayals of violence more enjoyable than those with a lesser need. Individuals extremely high in sensation seeking, however, tend to find passive activities, like watching films and television, insufficiently stimulating; they prefer active dangers like sky diving and bungee jumping. Adolescent boys like violent entertainment more than any other group does, although this does not mean that they like only violent entertainment or that they are the only audience for it. Relative to other children, highly aggressive boys find war toys more appealing than other toys and prefer violent sports, films,
274 GOLDSTEIN
video games, and television programs. Even preschool children’s favorite fairy tales are related to their degree of aggression (Collins-Standley, Gan, Yu, & Zillmann, 1995). The most popular spectator sports are similar to rock concerts and other public spectacles, in that they provide a physiological “kick” for the observer and also serve as social occasions for the expression of intense emotion. For men, aggressive sports like football and boxing provide opportunities to shout and yell. Perhaps males can overcome the social pressures on them not to be emotionally expressive with other males only in a hyper-masculine context like aggressive sports, rough-and-tumble play, and violent entertainment. Making airplane, automobile, and shooting sounds is one of the appeals of aggressive games, especially for boys.
WHY WE WATCH
People can choose the degree of emotional content and frenzy with which they are most comfortable, just as they do when selecting music to listen to. There is the heavy metal in-your-face violence of Natural Born Killers, documentary footage of suicides, accidents, and public executions in Faces of Death, the commedia dell ‘arte stylized violence of a Schwarzenegger or Stallone movie or of a martial arts video game, slapstick comic violence, and the more cerebral Pulp Fiction. There is the bookish violence of horror and detective stories, true crime reports of Ann Rule, and for those who want to do away with the emotional content altogether, there is the academic study of violence. In discussions of violent entertainment there is much speculation about morbid curiosity and our baser instincts. But the interest in violent entertainment may have less to do with our “violent nature” and more to do with old-fashioned virtues of morality and justice. In examining armchair analyses, Cantor (1998), McCauley (1998), and Zillmann (1998) could find no support for several popular (and a few truly bizarre) explanations. They have laid to rest many of the speculations regarding violent entertainment. For example, they could find no evidence to support the position that people experience a catharsis of deep-seated fears, such as fear of the dark, or fear of aging, death, AIDS, technology, or the unknown. Likewise, there is little evidence to support the claim that viewers identify with the aggressor. Violent entertainment does not purge us of aggression or the propensity for violence, nor does it provide relief from unpleasant emotions. “We are told . . . that the atomic bomb created a new climate of fear, and that because people now are more death-conscious than ever before, they seek
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exposure to displays of violence and death to work out their fears,” wrote Zillmann (1998, pp. 185-186). This makes no more sense, he says, than “the claim that a fear of overpopulation is behind our interest in seeing as much slaughter of humanity as we can muster” (p. 186). Violent material does not ”provide relief from ill emotions and motivations” (p. 186). The best evidence is that the audience is disturbed and disgusted by scenes of violence but continues to watch it anyway. The benefits, in other words, outweigh the costs. The potential of a book, film, or vidw game to engross one in an imaginary world is one of the most attractive features of entertainment media. For a short time, one can become totally immersed in an activity. The willing suspension of disbelief, the leap into imaginary worlds, whether through literature, film, television, play, or sport, appeals on many levels. This potential inheres in all entertainment, of course, but it helps explain the tolerance for, if not the attraction of, violent imagery.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
I once spent an evening with a group of teenage girls and boys watching horror films that they themselves had selected. How would these middle-class American youngsters react to the dismemberments and exploding bodies? These young people seemingly found it difficult to watch the bloody excesses, though boys and girls expressed their distress in different ways. When the music-enhanced story suggested impending bloodshed, the girls would look away froin the screen and talk animatedly among themselves about unrelated topics-school, friends, parties. The boys apparently did not feel free to look away; while still gazing determinedly at the screen, they distanced themselves emotionally from the action by commenting upon the special effects, how they were done, whether the gore looked convincingly real. For a moment they saw the film through the dispassionate eyes of a film critic. When the music gave the “all clear” signal, they resumed their engagement with the story. “Distancing” oneself from the mayhem makes it tolerable. These adolescent boys and girls were able to fine-tune their degree of involvement. I spoke with one young woman who watches horrific films. She makes them palatable by squeezing her leg until it hurts, distracting herself while looking at the screen. She, too, wants to demonstrate that she can take it. Zillmann (1998) described the process well: “Boys must prove to their peers, and ultimately to themselves, that they are unperturbed, calm and collected in the face of terror; and girls must similarly demonstrate their sensitivity by being appropriately disturbed, dismayed, and disgusted” (p. 197).
In the 1960s people defined themselves in part by their reactions to Bonnie and Clyde (Hoberman, 1998). The violence of the film became a subject of conversation and social maneuvering, the purposes served by our public responses to all forms of entertainment. Cantor wrote that “violent television series might be characterized as anxiety- reducing, justice-restoring genres that attract anxious, more empathic children, who side emotionally with the ‘good guy’ over the ‘bad guy’ and use the programs to control their anxieties” (1998, pp. 113-114). However, violence for violence’s sake should be considered separately. “Children who are attracted by something described only as ‘very violent’ are more likely to be children with a good deal of exposure to violence in their own lives” and who enjoy the violence “irrespective of moral considerations or outcomes to protagonists” (p. 114). But the basis for their attraction remains unclear: Is it because, in contrast to what they witness on the screen, their own lives seem less wretched? Perhaps aggressive youngsters have a greater need for excitement, which underlies both their antisocial behavior and their entertainment preferences. It may be a test of their manliness, or a way to make or maintain friends.
SENSATION-SEEKING AND EXCITEMENT
Perhaps our attraction to violent imagery is an outcome of what sociologist Elias (1982) called the “civilizing process,” a way to fill the void left by diminished opportunities to experience the real thing. As death and dying were displaced from the family parlor to the funeral parlor, when the venue for capital executions was changed from public squares to behind prison walls, at just this time did public interest in images of death and dying increase, according to photo historian Goldberg (1998). Regardless of whether we crave excitement because society is increasingly “civilized” and “unexciting,” it is certainly true that some individuals crave excitement more than others. An undeniable characteristic of violent imagery is its emotional wallop. It gives most people a jolt. Not everyone finds this kind of stimulation pleasant, but some do. Psychologist Zuckerman’s (1979) concept of sensation-seeking helps to explain individual differences in attraction to violence. For the rebellious young, the mere fact that the topic is taboo is reason enough for engagement. Their curiosity about the forbidden is satisfied, and they learn to manage anxiety and defeat fear by distorting and exaggerating reality. At the same time, they bond with others, story tellers, and peers by sharing intense emotional experiences.
In the wonderfully titled Men, Women, and Chainsaws, Clover (1992) observed that extravagantly participatory audiences (shouting, throwing things) were the norm in all manner of performances (operatic, dramatic, symphonic) until toward the end of the 19th century, when they were silenced and “sacralized.”
Audiences express uproarious disgust (“Gross!”) as often as they express fear, and it is clear that the makers of slasher films pursue the combination. More particularly: spectators tend to be silent during the stalking scenes (although they sometimes call out warnings to the stalked person), scream out at the first slash, and make loud noises of revulsion at the sight of the bloody stump. The rapid alternation between registers-between something like “real” horror on one hand and a camp, self-parodying horror on the other-is by now one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the tradition. (p. 41)
Comic relief provided by the audience or the medium is one of the several clues that the violence on both sides of the joke is unreal. Negative emotions can be mixed with positive ones. In one study, the degree of enjoyment of the film Steel Magnolias was directly related to the degree of sadness experienced during the film (de Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1994). People may be attracted to violent entertainment, but they do not necessarily enjoy the gory details.
WHEN VIOLENCE IS NOT ATTRACTIVE
The premise that portrayals of violence are inherently appealing is untenable. Depending upon personal dispositions and social conditions, these portrayals are capable of evoking grief, disgust, or elation at extreme levels. From studies using bloody films that viewers found decidedly unappealing, violent portrayals can be disturbing, disgusting, and depressing, but these effects are insufficient to deter some viewers (McCauley, 1998). Why don’t negative feelings, such as fear and sadness, make for an unpleasant viewing experience? Feelings of control mediate this process. With the joystick or remote control in their hands, the audience or players can control not only what appears on the screen but indirectly what effects it will have on them. A remote control is ultimately a device for self control, for producing satisfying emotional and physiological states in the user. In a study at the University of Utrecht, students who viewed a violent videotape while merely holding a remote control experienced less distress than those who viewed the same tape without a remote control. Presumably, the feeling of control made the gruesome scenes less unpleasant. Some see predictability as the most appealing feature of violent entertainment, from cowboy movies to horror films. We know that the bad guys
will “buy it” in the end, or in the sequel. But this does not account for our interest in blood sports, where the outcome is not known in advance (Guttmann, 1998). Perhaps the unpredictability of events like a boxing match is attenuated by the knowledge that there will come another fight, another game. Maybe it isn’t over when it’s over. Although the outcome of a specific game or match is unpredictable, a subsequent one may provide a sense of closure.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
Both the context of violent images themselves and the circumstances in which they are experienced play a crucial role in their appeal. People go to horror films in order to experience in safety emotions that are usually associated with danger. In order to experience anything like pleasure from exposure to violent or threatening images, the audience must feel relatively safe and secure in their surroundings. Furthermore, there must be cues that the violent images are produced for purposes of entertainment and consumption. McCauley (1998) conducted research on the sort of bloody imagery that university students find unappealing and disgusting. He asked university students to view three video tapes until they found them intolerable. One was of a steer in a slaughterhouse, another of a monkey killed and served fresh to connoisseurs in China, and the third, surgery on a young girl, whose face had to be sliced open and the skin pulled away from the skull. Few watched these videos to the end. Bloody images lose their appeal when there are few cues to their unreality. If the violent imagery does not itself reveal its unreality, the physical environment may do so. We are aware of holding a book, of sitting in a movie theater or a sports stadium, of manipulating a joystick or remote control. Without background music, awareness of the camera, exaggerated special effects, or film editing, images of violence are unattractive to both males and females, according to McCauley’s (1998) experiments. In a Scandinavian study, preschool children typically showed facial expressions of joy while watching cartoon violence, but showed negative emotions while watching realistic physical violence (Lagerspetz, Wahlroos, & Wendelin, 1978). Not only the viewing situation, but the larger social world as well influences the attractiveness of violence. Interest in violent imagery changes with the times. War and war films are not independent of one another, nor are crime and crime entertainment. Real violence activates aggressive associations, images, and emotions. These, in turn, may heighten the preference for further exposure to violent entertainment. If children first hear aggressive stories, they are more likely to choose aggressive toys for play (Jukes & Goldstein, 1993). The same relationship is evident in preferences for violent film entertainment, war toys and
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video games, and enjoyment of blood sports (Keefer, Goldstein, & Kasiarz, 1983). One study reported an increase in attendance at violent films by University of Wisconsin students following the murder of a female student on campus (Boyanowsky, Newtson, & Walster, 1974). During the Persian Gulf War, sales of replica missiles skyrocketed (Goldstein, 1994). Heightened public support for military expenditures is related to increased sales of war toys and in the prevalence of war movies (Regan, 1994).
THE JUSTICE MOTIVE
The popularity of violent entertainment in times of war may reassure the audience that good will prevail over evil. Displays of violence result in distress, which is reduced when the bad guys get their comeuppance. According to Zillmann (1998), negative attitudes about the victims
contribute greatly to the enjoyment of humiliation, disparagement, defeat, and destruction . . . . Observing the audience of any contemporary action film, especially the apparent euphoria of young men upon seeing the bad guys being riddled with bullets and collapsing in deadly convulsions, should convince the doubtful that Western audiences fully exercise their moral right of rejoicing in response to exhibitions of righteous violence . . . . There can be little doubt, then, that righteous violence, however brutal but justified by the ends, will prompt gIoriously intense euphoric reactions the more it is preceded by patently unjust and similarly brutal violence. (pp. 205-208)
Viewers come to have strong feelings and fears regarding protagonists and antagonists and decide in moral terms what fate they deserve. “Implicitly justified hatred and the associated call for punitive action allows us to uninhibitedly enjoy the punitive action when it materializes. Negative affective dispositions, then, set us free to thoroughly enjoy punitive violence. As we have morally condemned a villain for raping and maiming, for instance, we are free to hate such a person, can joyously anticipate his execution, and openly applaud it when we finally witness it” (Zillmann, 1998, p. 202). Thus the typical storyline of enjoyable entertainment involves the establishment of animosity toward wrongdoers, which makes later violence against them seem justified and hence enjoyable.
ALMOST REAL
Does realism enhance or diminish the acceptance or appeal of violent images? People prefer realistic violence in sports, news reports, and magazine photos. Violence in sports is appealing not because of any “blood lust” among spectators
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but as a sign that the participants are willing to take risks for their sport, an indication of their passionate commitment (Zillmann, Bryant, & Sapolsky, 1989). In other realms, such as film, children’s television, and play, it appears that violent imagery must carry cues to its unreality or it loses appeal. Based on his studies of disgusting films, McCauley (1998) offered two possibilities: 1. Emotions elicited by drama are weaker than everyday emotions. So the arousal accompanying fear, disgust, and pity can be experienced as pleasurable. Within a dramatic or protective frame, violent imagery becomes exciting rather than anxiety provoking. 2. The emotions experienced in drama are qualitatively different from their real-life counterparts. “Indeed, this theory would assert that we err in calling dramatic emotions by the same names as everyday emotions; the dramatic emotions are a parallel but different reality,” wrote McCauley (p. 160). Perhaps when the violence is almost real, so too are the emotions it elicits. Both sides of the equation (the violent images and the emotions that result) are recognizably different from the genuine articles. Hence, the distress is not too intense to spoil our enjoyment.
VIOLENT IMAGES AS SOCIAL CONTROL
Gerbner and his colleagues (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994) at the University of Pennsylvania reported that heavy viewers of violence in the media come to see the world as a frightening and dangerous place. As a result, they lend support to the forces of law and order. In Gerbner’s cultivation theory, media violence is a means of social control. Similarly, Tatar (1998) considered children’s stories as a form of moral instruction, produced by adults to frighten children into obedience. Do these scary tales with morals produce obedience? Yes, she says, if it is clear what must be done to reduce the jeopardy. Children who disobey their parents, lie, or steal in these tales meet horrific ends. The message is that obedience, truthfulness, and honesty will enable children to avoid these horrible consequences. Violent entertainment did not suddenly arrive on the scene, and it is not likely to depart it any time soon. People become acclimated to the arousal generated by violent images, but they have a continuing need for excitement. Does this mean that we shall have to accept ever-increasing violence and terror for entertainment purposes? “It would appear to be so,” answered Zillmann (1998, p. 211). Can the future course of violent entertainment be predicted? The violence in some media has been toned down over time, as occurred with fairy tales, whereas
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in others, like Hollywood films, it has increased. What is technologically feasible will almost inevitably be tried. Are the exploding bodies of Hollywood only a test of the limits of new technology? If so, we can expect increasingly realistic shoot-em-ups as virtual reality and other new technologies evolve. It is up to the image makers to put violence in perspective, to emphasize, as they do, the unacceptability of random, arbitrary, anarchistic, and plain sadistic violence, and to portray violence that ultimately serves justice and the good of humanity. The public can and does influence the limits of acceptable displays of violence. There is opposition to “ultimate fighting,” and even the future of boxing is in doubt because of growing public discontent with its crippling injuries. Eventually it might suffer the fate of smoking. Granted that the portrayal of violent action is inevitable, nevertheless, the limits we place on it, the manner in which we consume it, and the ways we respond to it help to define a culture.
REFERENCES
Boyanowksy, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communication Research, 1, 32-43. Cantor, J. (1998). Children’s attraction to violent television programming. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 88-115). New York: Oxford University Press. Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chainsaws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Collins-Standley, T., Gan, S., Yu, H. J., & Zillmann, D. (1995). Choice of romantic, violent, and scary fairy-tale books by preschool girls and boys. Unpublished manuscript. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Csikszentrnihalyi, M. (1990). Theflow experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. de Wied, M., Zillmann, D., & Ordman, V. (1994). The role of empathic distress in the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. Poetics, 23, 91-106. Elias, N. (1982). The civilizing process. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1969) Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17-41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goldberg, V. (1998). Death takes a holiday, sort of. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 27-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Goldstein, J. (1994). Sex differences in toy play and use of video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Toys, play, and child development (pp. 110-129). New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998a), Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53-68). New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998b), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press. Guttmann, A. (1998). The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 7-26). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, J. (1998). “A test for the individual viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s violent reception. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 116-143). New York: Oxford University Press. Jukes, J., & Goldstein, J. H. (1993). Preference for aggressive toys. International Play Journal. 1, 93-103. Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic Games participation and warfare. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183-193). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lagerspetz, K. M., Wahlroos, C., & Wendelin, C. (1978). Facial expressions of preschool children while watching televised violence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 2 13-222. McCauley, C. (1998). When screen violence is not attractive. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 144-162). New York: Oxford University Press. Regan, P. M. (1994). War toys, war movies, and the militarization of the United States, 1900-1985. Journal of Peace Research, 31, 45-58. Tatar, M. (1998). “Violent delights” in children’s literature. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 69-87). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D. (1998). The psychology of the appeal of portrayals of violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 179-2 11). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 241-278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley.

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Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

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The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein
To cite this article: Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, Media Psychology, 1:3, 271-282, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5
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MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 1, 271-282. Copyright O 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein Department of Media & Communication University of Utrecht
This article summarizes a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation on the attractions of violent entertainment. We consider why violence is such a prominent feature of entertainment. The audiences for violent entertainment are examined, as is the nature of the violence that attracts them. The role of sensation-seeking, context, the justice motive, and social control in the entertainment experience are considered. Violent entertainment is placed in historical and social contexts, demonstrating that its appeal varies with the times.
In 1990 the International Herald Tribune reprinted the following in its column, “One Hundred Years Ago”:
1890: Criminal Reading LONDON-The Telegraph mentions the arrest of a youthful burglar, who confessed that he was led into crime by reading the “Life of a Detective.” The Telegraph thinks that such a book ought to have warned the boy of the dangers of a life of crime. “As a matter of fact the book seems rather to have stimulated than weakened the criminal propensities of the precocious student. Detective literature may be as injurious to the morals of the young as stories eulogizing the achievements of robbers, highwaymen and pirates.” It is curious that detective stories are among the favorite books of youthful criminals. [13-14 Oct.]
Whether detective or any other form of violent entertainment stimulates “criminal tendencies” has been widely discussed and studied. With predictable regularity, legislators consider the potentially harmful effects that violent images in mass media may have on our society and our youth, from hearings about
“The Attractions of Violent Entertainment” by Jeffrey Goldstein, from Why We Watch: The Attractions of Molent Entertainment, edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. Copyright O 1998 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jeffrey Goldstein, Department of Media & Communication, University of Utrecht, Post box 80 140,3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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violence in Hollywood films and the Kefauver investigations of juvenile delinquency in 1954-1955, which implicated comic books, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and the Surgeon General’s inquiries into the effects of television violence. But The Telegraph alluded to another issue, one that until recently had been ignored: the attractiveness of violent entertainment to a youthful audience. Whereas many lament the possible consequences of media violence, few have asked why an audience for violent entertainment exists in the first place. After all, no one is forced to watch Jean-Claude van Damme or a Quentin Tarantinio film, go to a boxing match, play Mortal Kombat on their Nintendo platforms, or read Stephen King or Sherlock Holmes. Stallone, Schwarzenegger, and Mike Tyson are among the most highly paid and recognizable figures in the world. In Japan, both men and women read “Manga,” extraordinarily gruesome comic books that feature extreme violence. In The Great Railway Bazaac Paul Theroux picks up a fat comic book left by a girl seated next to him on a train in Japan. “The comic strips showed decapitations, cannibalism, people bristling with arrows like Saint Sebastian . . . . The girl returned to her seat and, so help me God, serenely returned to the distressing comic.” Does this graphic violence appeal to Japanese readers for the same reasons that Arnold Schwarzenegger films appeal to Westerners? The attractions of violence are best explained by analyzing its portrayal, its audience, and the context in which it is consumed.
HOW ATTRACTIVE IS IT?
The attractions of violent entertainment are many and varied. It offers something for nearly everyone. The audiences for images of violence, death, and dying do not share a single motive; some viewers seek excitement, others companionship or social acceptance through shared experience, and still others wish to see justice enacted. Immersion in a fantasy world is conducive to the transcendental experience of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). To keep this in perspective, bear in mind that although violent entertainment is among the most frequent topics of study and controversy concerning the media, it is not the most popular genre. Although there seems always to have been an audience for violent enactments and portrayals, comedy is more popular, in part because it appeals equally to men and women, young and old. Many people seem attracted to, or at least not wholly repelled by, violent imagery, but there may be a small audience that actually demands violent images in its entertainment. For some boys and men, the violence is the thing. But for
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the majority of consumers of violent imagery, the violence is a means to ends, a device valued more for what it does than for what it is.
THE AUDIENCES FOR VIOLENT IMAGERY
It is difficult to think of a group of people that is not in some way an audience for violent imagery. People consume violent images, talk about violence, read about it, and write scientific articles about it. Boys and men are the most avid consumers, the target market. Every study of the subject finds that males far more than females are drawn to violent entertainment. This is true not only in the United States and Europe, but everywhere it has been studied, for example, in India, Japan, and the Philippines. It is boys and young men who play with toy guns, fill soccer stadia every Saturday, watch Faces of Death, and embrace Beavis and Butthead. Violent entertainment appeals primarily to males, and it appeals to them mostly in groups. People rarely attend horror films or boxing matches alone, and boys do not often play war games by themselves. These are social occasions, particularly suitable for “male bonding” and communicating a masculine identity to your mates. Boys may play violent video games alone in their rooms, but they are almost certain to talk about them with their friends. The documentary film Faces of Death, for example, was regarded by adolescent boys as a rite of passage, where the acceptable reaction was to consider the gore “cool” rather than “gross.” Which young men? Those with an above-average level of aggression and a moderately high need for excitement. Not every boy and man finds images of violence enjoyable, and not every female finds them repugnant. Why don’t females find this material as appealing as men do? Is it because men have different needs than women for excitement, for example, or because women have alternative means of satisfying the same needs, such as expressing emotion more openly? Individuals differ in their need for excitement and tolerance for stimulation. Those with a moderately high need for sensation find portrayals of violence more enjoyable than those with a lesser need. Individuals extremely high in sensation seeking, however, tend to find passive activities, like watching films and television, insufficiently stimulating; they prefer active dangers like sky diving and bungee jumping. Adolescent boys like violent entertainment more than any other group does, although this does not mean that they like only violent entertainment or that they are the only audience for it. Relative to other children, highly aggressive boys find war toys more appealing than other toys and prefer violent sports, films,
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video games, and television programs. Even preschool children’s favorite fairy tales are related to their degree of aggression (Collins-Standley, Gan, Yu, & Zillmann, 1995). The most popular spectator sports are similar to rock concerts and other public spectacles, in that they provide a physiological “kick” for the observer and also serve as social occasions for the expression of intense emotion. For men, aggressive sports like football and boxing provide opportunities to shout and yell. Perhaps males can overcome the social pressures on them not to be emotionally expressive with other males only in a hyper-masculine context like aggressive sports, rough-and-tumble play, and violent entertainment. Making airplane, automobile, and shooting sounds is one of the appeals of aggressive games, especially for boys.
WHY WE WATCH
People can choose the degree of emotional content and frenzy with which they are most comfortable, just as they do when selecting music to listen to. There is the heavy metal in-your-face violence of Natural Born Killers, documentary footage of suicides, accidents, and public executions in Faces of Death, the commedia dell ‘arte stylized violence of a Schwarzenegger or Stallone movie or of a martial arts video game, slapstick comic violence, and the more cerebral Pulp Fiction. There is the bookish violence of horror and detective stories, true crime reports of Ann Rule, and for those who want to do away with the emotional content altogether, there is the academic study of violence. In discussions of violent entertainment there is much speculation about morbid curiosity and our baser instincts. But the interest in violent entertainment may have less to do with our “violent nature” and more to do with old-fashioned virtues of morality and justice. In examining armchair analyses, Cantor (1998), McCauley (1998), and Zillmann (1998) could find no support for several popular (and a few truly bizarre) explanations. They have laid to rest many of the speculations regarding violent entertainment. For example, they could find no evidence to support the position that people experience a catharsis of deep-seated fears, such as fear of the dark, or fear of aging, death, AIDS, technology, or the unknown. Likewise, there is little evidence to support the claim that viewers identify with the aggressor. Violent entertainment does not purge us of aggression or the propensity for violence, nor does it provide relief from unpleasant emotions. “We are told . . . that the atomic bomb created a new climate of fear, and that because people now are more death-conscious than ever before, they seek
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exposure to displays of violence and death to work out their fears,” wrote Zillmann (1998, pp. 185-186). This makes no more sense, he says, than “the claim that a fear of overpopulation is behind our interest in seeing as much slaughter of humanity as we can muster” (p. 186). Violent material does not ”provide relief from ill emotions and motivations” (p. 186). The best evidence is that the audience is disturbed and disgusted by scenes of violence but continues to watch it anyway. The benefits, in other words, outweigh the costs. The potential of a book, film, or vidw game to engross one in an imaginary world is one of the most attractive features of entertainment media. For a short time, one can become totally immersed in an activity. The willing suspension of disbelief, the leap into imaginary worlds, whether through literature, film, television, play, or sport, appeals on many levels. This potential inheres in all entertainment, of course, but it helps explain the tolerance for, if not the attraction of, violent imagery.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
I once spent an evening with a group of teenage girls and boys watching horror films that they themselves had selected. How would these middle-class American youngsters react to the dismemberments and exploding bodies? These young people seemingly found it difficult to watch the bloody excesses, though boys and girls expressed their distress in different ways. When the music-enhanced story suggested impending bloodshed, the girls would look away froin the screen and talk animatedly among themselves about unrelated topics-school, friends, parties. The boys apparently did not feel free to look away; while still gazing determinedly at the screen, they distanced themselves emotionally from the action by commenting upon the special effects, how they were done, whether the gore looked convincingly real. For a moment they saw the film through the dispassionate eyes of a film critic. When the music gave the “all clear” signal, they resumed their engagement with the story. “Distancing” oneself from the mayhem makes it tolerable. These adolescent boys and girls were able to fine-tune their degree of involvement. I spoke with one young woman who watches horrific films. She makes them palatable by squeezing her leg until it hurts, distracting herself while looking at the screen. She, too, wants to demonstrate that she can take it. Zillmann (1998) described the process well: “Boys must prove to their peers, and ultimately to themselves, that they are unperturbed, calm and collected in the face of terror; and girls must similarly demonstrate their sensitivity by being appropriately disturbed, dismayed, and disgusted” (p. 197).
In the 1960s people defined themselves in part by their reactions to Bonnie and Clyde (Hoberman, 1998). The violence of the film became a subject of conversation and social maneuvering, the purposes served by our public responses to all forms of entertainment. Cantor wrote that “violent television series might be characterized as anxiety- reducing, justice-restoring genres that attract anxious, more empathic children, who side emotionally with the ‘good guy’ over the ‘bad guy’ and use the programs to control their anxieties” (1998, pp. 113-114). However, violence for violence’s sake should be considered separately. “Children who are attracted by something described only as ‘very violent’ are more likely to be children with a good deal of exposure to violence in their own lives” and who enjoy the violence “irrespective of moral considerations or outcomes to protagonists” (p. 114). But the basis for their attraction remains unclear: Is it because, in contrast to what they witness on the screen, their own lives seem less wretched? Perhaps aggressive youngsters have a greater need for excitement, which underlies both their antisocial behavior and their entertainment preferences. It may be a test of their manliness, or a way to make or maintain friends.
SENSATION-SEEKING AND EXCITEMENT
Perhaps our attraction to violent imagery is an outcome of what sociologist Elias (1982) called the “civilizing process,” a way to fill the void left by diminished opportunities to experience the real thing. As death and dying were displaced from the family parlor to the funeral parlor, when the venue for capital executions was changed from public squares to behind prison walls, at just this time did public interest in images of death and dying increase, according to photo historian Goldberg (1998). Regardless of whether we crave excitement because society is increasingly “civilized” and “unexciting,” it is certainly true that some individuals crave excitement more than others. An undeniable characteristic of violent imagery is its emotional wallop. It gives most people a jolt. Not everyone finds this kind of stimulation pleasant, but some do. Psychologist Zuckerman’s (1979) concept of sensation-seeking helps to explain individual differences in attraction to violence. For the rebellious young, the mere fact that the topic is taboo is reason enough for engagement. Their curiosity about the forbidden is satisfied, and they learn to manage anxiety and defeat fear by distorting and exaggerating reality. At the same time, they bond with others, story tellers, and peers by sharing intense emotional experiences.
In the wonderfully titled Men, Women, and Chainsaws, Clover (1992) observed that extravagantly participatory audiences (shouting, throwing things) were the norm in all manner of performances (operatic, dramatic, symphonic) until toward the end of the 19th century, when they were silenced and “sacralized.”
Audiences express uproarious disgust (“Gross!”) as often as they express fear, and it is clear that the makers of slasher films pursue the combination. More particularly: spectators tend to be silent during the stalking scenes (although they sometimes call out warnings to the stalked person), scream out at the first slash, and make loud noises of revulsion at the sight of the bloody stump. The rapid alternation between registers-between something like “real” horror on one hand and a camp, self-parodying horror on the other-is by now one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the tradition. (p. 41)
Comic relief provided by the audience or the medium is one of the several clues that the violence on both sides of the joke is unreal. Negative emotions can be mixed with positive ones. In one study, the degree of enjoyment of the film Steel Magnolias was directly related to the degree of sadness experienced during the film (de Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1994). People may be attracted to violent entertainment, but they do not necessarily enjoy the gory details.
WHEN VIOLENCE IS NOT ATTRACTIVE
The premise that portrayals of violence are inherently appealing is untenable. Depending upon personal dispositions and social conditions, these portrayals are capable of evoking grief, disgust, or elation at extreme levels. From studies using bloody films that viewers found decidedly unappealing, violent portrayals can be disturbing, disgusting, and depressing, but these effects are insufficient to deter some viewers (McCauley, 1998). Why don’t negative feelings, such as fear and sadness, make for an unpleasant viewing experience? Feelings of control mediate this process. With the joystick or remote control in their hands, the audience or players can control not only what appears on the screen but indirectly what effects it will have on them. A remote control is ultimately a device for self control, for producing satisfying emotional and physiological states in the user. In a study at the University of Utrecht, students who viewed a violent videotape while merely holding a remote control experienced less distress than those who viewed the same tape without a remote control. Presumably, the feeling of control made the gruesome scenes less unpleasant. Some see predictability as the most appealing feature of violent entertainment, from cowboy movies to horror films. We know that the bad guys
will “buy it” in the end, or in the sequel. But this does not account for our interest in blood sports, where the outcome is not known in advance (Guttmann, 1998). Perhaps the unpredictability of events like a boxing match is attenuated by the knowledge that there will come another fight, another game. Maybe it isn’t over when it’s over. Although the outcome of a specific game or match is unpredictable, a subsequent one may provide a sense of closure.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
Both the context of violent images themselves and the circumstances in which they are experienced play a crucial role in their appeal. People go to horror films in order to experience in safety emotions that are usually associated with danger. In order to experience anything like pleasure from exposure to violent or threatening images, the audience must feel relatively safe and secure in their surroundings. Furthermore, there must be cues that the violent images are produced for purposes of entertainment and consumption. McCauley (1998) conducted research on the sort of bloody imagery that university students find unappealing and disgusting. He asked university students to view three video tapes until they found them intolerable. One was of a steer in a slaughterhouse, another of a monkey killed and served fresh to connoisseurs in China, and the third, surgery on a young girl, whose face had to be sliced open and the skin pulled away from the skull. Few watched these videos to the end. Bloody images lose their appeal when there are few cues to their unreality. If the violent imagery does not itself reveal its unreality, the physical environment may do so. We are aware of holding a book, of sitting in a movie theater or a sports stadium, of manipulating a joystick or remote control. Without background music, awareness of the camera, exaggerated special effects, or film editing, images of violence are unattractive to both males and females, according to McCauley’s (1998) experiments. In a Scandinavian study, preschool children typically showed facial expressions of joy while watching cartoon violence, but showed negative emotions while watching realistic physical violence (Lagerspetz, Wahlroos, & Wendelin, 1978). Not only the viewing situation, but the larger social world as well influences the attractiveness of violence. Interest in violent imagery changes with the times. War and war films are not independent of one another, nor are crime and crime entertainment. Real violence activates aggressive associations, images, and emotions. These, in turn, may heighten the preference for further exposure to violent entertainment. If children first hear aggressive stories, they are more likely to choose aggressive toys for play (Jukes & Goldstein, 1993). The same relationship is evident in preferences for violent film entertainment, war toys and
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video games, and enjoyment of blood sports (Keefer, Goldstein, & Kasiarz, 1983). One study reported an increase in attendance at violent films by University of Wisconsin students following the murder of a female student on campus (Boyanowsky, Newtson, & Walster, 1974). During the Persian Gulf War, sales of replica missiles skyrocketed (Goldstein, 1994). Heightened public support for military expenditures is related to increased sales of war toys and in the prevalence of war movies (Regan, 1994).
THE JUSTICE MOTIVE
The popularity of violent entertainment in times of war may reassure the audience that good will prevail over evil. Displays of violence result in distress, which is reduced when the bad guys get their comeuppance. According to Zillmann (1998), negative attitudes about the victims
contribute greatly to the enjoyment of humiliation, disparagement, defeat, and destruction . . . . Observing the audience of any contemporary action film, especially the apparent euphoria of young men upon seeing the bad guys being riddled with bullets and collapsing in deadly convulsions, should convince the doubtful that Western audiences fully exercise their moral right of rejoicing in response to exhibitions of righteous violence . . . . There can be little doubt, then, that righteous violence, however brutal but justified by the ends, will prompt gIoriously intense euphoric reactions the more it is preceded by patently unjust and similarly brutal violence. (pp. 205-208)
Viewers come to have strong feelings and fears regarding protagonists and antagonists and decide in moral terms what fate they deserve. “Implicitly justified hatred and the associated call for punitive action allows us to uninhibitedly enjoy the punitive action when it materializes. Negative affective dispositions, then, set us free to thoroughly enjoy punitive violence. As we have morally condemned a villain for raping and maiming, for instance, we are free to hate such a person, can joyously anticipate his execution, and openly applaud it when we finally witness it” (Zillmann, 1998, p. 202). Thus the typical storyline of enjoyable entertainment involves the establishment of animosity toward wrongdoers, which makes later violence against them seem justified and hence enjoyable.
ALMOST REAL
Does realism enhance or diminish the acceptance or appeal of violent images? People prefer realistic violence in sports, news reports, and magazine photos. Violence in sports is appealing not because of any “blood lust” among spectators
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but as a sign that the participants are willing to take risks for their sport, an indication of their passionate commitment (Zillmann, Bryant, & Sapolsky, 1989). In other realms, such as film, children’s television, and play, it appears that violent imagery must carry cues to its unreality or it loses appeal. Based on his studies of disgusting films, McCauley (1998) offered two possibilities: 1. Emotions elicited by drama are weaker than everyday emotions. So the arousal accompanying fear, disgust, and pity can be experienced as pleasurable. Within a dramatic or protective frame, violent imagery becomes exciting rather than anxiety provoking. 2. The emotions experienced in drama are qualitatively different from their real-life counterparts. “Indeed, this theory would assert that we err in calling dramatic emotions by the same names as everyday emotions; the dramatic emotions are a parallel but different reality,” wrote McCauley (p. 160). Perhaps when the violence is almost real, so too are the emotions it elicits. Both sides of the equation (the violent images and the emotions that result) are recognizably different from the genuine articles. Hence, the distress is not too intense to spoil our enjoyment.
VIOLENT IMAGES AS SOCIAL CONTROL
Gerbner and his colleagues (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994) at the University of Pennsylvania reported that heavy viewers of violence in the media come to see the world as a frightening and dangerous place. As a result, they lend support to the forces of law and order. In Gerbner’s cultivation theory, media violence is a means of social control. Similarly, Tatar (1998) considered children’s stories as a form of moral instruction, produced by adults to frighten children into obedience. Do these scary tales with morals produce obedience? Yes, she says, if it is clear what must be done to reduce the jeopardy. Children who disobey their parents, lie, or steal in these tales meet horrific ends. The message is that obedience, truthfulness, and honesty will enable children to avoid these horrible consequences. Violent entertainment did not suddenly arrive on the scene, and it is not likely to depart it any time soon. People become acclimated to the arousal generated by violent images, but they have a continuing need for excitement. Does this mean that we shall have to accept ever-increasing violence and terror for entertainment purposes? “It would appear to be so,” answered Zillmann (1998, p. 211). Can the future course of violent entertainment be predicted? The violence in some media has been toned down over time, as occurred with fairy tales, whereas
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in others, like Hollywood films, it has increased. What is technologically feasible will almost inevitably be tried. Are the exploding bodies of Hollywood only a test of the limits of new technology? If so, we can expect increasingly realistic shoot-em-ups as virtual reality and other new technologies evolve. It is up to the image makers to put violence in perspective, to emphasize, as they do, the unacceptability of random, arbitrary, anarchistic, and plain sadistic violence, and to portray violence that ultimately serves justice and the good of humanity. The public can and does influence the limits of acceptable displays of violence. There is opposition to “ultimate fighting,” and even the future of boxing is in doubt because of growing public discontent with its crippling injuries. Eventually it might suffer the fate of smoking. Granted that the portrayal of violent action is inevitable, nevertheless, the limits we place on it, the manner in which we consume it, and the ways we respond to it help to define a culture.
REFERENCES
Boyanowksy, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communication Research, 1, 32-43. Cantor, J. (1998). Children’s attraction to violent television programming. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 88-115). New York: Oxford University Press. Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chainsaws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Collins-Standley, T., Gan, S., Yu, H. J., & Zillmann, D. (1995). Choice of romantic, violent, and scary fairy-tale books by preschool girls and boys. Unpublished manuscript. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Csikszentrnihalyi, M. (1990). Theflow experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. de Wied, M., Zillmann, D., & Ordman, V. (1994). The role of empathic distress in the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. Poetics, 23, 91-106. Elias, N. (1982). The civilizing process. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1969) Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17-41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goldberg, V. (1998). Death takes a holiday, sort of. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 27-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Goldstein, J. (1994). Sex differences in toy play and use of video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Toys, play, and child development (pp. 110-129). New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998a), Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53-68). New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998b), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press. Guttmann, A. (1998). The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 7-26). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, J. (1998). “A test for the individual viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s violent reception. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 116-143). New York: Oxford University Press. Jukes, J., & Goldstein, J. H. (1993). Preference for aggressive toys. International Play Journal. 1, 93-103. Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic Games participation and warfare. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183-193). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lagerspetz, K. M., Wahlroos, C., & Wendelin, C. (1978). Facial expressions of preschool children while watching televised violence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 2 13-222. McCauley, C. (1998). When screen violence is not attractive. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 144-162). New York: Oxford University Press. Regan, P. M. (1994). War toys, war movies, and the militarization of the United States, 1900-1985. Journal of Peace Research, 31, 45-58. Tatar, M. (1998). “Violent delights” in children’s literature. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 69-87). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D. (1998). The psychology of the appeal of portrayals of violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 179-2 11). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 241-278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley.

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Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

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The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein
To cite this article: Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, Media Psychology, 1:3, 271-282, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5
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MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 1, 271-282. Copyright O 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein Department of Media & Communication University of Utrecht
This article summarizes a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation on the attractions of violent entertainment. We consider why violence is such a prominent feature of entertainment. The audiences for violent entertainment are examined, as is the nature of the violence that attracts them. The role of sensation-seeking, context, the justice motive, and social control in the entertainment experience are considered. Violent entertainment is placed in historical and social contexts, demonstrating that its appeal varies with the times.
In 1990 the International Herald Tribune reprinted the following in its column, “One Hundred Years Ago”:
1890: Criminal Reading LONDON-The Telegraph mentions the arrest of a youthful burglar, who confessed that he was led into crime by reading the “Life of a Detective.” The Telegraph thinks that such a book ought to have warned the boy of the dangers of a life of crime. “As a matter of fact the book seems rather to have stimulated than weakened the criminal propensities of the precocious student. Detective literature may be as injurious to the morals of the young as stories eulogizing the achievements of robbers, highwaymen and pirates.” It is curious that detective stories are among the favorite books of youthful criminals. [13-14 Oct.]
Whether detective or any other form of violent entertainment stimulates “criminal tendencies” has been widely discussed and studied. With predictable regularity, legislators consider the potentially harmful effects that violent images in mass media may have on our society and our youth, from hearings about
“The Attractions of Violent Entertainment” by Jeffrey Goldstein, from Why We Watch: The Attractions of Molent Entertainment, edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. Copyright O 1998 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jeffrey Goldstein, Department of Media & Communication, University of Utrecht, Post box 80 140,3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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violence in Hollywood films and the Kefauver investigations of juvenile delinquency in 1954-1955, which implicated comic books, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and the Surgeon General’s inquiries into the effects of television violence. But The Telegraph alluded to another issue, one that until recently had been ignored: the attractiveness of violent entertainment to a youthful audience. Whereas many lament the possible consequences of media violence, few have asked why an audience for violent entertainment exists in the first place. After all, no one is forced to watch Jean-Claude van Damme or a Quentin Tarantinio film, go to a boxing match, play Mortal Kombat on their Nintendo platforms, or read Stephen King or Sherlock Holmes. Stallone, Schwarzenegger, and Mike Tyson are among the most highly paid and recognizable figures in the world. In Japan, both men and women read “Manga,” extraordinarily gruesome comic books that feature extreme violence. In The Great Railway Bazaac Paul Theroux picks up a fat comic book left by a girl seated next to him on a train in Japan. “The comic strips showed decapitations, cannibalism, people bristling with arrows like Saint Sebastian . . . . The girl returned to her seat and, so help me God, serenely returned to the distressing comic.” Does this graphic violence appeal to Japanese readers for the same reasons that Arnold Schwarzenegger films appeal to Westerners? The attractions of violence are best explained by analyzing its portrayal, its audience, and the context in which it is consumed.
HOW ATTRACTIVE IS IT?
The attractions of violent entertainment are many and varied. It offers something for nearly everyone. The audiences for images of violence, death, and dying do not share a single motive; some viewers seek excitement, others companionship or social acceptance through shared experience, and still others wish to see justice enacted. Immersion in a fantasy world is conducive to the transcendental experience of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). To keep this in perspective, bear in mind that although violent entertainment is among the most frequent topics of study and controversy concerning the media, it is not the most popular genre. Although there seems always to have been an audience for violent enactments and portrayals, comedy is more popular, in part because it appeals equally to men and women, young and old. Many people seem attracted to, or at least not wholly repelled by, violent imagery, but there may be a small audience that actually demands violent images in its entertainment. For some boys and men, the violence is the thing. But for
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the majority of consumers of violent imagery, the violence is a means to ends, a device valued more for what it does than for what it is.
THE AUDIENCES FOR VIOLENT IMAGERY
It is difficult to think of a group of people that is not in some way an audience for violent imagery. People consume violent images, talk about violence, read about it, and write scientific articles about it. Boys and men are the most avid consumers, the target market. Every study of the subject finds that males far more than females are drawn to violent entertainment. This is true not only in the United States and Europe, but everywhere it has been studied, for example, in India, Japan, and the Philippines. It is boys and young men who play with toy guns, fill soccer stadia every Saturday, watch Faces of Death, and embrace Beavis and Butthead. Violent entertainment appeals primarily to males, and it appeals to them mostly in groups. People rarely attend horror films or boxing matches alone, and boys do not often play war games by themselves. These are social occasions, particularly suitable for “male bonding” and communicating a masculine identity to your mates. Boys may play violent video games alone in their rooms, but they are almost certain to talk about them with their friends. The documentary film Faces of Death, for example, was regarded by adolescent boys as a rite of passage, where the acceptable reaction was to consider the gore “cool” rather than “gross.” Which young men? Those with an above-average level of aggression and a moderately high need for excitement. Not every boy and man finds images of violence enjoyable, and not every female finds them repugnant. Why don’t females find this material as appealing as men do? Is it because men have different needs than women for excitement, for example, or because women have alternative means of satisfying the same needs, such as expressing emotion more openly? Individuals differ in their need for excitement and tolerance for stimulation. Those with a moderately high need for sensation find portrayals of violence more enjoyable than those with a lesser need. Individuals extremely high in sensation seeking, however, tend to find passive activities, like watching films and television, insufficiently stimulating; they prefer active dangers like sky diving and bungee jumping. Adolescent boys like violent entertainment more than any other group does, although this does not mean that they like only violent entertainment or that they are the only audience for it. Relative to other children, highly aggressive boys find war toys more appealing than other toys and prefer violent sports, films,
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video games, and television programs. Even preschool children’s favorite fairy tales are related to their degree of aggression (Collins-Standley, Gan, Yu, & Zillmann, 1995). The most popular spectator sports are similar to rock concerts and other public spectacles, in that they provide a physiological “kick” for the observer and also serve as social occasions for the expression of intense emotion. For men, aggressive sports like football and boxing provide opportunities to shout and yell. Perhaps males can overcome the social pressures on them not to be emotionally expressive with other males only in a hyper-masculine context like aggressive sports, rough-and-tumble play, and violent entertainment. Making airplane, automobile, and shooting sounds is one of the appeals of aggressive games, especially for boys.
WHY WE WATCH
People can choose the degree of emotional content and frenzy with which they are most comfortable, just as they do when selecting music to listen to. There is the heavy metal in-your-face violence of Natural Born Killers, documentary footage of suicides, accidents, and public executions in Faces of Death, the commedia dell ‘arte stylized violence of a Schwarzenegger or Stallone movie or of a martial arts video game, slapstick comic violence, and the more cerebral Pulp Fiction. There is the bookish violence of horror and detective stories, true crime reports of Ann Rule, and for those who want to do away with the emotional content altogether, there is the academic study of violence. In discussions of violent entertainment there is much speculation about morbid curiosity and our baser instincts. But the interest in violent entertainment may have less to do with our “violent nature” and more to do with old-fashioned virtues of morality and justice. In examining armchair analyses, Cantor (1998), McCauley (1998), and Zillmann (1998) could find no support for several popular (and a few truly bizarre) explanations. They have laid to rest many of the speculations regarding violent entertainment. For example, they could find no evidence to support the position that people experience a catharsis of deep-seated fears, such as fear of the dark, or fear of aging, death, AIDS, technology, or the unknown. Likewise, there is little evidence to support the claim that viewers identify with the aggressor. Violent entertainment does not purge us of aggression or the propensity for violence, nor does it provide relief from unpleasant emotions. “We are told . . . that the atomic bomb created a new climate of fear, and that because people now are more death-conscious than ever before, they seek
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exposure to displays of violence and death to work out their fears,” wrote Zillmann (1998, pp. 185-186). This makes no more sense, he says, than “the claim that a fear of overpopulation is behind our interest in seeing as much slaughter of humanity as we can muster” (p. 186). Violent material does not ”provide relief from ill emotions and motivations” (p. 186). The best evidence is that the audience is disturbed and disgusted by scenes of violence but continues to watch it anyway. The benefits, in other words, outweigh the costs. The potential of a book, film, or vidw game to engross one in an imaginary world is one of the most attractive features of entertainment media. For a short time, one can become totally immersed in an activity. The willing suspension of disbelief, the leap into imaginary worlds, whether through literature, film, television, play, or sport, appeals on many levels. This potential inheres in all entertainment, of course, but it helps explain the tolerance for, if not the attraction of, violent imagery.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
I once spent an evening with a group of teenage girls and boys watching horror films that they themselves had selected. How would these middle-class American youngsters react to the dismemberments and exploding bodies? These young people seemingly found it difficult to watch the bloody excesses, though boys and girls expressed their distress in different ways. When the music-enhanced story suggested impending bloodshed, the girls would look away froin the screen and talk animatedly among themselves about unrelated topics-school, friends, parties. The boys apparently did not feel free to look away; while still gazing determinedly at the screen, they distanced themselves emotionally from the action by commenting upon the special effects, how they were done, whether the gore looked convincingly real. For a moment they saw the film through the dispassionate eyes of a film critic. When the music gave the “all clear” signal, they resumed their engagement with the story. “Distancing” oneself from the mayhem makes it tolerable. These adolescent boys and girls were able to fine-tune their degree of involvement. I spoke with one young woman who watches horrific films. She makes them palatable by squeezing her leg until it hurts, distracting herself while looking at the screen. She, too, wants to demonstrate that she can take it. Zillmann (1998) described the process well: “Boys must prove to their peers, and ultimately to themselves, that they are unperturbed, calm and collected in the face of terror; and girls must similarly demonstrate their sensitivity by being appropriately disturbed, dismayed, and disgusted” (p. 197).
In the 1960s people defined themselves in part by their reactions to Bonnie and Clyde (Hoberman, 1998). The violence of the film became a subject of conversation and social maneuvering, the purposes served by our public responses to all forms of entertainment. Cantor wrote that “violent television series might be characterized as anxiety- reducing, justice-restoring genres that attract anxious, more empathic children, who side emotionally with the ‘good guy’ over the ‘bad guy’ and use the programs to control their anxieties” (1998, pp. 113-114). However, violence for violence’s sake should be considered separately. “Children who are attracted by something described only as ‘very violent’ are more likely to be children with a good deal of exposure to violence in their own lives” and who enjoy the violence “irrespective of moral considerations or outcomes to protagonists” (p. 114). But the basis for their attraction remains unclear: Is it because, in contrast to what they witness on the screen, their own lives seem less wretched? Perhaps aggressive youngsters have a greater need for excitement, which underlies both their antisocial behavior and their entertainment preferences. It may be a test of their manliness, or a way to make or maintain friends.
SENSATION-SEEKING AND EXCITEMENT
Perhaps our attraction to violent imagery is an outcome of what sociologist Elias (1982) called the “civilizing process,” a way to fill the void left by diminished opportunities to experience the real thing. As death and dying were displaced from the family parlor to the funeral parlor, when the venue for capital executions was changed from public squares to behind prison walls, at just this time did public interest in images of death and dying increase, according to photo historian Goldberg (1998). Regardless of whether we crave excitement because society is increasingly “civilized” and “unexciting,” it is certainly true that some individuals crave excitement more than others. An undeniable characteristic of violent imagery is its emotional wallop. It gives most people a jolt. Not everyone finds this kind of stimulation pleasant, but some do. Psychologist Zuckerman’s (1979) concept of sensation-seeking helps to explain individual differences in attraction to violence. For the rebellious young, the mere fact that the topic is taboo is reason enough for engagement. Their curiosity about the forbidden is satisfied, and they learn to manage anxiety and defeat fear by distorting and exaggerating reality. At the same time, they bond with others, story tellers, and peers by sharing intense emotional experiences.
In the wonderfully titled Men, Women, and Chainsaws, Clover (1992) observed that extravagantly participatory audiences (shouting, throwing things) were the norm in all manner of performances (operatic, dramatic, symphonic) until toward the end of the 19th century, when they were silenced and “sacralized.”
Audiences express uproarious disgust (“Gross!”) as often as they express fear, and it is clear that the makers of slasher films pursue the combination. More particularly: spectators tend to be silent during the stalking scenes (although they sometimes call out warnings to the stalked person), scream out at the first slash, and make loud noises of revulsion at the sight of the bloody stump. The rapid alternation between registers-between something like “real” horror on one hand and a camp, self-parodying horror on the other-is by now one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the tradition. (p. 41)
Comic relief provided by the audience or the medium is one of the several clues that the violence on both sides of the joke is unreal. Negative emotions can be mixed with positive ones. In one study, the degree of enjoyment of the film Steel Magnolias was directly related to the degree of sadness experienced during the film (de Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1994). People may be attracted to violent entertainment, but they do not necessarily enjoy the gory details.
WHEN VIOLENCE IS NOT ATTRACTIVE
The premise that portrayals of violence are inherently appealing is untenable. Depending upon personal dispositions and social conditions, these portrayals are capable of evoking grief, disgust, or elation at extreme levels. From studies using bloody films that viewers found decidedly unappealing, violent portrayals can be disturbing, disgusting, and depressing, but these effects are insufficient to deter some viewers (McCauley, 1998). Why don’t negative feelings, such as fear and sadness, make for an unpleasant viewing experience? Feelings of control mediate this process. With the joystick or remote control in their hands, the audience or players can control not only what appears on the screen but indirectly what effects it will have on them. A remote control is ultimately a device for self control, for producing satisfying emotional and physiological states in the user. In a study at the University of Utrecht, students who viewed a violent videotape while merely holding a remote control experienced less distress than those who viewed the same tape without a remote control. Presumably, the feeling of control made the gruesome scenes less unpleasant. Some see predictability as the most appealing feature of violent entertainment, from cowboy movies to horror films. We know that the bad guys
will “buy it” in the end, or in the sequel. But this does not account for our interest in blood sports, where the outcome is not known in advance (Guttmann, 1998). Perhaps the unpredictability of events like a boxing match is attenuated by the knowledge that there will come another fight, another game. Maybe it isn’t over when it’s over. Although the outcome of a specific game or match is unpredictable, a subsequent one may provide a sense of closure.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
Both the context of violent images themselves and the circumstances in which they are experienced play a crucial role in their appeal. People go to horror films in order to experience in safety emotions that are usually associated with danger. In order to experience anything like pleasure from exposure to violent or threatening images, the audience must feel relatively safe and secure in their surroundings. Furthermore, there must be cues that the violent images are produced for purposes of entertainment and consumption. McCauley (1998) conducted research on the sort of bloody imagery that university students find unappealing and disgusting. He asked university students to view three video tapes until they found them intolerable. One was of a steer in a slaughterhouse, another of a monkey killed and served fresh to connoisseurs in China, and the third, surgery on a young girl, whose face had to be sliced open and the skin pulled away from the skull. Few watched these videos to the end. Bloody images lose their appeal when there are few cues to their unreality. If the violent imagery does not itself reveal its unreality, the physical environment may do so. We are aware of holding a book, of sitting in a movie theater or a sports stadium, of manipulating a joystick or remote control. Without background music, awareness of the camera, exaggerated special effects, or film editing, images of violence are unattractive to both males and females, according to McCauley’s (1998) experiments. In a Scandinavian study, preschool children typically showed facial expressions of joy while watching cartoon violence, but showed negative emotions while watching realistic physical violence (Lagerspetz, Wahlroos, & Wendelin, 1978). Not only the viewing situation, but the larger social world as well influences the attractiveness of violence. Interest in violent imagery changes with the times. War and war films are not independent of one another, nor are crime and crime entertainment. Real violence activates aggressive associations, images, and emotions. These, in turn, may heighten the preference for further exposure to violent entertainment. If children first hear aggressive stories, they are more likely to choose aggressive toys for play (Jukes & Goldstein, 1993). The same relationship is evident in preferences for violent film entertainment, war toys and
VIOLENT ENTERTMNh4ENT 279
video games, and enjoyment of blood sports (Keefer, Goldstein, & Kasiarz, 1983). One study reported an increase in attendance at violent films by University of Wisconsin students following the murder of a female student on campus (Boyanowsky, Newtson, & Walster, 1974). During the Persian Gulf War, sales of replica missiles skyrocketed (Goldstein, 1994). Heightened public support for military expenditures is related to increased sales of war toys and in the prevalence of war movies (Regan, 1994).
THE JUSTICE MOTIVE
The popularity of violent entertainment in times of war may reassure the audience that good will prevail over evil. Displays of violence result in distress, which is reduced when the bad guys get their comeuppance. According to Zillmann (1998), negative attitudes about the victims
contribute greatly to the enjoyment of humiliation, disparagement, defeat, and destruction . . . . Observing the audience of any contemporary action film, especially the apparent euphoria of young men upon seeing the bad guys being riddled with bullets and collapsing in deadly convulsions, should convince the doubtful that Western audiences fully exercise their moral right of rejoicing in response to exhibitions of righteous violence . . . . There can be little doubt, then, that righteous violence, however brutal but justified by the ends, will prompt gIoriously intense euphoric reactions the more it is preceded by patently unjust and similarly brutal violence. (pp. 205-208)
Viewers come to have strong feelings and fears regarding protagonists and antagonists and decide in moral terms what fate they deserve. “Implicitly justified hatred and the associated call for punitive action allows us to uninhibitedly enjoy the punitive action when it materializes. Negative affective dispositions, then, set us free to thoroughly enjoy punitive violence. As we have morally condemned a villain for raping and maiming, for instance, we are free to hate such a person, can joyously anticipate his execution, and openly applaud it when we finally witness it” (Zillmann, 1998, p. 202). Thus the typical storyline of enjoyable entertainment involves the establishment of animosity toward wrongdoers, which makes later violence against them seem justified and hence enjoyable.
ALMOST REAL
Does realism enhance or diminish the acceptance or appeal of violent images? People prefer realistic violence in sports, news reports, and magazine photos. Violence in sports is appealing not because of any “blood lust” among spectators
280 GOLDSTEIN
but as a sign that the participants are willing to take risks for their sport, an indication of their passionate commitment (Zillmann, Bryant, & Sapolsky, 1989). In other realms, such as film, children’s television, and play, it appears that violent imagery must carry cues to its unreality or it loses appeal. Based on his studies of disgusting films, McCauley (1998) offered two possibilities: 1. Emotions elicited by drama are weaker than everyday emotions. So the arousal accompanying fear, disgust, and pity can be experienced as pleasurable. Within a dramatic or protective frame, violent imagery becomes exciting rather than anxiety provoking. 2. The emotions experienced in drama are qualitatively different from their real-life counterparts. “Indeed, this theory would assert that we err in calling dramatic emotions by the same names as everyday emotions; the dramatic emotions are a parallel but different reality,” wrote McCauley (p. 160). Perhaps when the violence is almost real, so too are the emotions it elicits. Both sides of the equation (the violent images and the emotions that result) are recognizably different from the genuine articles. Hence, the distress is not too intense to spoil our enjoyment.
VIOLENT IMAGES AS SOCIAL CONTROL
Gerbner and his colleagues (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994) at the University of Pennsylvania reported that heavy viewers of violence in the media come to see the world as a frightening and dangerous place. As a result, they lend support to the forces of law and order. In Gerbner’s cultivation theory, media violence is a means of social control. Similarly, Tatar (1998) considered children’s stories as a form of moral instruction, produced by adults to frighten children into obedience. Do these scary tales with morals produce obedience? Yes, she says, if it is clear what must be done to reduce the jeopardy. Children who disobey their parents, lie, or steal in these tales meet horrific ends. The message is that obedience, truthfulness, and honesty will enable children to avoid these horrible consequences. Violent entertainment did not suddenly arrive on the scene, and it is not likely to depart it any time soon. People become acclimated to the arousal generated by violent images, but they have a continuing need for excitement. Does this mean that we shall have to accept ever-increasing violence and terror for entertainment purposes? “It would appear to be so,” answered Zillmann (1998, p. 211). Can the future course of violent entertainment be predicted? The violence in some media has been toned down over time, as occurred with fairy tales, whereas
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in others, like Hollywood films, it has increased. What is technologically feasible will almost inevitably be tried. Are the exploding bodies of Hollywood only a test of the limits of new technology? If so, we can expect increasingly realistic shoot-em-ups as virtual reality and other new technologies evolve. It is up to the image makers to put violence in perspective, to emphasize, as they do, the unacceptability of random, arbitrary, anarchistic, and plain sadistic violence, and to portray violence that ultimately serves justice and the good of humanity. The public can and does influence the limits of acceptable displays of violence. There is opposition to “ultimate fighting,” and even the future of boxing is in doubt because of growing public discontent with its crippling injuries. Eventually it might suffer the fate of smoking. Granted that the portrayal of violent action is inevitable, nevertheless, the limits we place on it, the manner in which we consume it, and the ways we respond to it help to define a culture.
REFERENCES
Boyanowksy, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communication Research, 1, 32-43. Cantor, J. (1998). Children’s attraction to violent television programming. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 88-115). New York: Oxford University Press. Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chainsaws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Collins-Standley, T., Gan, S., Yu, H. J., & Zillmann, D. (1995). Choice of romantic, violent, and scary fairy-tale books by preschool girls and boys. Unpublished manuscript. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Csikszentrnihalyi, M. (1990). Theflow experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. de Wied, M., Zillmann, D., & Ordman, V. (1994). The role of empathic distress in the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. Poetics, 23, 91-106. Elias, N. (1982). The civilizing process. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1969) Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17-41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goldberg, V. (1998). Death takes a holiday, sort of. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 27-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Goldstein, J. (1994). Sex differences in toy play and use of video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Toys, play, and child development (pp. 110-129). New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998a), Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53-68). New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998b), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press. Guttmann, A. (1998). The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 7-26). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, J. (1998). “A test for the individual viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s violent reception. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 116-143). New York: Oxford University Press. Jukes, J., & Goldstein, J. H. (1993). Preference for aggressive toys. International Play Journal. 1, 93-103. Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic Games participation and warfare. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183-193). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lagerspetz, K. M., Wahlroos, C., & Wendelin, C. (1978). Facial expressions of preschool children while watching televised violence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 2 13-222. McCauley, C. (1998). When screen violence is not attractive. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 144-162). New York: Oxford University Press. Regan, P. M. (1994). War toys, war movies, and the militarization of the United States, 1900-1985. Journal of Peace Research, 31, 45-58. Tatar, M. (1998). “Violent delights” in children’s literature. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 69-87). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D. (1998). The psychology of the appeal of portrayals of violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 179-2 11). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 241-278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley.

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Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

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The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein
To cite this article: Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, Media Psychology, 1:3, 271-282, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5
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MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 1, 271-282. Copyright O 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein Department of Media & Communication University of Utrecht
This article summarizes a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation on the attractions of violent entertainment. We consider why violence is such a prominent feature of entertainment. The audiences for violent entertainment are examined, as is the nature of the violence that attracts them. The role of sensation-seeking, context, the justice motive, and social control in the entertainment experience are considered. Violent entertainment is placed in historical and social contexts, demonstrating that its appeal varies with the times.
In 1990 the International Herald Tribune reprinted the following in its column, “One Hundred Years Ago”:
1890: Criminal Reading LONDON-The Telegraph mentions the arrest of a youthful burglar, who confessed that he was led into crime by reading the “Life of a Detective.” The Telegraph thinks that such a book ought to have warned the boy of the dangers of a life of crime. “As a matter of fact the book seems rather to have stimulated than weakened the criminal propensities of the precocious student. Detective literature may be as injurious to the morals of the young as stories eulogizing the achievements of robbers, highwaymen and pirates.” It is curious that detective stories are among the favorite books of youthful criminals. [13-14 Oct.]
Whether detective or any other form of violent entertainment stimulates “criminal tendencies” has been widely discussed and studied. With predictable regularity, legislators consider the potentially harmful effects that violent images in mass media may have on our society and our youth, from hearings about
“The Attractions of Violent Entertainment” by Jeffrey Goldstein, from Why We Watch: The Attractions of Molent Entertainment, edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. Copyright O 1998 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jeffrey Goldstein, Department of Media & Communication, University of Utrecht, Post box 80 140,3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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violence in Hollywood films and the Kefauver investigations of juvenile delinquency in 1954-1955, which implicated comic books, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and the Surgeon General’s inquiries into the effects of television violence. But The Telegraph alluded to another issue, one that until recently had been ignored: the attractiveness of violent entertainment to a youthful audience. Whereas many lament the possible consequences of media violence, few have asked why an audience for violent entertainment exists in the first place. After all, no one is forced to watch Jean-Claude van Damme or a Quentin Tarantinio film, go to a boxing match, play Mortal Kombat on their Nintendo platforms, or read Stephen King or Sherlock Holmes. Stallone, Schwarzenegger, and Mike Tyson are among the most highly paid and recognizable figures in the world. In Japan, both men and women read “Manga,” extraordinarily gruesome comic books that feature extreme violence. In The Great Railway Bazaac Paul Theroux picks up a fat comic book left by a girl seated next to him on a train in Japan. “The comic strips showed decapitations, cannibalism, people bristling with arrows like Saint Sebastian . . . . The girl returned to her seat and, so help me God, serenely returned to the distressing comic.” Does this graphic violence appeal to Japanese readers for the same reasons that Arnold Schwarzenegger films appeal to Westerners? The attractions of violence are best explained by analyzing its portrayal, its audience, and the context in which it is consumed.
HOW ATTRACTIVE IS IT?
The attractions of violent entertainment are many and varied. It offers something for nearly everyone. The audiences for images of violence, death, and dying do not share a single motive; some viewers seek excitement, others companionship or social acceptance through shared experience, and still others wish to see justice enacted. Immersion in a fantasy world is conducive to the transcendental experience of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). To keep this in perspective, bear in mind that although violent entertainment is among the most frequent topics of study and controversy concerning the media, it is not the most popular genre. Although there seems always to have been an audience for violent enactments and portrayals, comedy is more popular, in part because it appeals equally to men and women, young and old. Many people seem attracted to, or at least not wholly repelled by, violent imagery, but there may be a small audience that actually demands violent images in its entertainment. For some boys and men, the violence is the thing. But for
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the majority of consumers of violent imagery, the violence is a means to ends, a device valued more for what it does than for what it is.
THE AUDIENCES FOR VIOLENT IMAGERY
It is difficult to think of a group of people that is not in some way an audience for violent imagery. People consume violent images, talk about violence, read about it, and write scientific articles about it. Boys and men are the most avid consumers, the target market. Every study of the subject finds that males far more than females are drawn to violent entertainment. This is true not only in the United States and Europe, but everywhere it has been studied, for example, in India, Japan, and the Philippines. It is boys and young men who play with toy guns, fill soccer stadia every Saturday, watch Faces of Death, and embrace Beavis and Butthead. Violent entertainment appeals primarily to males, and it appeals to them mostly in groups. People rarely attend horror films or boxing matches alone, and boys do not often play war games by themselves. These are social occasions, particularly suitable for “male bonding” and communicating a masculine identity to your mates. Boys may play violent video games alone in their rooms, but they are almost certain to talk about them with their friends. The documentary film Faces of Death, for example, was regarded by adolescent boys as a rite of passage, where the acceptable reaction was to consider the gore “cool” rather than “gross.” Which young men? Those with an above-average level of aggression and a moderately high need for excitement. Not every boy and man finds images of violence enjoyable, and not every female finds them repugnant. Why don’t females find this material as appealing as men do? Is it because men have different needs than women for excitement, for example, or because women have alternative means of satisfying the same needs, such as expressing emotion more openly? Individuals differ in their need for excitement and tolerance for stimulation. Those with a moderately high need for sensation find portrayals of violence more enjoyable than those with a lesser need. Individuals extremely high in sensation seeking, however, tend to find passive activities, like watching films and television, insufficiently stimulating; they prefer active dangers like sky diving and bungee jumping. Adolescent boys like violent entertainment more than any other group does, although this does not mean that they like only violent entertainment or that they are the only audience for it. Relative to other children, highly aggressive boys find war toys more appealing than other toys and prefer violent sports, films,
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video games, and television programs. Even preschool children’s favorite fairy tales are related to their degree of aggression (Collins-Standley, Gan, Yu, & Zillmann, 1995). The most popular spectator sports are similar to rock concerts and other public spectacles, in that they provide a physiological “kick” for the observer and also serve as social occasions for the expression of intense emotion. For men, aggressive sports like football and boxing provide opportunities to shout and yell. Perhaps males can overcome the social pressures on them not to be emotionally expressive with other males only in a hyper-masculine context like aggressive sports, rough-and-tumble play, and violent entertainment. Making airplane, automobile, and shooting sounds is one of the appeals of aggressive games, especially for boys.
WHY WE WATCH
People can choose the degree of emotional content and frenzy with which they are most comfortable, just as they do when selecting music to listen to. There is the heavy metal in-your-face violence of Natural Born Killers, documentary footage of suicides, accidents, and public executions in Faces of Death, the commedia dell ‘arte stylized violence of a Schwarzenegger or Stallone movie or of a martial arts video game, slapstick comic violence, and the more cerebral Pulp Fiction. There is the bookish violence of horror and detective stories, true crime reports of Ann Rule, and for those who want to do away with the emotional content altogether, there is the academic study of violence. In discussions of violent entertainment there is much speculation about morbid curiosity and our baser instincts. But the interest in violent entertainment may have less to do with our “violent nature” and more to do with old-fashioned virtues of morality and justice. In examining armchair analyses, Cantor (1998), McCauley (1998), and Zillmann (1998) could find no support for several popular (and a few truly bizarre) explanations. They have laid to rest many of the speculations regarding violent entertainment. For example, they could find no evidence to support the position that people experience a catharsis of deep-seated fears, such as fear of the dark, or fear of aging, death, AIDS, technology, or the unknown. Likewise, there is little evidence to support the claim that viewers identify with the aggressor. Violent entertainment does not purge us of aggression or the propensity for violence, nor does it provide relief from unpleasant emotions. “We are told . . . that the atomic bomb created a new climate of fear, and that because people now are more death-conscious than ever before, they seek
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exposure to displays of violence and death to work out their fears,” wrote Zillmann (1998, pp. 185-186). This makes no more sense, he says, than “the claim that a fear of overpopulation is behind our interest in seeing as much slaughter of humanity as we can muster” (p. 186). Violent material does not ”provide relief from ill emotions and motivations” (p. 186). The best evidence is that the audience is disturbed and disgusted by scenes of violence but continues to watch it anyway. The benefits, in other words, outweigh the costs. The potential of a book, film, or vidw game to engross one in an imaginary world is one of the most attractive features of entertainment media. For a short time, one can become totally immersed in an activity. The willing suspension of disbelief, the leap into imaginary worlds, whether through literature, film, television, play, or sport, appeals on many levels. This potential inheres in all entertainment, of course, but it helps explain the tolerance for, if not the attraction of, violent imagery.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
I once spent an evening with a group of teenage girls and boys watching horror films that they themselves had selected. How would these middle-class American youngsters react to the dismemberments and exploding bodies? These young people seemingly found it difficult to watch the bloody excesses, though boys and girls expressed their distress in different ways. When the music-enhanced story suggested impending bloodshed, the girls would look away froin the screen and talk animatedly among themselves about unrelated topics-school, friends, parties. The boys apparently did not feel free to look away; while still gazing determinedly at the screen, they distanced themselves emotionally from the action by commenting upon the special effects, how they were done, whether the gore looked convincingly real. For a moment they saw the film through the dispassionate eyes of a film critic. When the music gave the “all clear” signal, they resumed their engagement with the story. “Distancing” oneself from the mayhem makes it tolerable. These adolescent boys and girls were able to fine-tune their degree of involvement. I spoke with one young woman who watches horrific films. She makes them palatable by squeezing her leg until it hurts, distracting herself while looking at the screen. She, too, wants to demonstrate that she can take it. Zillmann (1998) described the process well: “Boys must prove to their peers, and ultimately to themselves, that they are unperturbed, calm and collected in the face of terror; and girls must similarly demonstrate their sensitivity by being appropriately disturbed, dismayed, and disgusted” (p. 197).
In the 1960s people defined themselves in part by their reactions to Bonnie and Clyde (Hoberman, 1998). The violence of the film became a subject of conversation and social maneuvering, the purposes served by our public responses to all forms of entertainment. Cantor wrote that “violent television series might be characterized as anxiety- reducing, justice-restoring genres that attract anxious, more empathic children, who side emotionally with the ‘good guy’ over the ‘bad guy’ and use the programs to control their anxieties” (1998, pp. 113-114). However, violence for violence’s sake should be considered separately. “Children who are attracted by something described only as ‘very violent’ are more likely to be children with a good deal of exposure to violence in their own lives” and who enjoy the violence “irrespective of moral considerations or outcomes to protagonists” (p. 114). But the basis for their attraction remains unclear: Is it because, in contrast to what they witness on the screen, their own lives seem less wretched? Perhaps aggressive youngsters have a greater need for excitement, which underlies both their antisocial behavior and their entertainment preferences. It may be a test of their manliness, or a way to make or maintain friends.
SENSATION-SEEKING AND EXCITEMENT
Perhaps our attraction to violent imagery is an outcome of what sociologist Elias (1982) called the “civilizing process,” a way to fill the void left by diminished opportunities to experience the real thing. As death and dying were displaced from the family parlor to the funeral parlor, when the venue for capital executions was changed from public squares to behind prison walls, at just this time did public interest in images of death and dying increase, according to photo historian Goldberg (1998). Regardless of whether we crave excitement because society is increasingly “civilized” and “unexciting,” it is certainly true that some individuals crave excitement more than others. An undeniable characteristic of violent imagery is its emotional wallop. It gives most people a jolt. Not everyone finds this kind of stimulation pleasant, but some do. Psychologist Zuckerman’s (1979) concept of sensation-seeking helps to explain individual differences in attraction to violence. For the rebellious young, the mere fact that the topic is taboo is reason enough for engagement. Their curiosity about the forbidden is satisfied, and they learn to manage anxiety and defeat fear by distorting and exaggerating reality. At the same time, they bond with others, story tellers, and peers by sharing intense emotional experiences.
In the wonderfully titled Men, Women, and Chainsaws, Clover (1992) observed that extravagantly participatory audiences (shouting, throwing things) were the norm in all manner of performances (operatic, dramatic, symphonic) until toward the end of the 19th century, when they were silenced and “sacralized.”
Audiences express uproarious disgust (“Gross!”) as often as they express fear, and it is clear that the makers of slasher films pursue the combination. More particularly: spectators tend to be silent during the stalking scenes (although they sometimes call out warnings to the stalked person), scream out at the first slash, and make loud noises of revulsion at the sight of the bloody stump. The rapid alternation between registers-between something like “real” horror on one hand and a camp, self-parodying horror on the other-is by now one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the tradition. (p. 41)
Comic relief provided by the audience or the medium is one of the several clues that the violence on both sides of the joke is unreal. Negative emotions can be mixed with positive ones. In one study, the degree of enjoyment of the film Steel Magnolias was directly related to the degree of sadness experienced during the film (de Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1994). People may be attracted to violent entertainment, but they do not necessarily enjoy the gory details.
WHEN VIOLENCE IS NOT ATTRACTIVE
The premise that portrayals of violence are inherently appealing is untenable. Depending upon personal dispositions and social conditions, these portrayals are capable of evoking grief, disgust, or elation at extreme levels. From studies using bloody films that viewers found decidedly unappealing, violent portrayals can be disturbing, disgusting, and depressing, but these effects are insufficient to deter some viewers (McCauley, 1998). Why don’t negative feelings, such as fear and sadness, make for an unpleasant viewing experience? Feelings of control mediate this process. With the joystick or remote control in their hands, the audience or players can control not only what appears on the screen but indirectly what effects it will have on them. A remote control is ultimately a device for self control, for producing satisfying emotional and physiological states in the user. In a study at the University of Utrecht, students who viewed a violent videotape while merely holding a remote control experienced less distress than those who viewed the same tape without a remote control. Presumably, the feeling of control made the gruesome scenes less unpleasant. Some see predictability as the most appealing feature of violent entertainment, from cowboy movies to horror films. We know that the bad guys
will “buy it” in the end, or in the sequel. But this does not account for our interest in blood sports, where the outcome is not known in advance (Guttmann, 1998). Perhaps the unpredictability of events like a boxing match is attenuated by the knowledge that there will come another fight, another game. Maybe it isn’t over when it’s over. Although the outcome of a specific game or match is unpredictable, a subsequent one may provide a sense of closure.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
Both the context of violent images themselves and the circumstances in which they are experienced play a crucial role in their appeal. People go to horror films in order to experience in safety emotions that are usually associated with danger. In order to experience anything like pleasure from exposure to violent or threatening images, the audience must feel relatively safe and secure in their surroundings. Furthermore, there must be cues that the violent images are produced for purposes of entertainment and consumption. McCauley (1998) conducted research on the sort of bloody imagery that university students find unappealing and disgusting. He asked university students to view three video tapes until they found them intolerable. One was of a steer in a slaughterhouse, another of a monkey killed and served fresh to connoisseurs in China, and the third, surgery on a young girl, whose face had to be sliced open and the skin pulled away from the skull. Few watched these videos to the end. Bloody images lose their appeal when there are few cues to their unreality. If the violent imagery does not itself reveal its unreality, the physical environment may do so. We are aware of holding a book, of sitting in a movie theater or a sports stadium, of manipulating a joystick or remote control. Without background music, awareness of the camera, exaggerated special effects, or film editing, images of violence are unattractive to both males and females, according to McCauley’s (1998) experiments. In a Scandinavian study, preschool children typically showed facial expressions of joy while watching cartoon violence, but showed negative emotions while watching realistic physical violence (Lagerspetz, Wahlroos, & Wendelin, 1978). Not only the viewing situation, but the larger social world as well influences the attractiveness of violence. Interest in violent imagery changes with the times. War and war films are not independent of one another, nor are crime and crime entertainment. Real violence activates aggressive associations, images, and emotions. These, in turn, may heighten the preference for further exposure to violent entertainment. If children first hear aggressive stories, they are more likely to choose aggressive toys for play (Jukes & Goldstein, 1993). The same relationship is evident in preferences for violent film entertainment, war toys and
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video games, and enjoyment of blood sports (Keefer, Goldstein, & Kasiarz, 1983). One study reported an increase in attendance at violent films by University of Wisconsin students following the murder of a female student on campus (Boyanowsky, Newtson, & Walster, 1974). During the Persian Gulf War, sales of replica missiles skyrocketed (Goldstein, 1994). Heightened public support for military expenditures is related to increased sales of war toys and in the prevalence of war movies (Regan, 1994).
THE JUSTICE MOTIVE
The popularity of violent entertainment in times of war may reassure the audience that good will prevail over evil. Displays of violence result in distress, which is reduced when the bad guys get their comeuppance. According to Zillmann (1998), negative attitudes about the victims
contribute greatly to the enjoyment of humiliation, disparagement, defeat, and destruction . . . . Observing the audience of any contemporary action film, especially the apparent euphoria of young men upon seeing the bad guys being riddled with bullets and collapsing in deadly convulsions, should convince the doubtful that Western audiences fully exercise their moral right of rejoicing in response to exhibitions of righteous violence . . . . There can be little doubt, then, that righteous violence, however brutal but justified by the ends, will prompt gIoriously intense euphoric reactions the more it is preceded by patently unjust and similarly brutal violence. (pp. 205-208)
Viewers come to have strong feelings and fears regarding protagonists and antagonists and decide in moral terms what fate they deserve. “Implicitly justified hatred and the associated call for punitive action allows us to uninhibitedly enjoy the punitive action when it materializes. Negative affective dispositions, then, set us free to thoroughly enjoy punitive violence. As we have morally condemned a villain for raping and maiming, for instance, we are free to hate such a person, can joyously anticipate his execution, and openly applaud it when we finally witness it” (Zillmann, 1998, p. 202). Thus the typical storyline of enjoyable entertainment involves the establishment of animosity toward wrongdoers, which makes later violence against them seem justified and hence enjoyable.
ALMOST REAL
Does realism enhance or diminish the acceptance or appeal of violent images? People prefer realistic violence in sports, news reports, and magazine photos. Violence in sports is appealing not because of any “blood lust” among spectators
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but as a sign that the participants are willing to take risks for their sport, an indication of their passionate commitment (Zillmann, Bryant, & Sapolsky, 1989). In other realms, such as film, children’s television, and play, it appears that violent imagery must carry cues to its unreality or it loses appeal. Based on his studies of disgusting films, McCauley (1998) offered two possibilities: 1. Emotions elicited by drama are weaker than everyday emotions. So the arousal accompanying fear, disgust, and pity can be experienced as pleasurable. Within a dramatic or protective frame, violent imagery becomes exciting rather than anxiety provoking. 2. The emotions experienced in drama are qualitatively different from their real-life counterparts. “Indeed, this theory would assert that we err in calling dramatic emotions by the same names as everyday emotions; the dramatic emotions are a parallel but different reality,” wrote McCauley (p. 160). Perhaps when the violence is almost real, so too are the emotions it elicits. Both sides of the equation (the violent images and the emotions that result) are recognizably different from the genuine articles. Hence, the distress is not too intense to spoil our enjoyment.
VIOLENT IMAGES AS SOCIAL CONTROL
Gerbner and his colleagues (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994) at the University of Pennsylvania reported that heavy viewers of violence in the media come to see the world as a frightening and dangerous place. As a result, they lend support to the forces of law and order. In Gerbner’s cultivation theory, media violence is a means of social control. Similarly, Tatar (1998) considered children’s stories as a form of moral instruction, produced by adults to frighten children into obedience. Do these scary tales with morals produce obedience? Yes, she says, if it is clear what must be done to reduce the jeopardy. Children who disobey their parents, lie, or steal in these tales meet horrific ends. The message is that obedience, truthfulness, and honesty will enable children to avoid these horrible consequences. Violent entertainment did not suddenly arrive on the scene, and it is not likely to depart it any time soon. People become acclimated to the arousal generated by violent images, but they have a continuing need for excitement. Does this mean that we shall have to accept ever-increasing violence and terror for entertainment purposes? “It would appear to be so,” answered Zillmann (1998, p. 211). Can the future course of violent entertainment be predicted? The violence in some media has been toned down over time, as occurred with fairy tales, whereas
VIOLENT ENTEFZT- 28 1
in others, like Hollywood films, it has increased. What is technologically feasible will almost inevitably be tried. Are the exploding bodies of Hollywood only a test of the limits of new technology? If so, we can expect increasingly realistic shoot-em-ups as virtual reality and other new technologies evolve. It is up to the image makers to put violence in perspective, to emphasize, as they do, the unacceptability of random, arbitrary, anarchistic, and plain sadistic violence, and to portray violence that ultimately serves justice and the good of humanity. The public can and does influence the limits of acceptable displays of violence. There is opposition to “ultimate fighting,” and even the future of boxing is in doubt because of growing public discontent with its crippling injuries. Eventually it might suffer the fate of smoking. Granted that the portrayal of violent action is inevitable, nevertheless, the limits we place on it, the manner in which we consume it, and the ways we respond to it help to define a culture.
REFERENCES
Boyanowksy, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communication Research, 1, 32-43. Cantor, J. (1998). Children’s attraction to violent television programming. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 88-115). New York: Oxford University Press. Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chainsaws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Collins-Standley, T., Gan, S., Yu, H. J., & Zillmann, D. (1995). Choice of romantic, violent, and scary fairy-tale books by preschool girls and boys. Unpublished manuscript. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Csikszentrnihalyi, M. (1990). Theflow experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. de Wied, M., Zillmann, D., & Ordman, V. (1994). The role of empathic distress in the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. Poetics, 23, 91-106. Elias, N. (1982). The civilizing process. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1969) Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17-41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goldberg, V. (1998). Death takes a holiday, sort of. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 27-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Goldstein, J. (1994). Sex differences in toy play and use of video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Toys, play, and child development (pp. 110-129). New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998a), Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53-68). New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998b), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press. Guttmann, A. (1998). The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 7-26). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, J. (1998). “A test for the individual viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s violent reception. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 116-143). New York: Oxford University Press. Jukes, J., & Goldstein, J. H. (1993). Preference for aggressive toys. International Play Journal. 1, 93-103. Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic Games participation and warfare. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183-193). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lagerspetz, K. M., Wahlroos, C., & Wendelin, C. (1978). Facial expressions of preschool children while watching televised violence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 2 13-222. McCauley, C. (1998). When screen violence is not attractive. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 144-162). New York: Oxford University Press. Regan, P. M. (1994). War toys, war movies, and the militarization of the United States, 1900-1985. Journal of Peace Research, 31, 45-58. Tatar, M. (1998). “Violent delights” in children’s literature. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 69-87). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D. (1998). The psychology of the appeal of portrayals of violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 179-2 11). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 241-278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley.

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Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

Media Psychology/The Attractions of Violent Entertainment:Jeffrey Goldstein

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The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein
To cite this article: Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, Media Psychology, 1:3, 271-282, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0103_5
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MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 1, 271-282. Copyright O 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
Jeffrey Goldstein Department of Media & Communication University of Utrecht
This article summarizes a project supported by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation on the attractions of violent entertainment. We consider why violence is such a prominent feature of entertainment. The audiences for violent entertainment are examined, as is the nature of the violence that attracts them. The role of sensation-seeking, context, the justice motive, and social control in the entertainment experience are considered. Violent entertainment is placed in historical and social contexts, demonstrating that its appeal varies with the times.
In 1990 the International Herald Tribune reprinted the following in its column, “One Hundred Years Ago”:
1890: Criminal Reading LONDON-The Telegraph mentions the arrest of a youthful burglar, who confessed that he was led into crime by reading the “Life of a Detective.” The Telegraph thinks that such a book ought to have warned the boy of the dangers of a life of crime. “As a matter of fact the book seems rather to have stimulated than weakened the criminal propensities of the precocious student. Detective literature may be as injurious to the morals of the young as stories eulogizing the achievements of robbers, highwaymen and pirates.” It is curious that detective stories are among the favorite books of youthful criminals. [13-14 Oct.]
Whether detective or any other form of violent entertainment stimulates “criminal tendencies” has been widely discussed and studied. With predictable regularity, legislators consider the potentially harmful effects that violent images in mass media may have on our society and our youth, from hearings about
“The Attractions of Violent Entertainment” by Jeffrey Goldstein, from Why We Watch: The Attractions of Molent Entertainment, edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. Copyright O 1998 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jeffrey Goldstein, Department of Media & Communication, University of Utrecht, Post box 80 140,3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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violence in Hollywood films and the Kefauver investigations of juvenile delinquency in 1954-1955, which implicated comic books, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and the Surgeon General’s inquiries into the effects of television violence. But The Telegraph alluded to another issue, one that until recently had been ignored: the attractiveness of violent entertainment to a youthful audience. Whereas many lament the possible consequences of media violence, few have asked why an audience for violent entertainment exists in the first place. After all, no one is forced to watch Jean-Claude van Damme or a Quentin Tarantinio film, go to a boxing match, play Mortal Kombat on their Nintendo platforms, or read Stephen King or Sherlock Holmes. Stallone, Schwarzenegger, and Mike Tyson are among the most highly paid and recognizable figures in the world. In Japan, both men and women read “Manga,” extraordinarily gruesome comic books that feature extreme violence. In The Great Railway Bazaac Paul Theroux picks up a fat comic book left by a girl seated next to him on a train in Japan. “The comic strips showed decapitations, cannibalism, people bristling with arrows like Saint Sebastian . . . . The girl returned to her seat and, so help me God, serenely returned to the distressing comic.” Does this graphic violence appeal to Japanese readers for the same reasons that Arnold Schwarzenegger films appeal to Westerners? The attractions of violence are best explained by analyzing its portrayal, its audience, and the context in which it is consumed.
HOW ATTRACTIVE IS IT?
The attractions of violent entertainment are many and varied. It offers something for nearly everyone. The audiences for images of violence, death, and dying do not share a single motive; some viewers seek excitement, others companionship or social acceptance through shared experience, and still others wish to see justice enacted. Immersion in a fantasy world is conducive to the transcendental experience of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). To keep this in perspective, bear in mind that although violent entertainment is among the most frequent topics of study and controversy concerning the media, it is not the most popular genre. Although there seems always to have been an audience for violent enactments and portrayals, comedy is more popular, in part because it appeals equally to men and women, young and old. Many people seem attracted to, or at least not wholly repelled by, violent imagery, but there may be a small audience that actually demands violent images in its entertainment. For some boys and men, the violence is the thing. But for
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the majority of consumers of violent imagery, the violence is a means to ends, a device valued more for what it does than for what it is.
THE AUDIENCES FOR VIOLENT IMAGERY
It is difficult to think of a group of people that is not in some way an audience for violent imagery. People consume violent images, talk about violence, read about it, and write scientific articles about it. Boys and men are the most avid consumers, the target market. Every study of the subject finds that males far more than females are drawn to violent entertainment. This is true not only in the United States and Europe, but everywhere it has been studied, for example, in India, Japan, and the Philippines. It is boys and young men who play with toy guns, fill soccer stadia every Saturday, watch Faces of Death, and embrace Beavis and Butthead. Violent entertainment appeals primarily to males, and it appeals to them mostly in groups. People rarely attend horror films or boxing matches alone, and boys do not often play war games by themselves. These are social occasions, particularly suitable for “male bonding” and communicating a masculine identity to your mates. Boys may play violent video games alone in their rooms, but they are almost certain to talk about them with their friends. The documentary film Faces of Death, for example, was regarded by adolescent boys as a rite of passage, where the acceptable reaction was to consider the gore “cool” rather than “gross.” Which young men? Those with an above-average level of aggression and a moderately high need for excitement. Not every boy and man finds images of violence enjoyable, and not every female finds them repugnant. Why don’t females find this material as appealing as men do? Is it because men have different needs than women for excitement, for example, or because women have alternative means of satisfying the same needs, such as expressing emotion more openly? Individuals differ in their need for excitement and tolerance for stimulation. Those with a moderately high need for sensation find portrayals of violence more enjoyable than those with a lesser need. Individuals extremely high in sensation seeking, however, tend to find passive activities, like watching films and television, insufficiently stimulating; they prefer active dangers like sky diving and bungee jumping. Adolescent boys like violent entertainment more than any other group does, although this does not mean that they like only violent entertainment or that they are the only audience for it. Relative to other children, highly aggressive boys find war toys more appealing than other toys and prefer violent sports, films,
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video games, and television programs. Even preschool children’s favorite fairy tales are related to their degree of aggression (Collins-Standley, Gan, Yu, & Zillmann, 1995). The most popular spectator sports are similar to rock concerts and other public spectacles, in that they provide a physiological “kick” for the observer and also serve as social occasions for the expression of intense emotion. For men, aggressive sports like football and boxing provide opportunities to shout and yell. Perhaps males can overcome the social pressures on them not to be emotionally expressive with other males only in a hyper-masculine context like aggressive sports, rough-and-tumble play, and violent entertainment. Making airplane, automobile, and shooting sounds is one of the appeals of aggressive games, especially for boys.
WHY WE WATCH
People can choose the degree of emotional content and frenzy with which they are most comfortable, just as they do when selecting music to listen to. There is the heavy metal in-your-face violence of Natural Born Killers, documentary footage of suicides, accidents, and public executions in Faces of Death, the commedia dell ‘arte stylized violence of a Schwarzenegger or Stallone movie or of a martial arts video game, slapstick comic violence, and the more cerebral Pulp Fiction. There is the bookish violence of horror and detective stories, true crime reports of Ann Rule, and for those who want to do away with the emotional content altogether, there is the academic study of violence. In discussions of violent entertainment there is much speculation about morbid curiosity and our baser instincts. But the interest in violent entertainment may have less to do with our “violent nature” and more to do with old-fashioned virtues of morality and justice. In examining armchair analyses, Cantor (1998), McCauley (1998), and Zillmann (1998) could find no support for several popular (and a few truly bizarre) explanations. They have laid to rest many of the speculations regarding violent entertainment. For example, they could find no evidence to support the position that people experience a catharsis of deep-seated fears, such as fear of the dark, or fear of aging, death, AIDS, technology, or the unknown. Likewise, there is little evidence to support the claim that viewers identify with the aggressor. Violent entertainment does not purge us of aggression or the propensity for violence, nor does it provide relief from unpleasant emotions. “We are told . . . that the atomic bomb created a new climate of fear, and that because people now are more death-conscious than ever before, they seek
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exposure to displays of violence and death to work out their fears,” wrote Zillmann (1998, pp. 185-186). This makes no more sense, he says, than “the claim that a fear of overpopulation is behind our interest in seeing as much slaughter of humanity as we can muster” (p. 186). Violent material does not ”provide relief from ill emotions and motivations” (p. 186). The best evidence is that the audience is disturbed and disgusted by scenes of violence but continues to watch it anyway. The benefits, in other words, outweigh the costs. The potential of a book, film, or vidw game to engross one in an imaginary world is one of the most attractive features of entertainment media. For a short time, one can become totally immersed in an activity. The willing suspension of disbelief, the leap into imaginary worlds, whether through literature, film, television, play, or sport, appeals on many levels. This potential inheres in all entertainment, of course, but it helps explain the tolerance for, if not the attraction of, violent imagery.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
I once spent an evening with a group of teenage girls and boys watching horror films that they themselves had selected. How would these middle-class American youngsters react to the dismemberments and exploding bodies? These young people seemingly found it difficult to watch the bloody excesses, though boys and girls expressed their distress in different ways. When the music-enhanced story suggested impending bloodshed, the girls would look away froin the screen and talk animatedly among themselves about unrelated topics-school, friends, parties. The boys apparently did not feel free to look away; while still gazing determinedly at the screen, they distanced themselves emotionally from the action by commenting upon the special effects, how they were done, whether the gore looked convincingly real. For a moment they saw the film through the dispassionate eyes of a film critic. When the music gave the “all clear” signal, they resumed their engagement with the story. “Distancing” oneself from the mayhem makes it tolerable. These adolescent boys and girls were able to fine-tune their degree of involvement. I spoke with one young woman who watches horrific films. She makes them palatable by squeezing her leg until it hurts, distracting herself while looking at the screen. She, too, wants to demonstrate that she can take it. Zillmann (1998) described the process well: “Boys must prove to their peers, and ultimately to themselves, that they are unperturbed, calm and collected in the face of terror; and girls must similarly demonstrate their sensitivity by being appropriately disturbed, dismayed, and disgusted” (p. 197).
In the 1960s people defined themselves in part by their reactions to Bonnie and Clyde (Hoberman, 1998). The violence of the film became a subject of conversation and social maneuvering, the purposes served by our public responses to all forms of entertainment. Cantor wrote that “violent television series might be characterized as anxiety- reducing, justice-restoring genres that attract anxious, more empathic children, who side emotionally with the ‘good guy’ over the ‘bad guy’ and use the programs to control their anxieties” (1998, pp. 113-114). However, violence for violence’s sake should be considered separately. “Children who are attracted by something described only as ‘very violent’ are more likely to be children with a good deal of exposure to violence in their own lives” and who enjoy the violence “irrespective of moral considerations or outcomes to protagonists” (p. 114). But the basis for their attraction remains unclear: Is it because, in contrast to what they witness on the screen, their own lives seem less wretched? Perhaps aggressive youngsters have a greater need for excitement, which underlies both their antisocial behavior and their entertainment preferences. It may be a test of their manliness, or a way to make or maintain friends.
SENSATION-SEEKING AND EXCITEMENT
Perhaps our attraction to violent imagery is an outcome of what sociologist Elias (1982) called the “civilizing process,” a way to fill the void left by diminished opportunities to experience the real thing. As death and dying were displaced from the family parlor to the funeral parlor, when the venue for capital executions was changed from public squares to behind prison walls, at just this time did public interest in images of death and dying increase, according to photo historian Goldberg (1998). Regardless of whether we crave excitement because society is increasingly “civilized” and “unexciting,” it is certainly true that some individuals crave excitement more than others. An undeniable characteristic of violent imagery is its emotional wallop. It gives most people a jolt. Not everyone finds this kind of stimulation pleasant, but some do. Psychologist Zuckerman’s (1979) concept of sensation-seeking helps to explain individual differences in attraction to violence. For the rebellious young, the mere fact that the topic is taboo is reason enough for engagement. Their curiosity about the forbidden is satisfied, and they learn to manage anxiety and defeat fear by distorting and exaggerating reality. At the same time, they bond with others, story tellers, and peers by sharing intense emotional experiences.
In the wonderfully titled Men, Women, and Chainsaws, Clover (1992) observed that extravagantly participatory audiences (shouting, throwing things) were the norm in all manner of performances (operatic, dramatic, symphonic) until toward the end of the 19th century, when they were silenced and “sacralized.”
Audiences express uproarious disgust (“Gross!”) as often as they express fear, and it is clear that the makers of slasher films pursue the combination. More particularly: spectators tend to be silent during the stalking scenes (although they sometimes call out warnings to the stalked person), scream out at the first slash, and make loud noises of revulsion at the sight of the bloody stump. The rapid alternation between registers-between something like “real” horror on one hand and a camp, self-parodying horror on the other-is by now one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the tradition. (p. 41)
Comic relief provided by the audience or the medium is one of the several clues that the violence on both sides of the joke is unreal. Negative emotions can be mixed with positive ones. In one study, the degree of enjoyment of the film Steel Magnolias was directly related to the degree of sadness experienced during the film (de Wied, Zillmann, & Ordman, 1994). People may be attracted to violent entertainment, but they do not necessarily enjoy the gory details.
WHEN VIOLENCE IS NOT ATTRACTIVE
The premise that portrayals of violence are inherently appealing is untenable. Depending upon personal dispositions and social conditions, these portrayals are capable of evoking grief, disgust, or elation at extreme levels. From studies using bloody films that viewers found decidedly unappealing, violent portrayals can be disturbing, disgusting, and depressing, but these effects are insufficient to deter some viewers (McCauley, 1998). Why don’t negative feelings, such as fear and sadness, make for an unpleasant viewing experience? Feelings of control mediate this process. With the joystick or remote control in their hands, the audience or players can control not only what appears on the screen but indirectly what effects it will have on them. A remote control is ultimately a device for self control, for producing satisfying emotional and physiological states in the user. In a study at the University of Utrecht, students who viewed a violent videotape while merely holding a remote control experienced less distress than those who viewed the same tape without a remote control. Presumably, the feeling of control made the gruesome scenes less unpleasant. Some see predictability as the most appealing feature of violent entertainment, from cowboy movies to horror films. We know that the bad guys
will “buy it” in the end, or in the sequel. But this does not account for our interest in blood sports, where the outcome is not known in advance (Guttmann, 1998). Perhaps the unpredictability of events like a boxing match is attenuated by the knowledge that there will come another fight, another game. Maybe it isn’t over when it’s over. Although the outcome of a specific game or match is unpredictable, a subsequent one may provide a sense of closure.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
Both the context of violent images themselves and the circumstances in which they are experienced play a crucial role in their appeal. People go to horror films in order to experience in safety emotions that are usually associated with danger. In order to experience anything like pleasure from exposure to violent or threatening images, the audience must feel relatively safe and secure in their surroundings. Furthermore, there must be cues that the violent images are produced for purposes of entertainment and consumption. McCauley (1998) conducted research on the sort of bloody imagery that university students find unappealing and disgusting. He asked university students to view three video tapes until they found them intolerable. One was of a steer in a slaughterhouse, another of a monkey killed and served fresh to connoisseurs in China, and the third, surgery on a young girl, whose face had to be sliced open and the skin pulled away from the skull. Few watched these videos to the end. Bloody images lose their appeal when there are few cues to their unreality. If the violent imagery does not itself reveal its unreality, the physical environment may do so. We are aware of holding a book, of sitting in a movie theater or a sports stadium, of manipulating a joystick or remote control. Without background music, awareness of the camera, exaggerated special effects, or film editing, images of violence are unattractive to both males and females, according to McCauley’s (1998) experiments. In a Scandinavian study, preschool children typically showed facial expressions of joy while watching cartoon violence, but showed negative emotions while watching realistic physical violence (Lagerspetz, Wahlroos, & Wendelin, 1978). Not only the viewing situation, but the larger social world as well influences the attractiveness of violence. Interest in violent imagery changes with the times. War and war films are not independent of one another, nor are crime and crime entertainment. Real violence activates aggressive associations, images, and emotions. These, in turn, may heighten the preference for further exposure to violent entertainment. If children first hear aggressive stories, they are more likely to choose aggressive toys for play (Jukes & Goldstein, 1993). The same relationship is evident in preferences for violent film entertainment, war toys and
VIOLENT ENTERTMNh4ENT 279
video games, and enjoyment of blood sports (Keefer, Goldstein, & Kasiarz, 1983). One study reported an increase in attendance at violent films by University of Wisconsin students following the murder of a female student on campus (Boyanowsky, Newtson, & Walster, 1974). During the Persian Gulf War, sales of replica missiles skyrocketed (Goldstein, 1994). Heightened public support for military expenditures is related to increased sales of war toys and in the prevalence of war movies (Regan, 1994).
THE JUSTICE MOTIVE
The popularity of violent entertainment in times of war may reassure the audience that good will prevail over evil. Displays of violence result in distress, which is reduced when the bad guys get their comeuppance. According to Zillmann (1998), negative attitudes about the victims
contribute greatly to the enjoyment of humiliation, disparagement, defeat, and destruction . . . . Observing the audience of any contemporary action film, especially the apparent euphoria of young men upon seeing the bad guys being riddled with bullets and collapsing in deadly convulsions, should convince the doubtful that Western audiences fully exercise their moral right of rejoicing in response to exhibitions of righteous violence . . . . There can be little doubt, then, that righteous violence, however brutal but justified by the ends, will prompt gIoriously intense euphoric reactions the more it is preceded by patently unjust and similarly brutal violence. (pp. 205-208)
Viewers come to have strong feelings and fears regarding protagonists and antagonists and decide in moral terms what fate they deserve. “Implicitly justified hatred and the associated call for punitive action allows us to uninhibitedly enjoy the punitive action when it materializes. Negative affective dispositions, then, set us free to thoroughly enjoy punitive violence. As we have morally condemned a villain for raping and maiming, for instance, we are free to hate such a person, can joyously anticipate his execution, and openly applaud it when we finally witness it” (Zillmann, 1998, p. 202). Thus the typical storyline of enjoyable entertainment involves the establishment of animosity toward wrongdoers, which makes later violence against them seem justified and hence enjoyable.
ALMOST REAL
Does realism enhance or diminish the acceptance or appeal of violent images? People prefer realistic violence in sports, news reports, and magazine photos. Violence in sports is appealing not because of any “blood lust” among spectators
280 GOLDSTEIN
but as a sign that the participants are willing to take risks for their sport, an indication of their passionate commitment (Zillmann, Bryant, & Sapolsky, 1989). In other realms, such as film, children’s television, and play, it appears that violent imagery must carry cues to its unreality or it loses appeal. Based on his studies of disgusting films, McCauley (1998) offered two possibilities: 1. Emotions elicited by drama are weaker than everyday emotions. So the arousal accompanying fear, disgust, and pity can be experienced as pleasurable. Within a dramatic or protective frame, violent imagery becomes exciting rather than anxiety provoking. 2. The emotions experienced in drama are qualitatively different from their real-life counterparts. “Indeed, this theory would assert that we err in calling dramatic emotions by the same names as everyday emotions; the dramatic emotions are a parallel but different reality,” wrote McCauley (p. 160). Perhaps when the violence is almost real, so too are the emotions it elicits. Both sides of the equation (the violent images and the emotions that result) are recognizably different from the genuine articles. Hence, the distress is not too intense to spoil our enjoyment.
VIOLENT IMAGES AS SOCIAL CONTROL
Gerbner and his colleagues (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994) at the University of Pennsylvania reported that heavy viewers of violence in the media come to see the world as a frightening and dangerous place. As a result, they lend support to the forces of law and order. In Gerbner’s cultivation theory, media violence is a means of social control. Similarly, Tatar (1998) considered children’s stories as a form of moral instruction, produced by adults to frighten children into obedience. Do these scary tales with morals produce obedience? Yes, she says, if it is clear what must be done to reduce the jeopardy. Children who disobey their parents, lie, or steal in these tales meet horrific ends. The message is that obedience, truthfulness, and honesty will enable children to avoid these horrible consequences. Violent entertainment did not suddenly arrive on the scene, and it is not likely to depart it any time soon. People become acclimated to the arousal generated by violent images, but they have a continuing need for excitement. Does this mean that we shall have to accept ever-increasing violence and terror for entertainment purposes? “It would appear to be so,” answered Zillmann (1998, p. 211). Can the future course of violent entertainment be predicted? The violence in some media has been toned down over time, as occurred with fairy tales, whereas
VIOLENT ENTEFZT- 28 1
in others, like Hollywood films, it has increased. What is technologically feasible will almost inevitably be tried. Are the exploding bodies of Hollywood only a test of the limits of new technology? If so, we can expect increasingly realistic shoot-em-ups as virtual reality and other new technologies evolve. It is up to the image makers to put violence in perspective, to emphasize, as they do, the unacceptability of random, arbitrary, anarchistic, and plain sadistic violence, and to portray violence that ultimately serves justice and the good of humanity. The public can and does influence the limits of acceptable displays of violence. There is opposition to “ultimate fighting,” and even the future of boxing is in doubt because of growing public discontent with its crippling injuries. Eventually it might suffer the fate of smoking. Granted that the portrayal of violent action is inevitable, nevertheless, the limits we place on it, the manner in which we consume it, and the ways we respond to it help to define a culture.
REFERENCES
Boyanowksy, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communication Research, 1, 32-43. Cantor, J. (1998). Children’s attraction to violent television programming. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 88-115). New York: Oxford University Press. Clover, C. J. (1992). Men, women, and chainsaws: Gender in the modern horror film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Collins-Standley, T., Gan, S., Yu, H. J., & Zillmann, D. (1995). Choice of romantic, violent, and scary fairy-tale books by preschool girls and boys. Unpublished manuscript. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Csikszentrnihalyi, M. (1990). Theflow experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. de Wied, M., Zillmann, D., & Ordman, V. (1994). The role of empathic distress in the enjoyment of cinematic tragedy. Poetics, 23, 91-106. Elias, N. (1982). The civilizing process. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1969) Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17-41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Goldberg, V. (1998). Death takes a holiday, sort of. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 27-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
282 GOLDSTEIN
Goldstein, J. (1994). Sex differences in toy play and use of video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Toys, play, and child development (pp. 110-129). New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998a), Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53-68). New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, J. (1998b), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment. New York: Oxford University Press. Guttmann, A. (1998). The appeal of violent sports. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 7-26). New York: Oxford University Press. Hoberman, J. (1998). “A test for the individual viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s violent reception. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 116-143). New York: Oxford University Press. Jukes, J., & Goldstein, J. H. (1993). Preference for aggressive toys. International Play Journal. 1, 93-103. Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic Games participation and warfare. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183-193). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lagerspetz, K. M., Wahlroos, C., & Wendelin, C. (1978). Facial expressions of preschool children while watching televised violence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 2 13-222. McCauley, C. (1998). When screen violence is not attractive. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 144-162). New York: Oxford University Press. Regan, P. M. (1994). War toys, war movies, and the militarization of the United States, 1900-1985. Journal of Peace Research, 31, 45-58. Tatar, M. (1998). “Violent delights” in children’s literature. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 69-87). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D. (1998). The psychology of the appeal of portrayals of violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 179-2 11). New York: Oxford University Press. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 241-278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley.

This assignment is a written critical analysis of the subject article (attache

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial; this means that there is more than one viewpoint on the topic.

Your initial post should respond to the following discussion elements:

Step 1: Topics and Questions

List three topics that interest you

Write at least one question about each of the topics (remember: who, what, where, when, why, and how)

Step 2: Answering your questions

The answers you provide to the questions help develop and focus a thesis for a researched argument

Answer one of the questions you posed for each of the three topics chosen.

The answers to the questions should be a statement/sentence that contains the words “should,” “must,” or “need” as a helping verb.

Step 3: Expand upon one topic.

Write a paragraph or two based on what you already know about this topic.

Try to come up with several points (or reasons) why your statement (aka thesis) is true.

Tip: Think about how someone would try to prove your thesis isn’t true.

PART 10

This week we continue sharpening our skills related to summarizing published works, and examining different points of view. The topic for this week’s discussion forum is immigration. Immigration (both legal and illegal) is an ever-growing world issue. Viewpoints on immigration vary greatly. Every day there are plenty of good, hard-working, and otherwise law abiding people attempting to cross American borders. The people are, in most instances, looking for a better way to support their families, to be safe in their communities, and to have better opportunities for themselves and for their children.In your analysis, explore alternative viewpoints regarding immigration.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following articles:

Stock, M.D. (2013). Military Immigration Issues. Gosolo, 30(5). 38-41.

Goldberg, M. (2014). Our Refugee Crisis, Nation, pp. 4-6.

Anderson, S. (2012). American’s Incoherent Immigration System. CATO Journal, 32(1) 71-84.

Step 1: Summarizing

Briefly summarize the articles.

Be sure to cite your sources by identifying the author(s) and the title of the article

Step 2: Examining Different Points of View

Write two paragraphs that compare and contrast the articles.

What is the purpose of each article? Are the purposes the same or different?

What similarities did you find among the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

What differences did you find between the articles?

Be specific by providing examples

Be sure to cite your sources

Step 3: Create a References page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected sources.

PART 11

Options Menu: Forum

W4: Stereotyping

In this week’s discussion forum, we will be summarizing a published work, and examining different viewpoints regarding the controversial topic of stereotyping.After summarizing the given article, explore differing viewpoints regarding the topic of stereotyping.

Finding a source

Use the EBSCO host link to find the following article:

Lun, J., Sinclair, S., & Cogburn, C. (2009). Cultural stereotypes and the self: A closer examination of implicit self-stereotyping. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 117-127. doi:10.1080/01973530902880340

Summarizing a published work

Your initial post should respond to each of following discussion elements:

Step 1: Summarizing a source

Write a brief summary of the argument presented in the article above. Remember that summaries do not go into great detail. Your summary should have enough information for the reader to understand the focus (thesis) of the article and how the author supports the thesis. Your summary should contain all the following elements:

Introduce the article by its author and title

Explain the author’s argument (what does the author claim and what are the supporting reasons)

What the does article tell us about individuality or identity?

Use in-text citations to identify when you are using the author’s ideas.

Quote a passage that struck you as interesting or enlightening and explain why.

Introduce the quotation carefully with a signal phrase, such as, “Lun, Sinclair, & Cogburn explain that…”, and

Include an in-text citation including a page number to cite your quotation.

Step 2: Examining Different Viewpoints

One of the most interesting things about stereotypes is how they can affect the actions of those who have been stereotyped. Think of a stereotype you’re familiar with.

Which came first, the label or the trait?

How can the things that other people say about us affect who we become?

Step 3: Create a References Page

At the end of your discussion post, create a references page:

Type the word “References”

Enter a line break

Provide the full citation (in APA format) for your selected text.

PART 12

This discussion forum explores a controversial topic: Civil Disobedience. Remember that any argument asks (or perhaps challenges) us to change something about our perspective on a topic or issue. If we are asking our readers to change their perspectives, we need to be persuasive and civil. Likewise, when we are challenged by others with a different opinion, we need to keep an open mind and keep our responses persuasive and civil.

Analyzing Published Works

Select either Option A or Option B for a selection of articles to read for this discussion forum.

Option A:Civil Disobedience and Non-violence

King, M. (2009). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1.

Brown, T. M., & Fee, E. (2008). Spinning for India’s Independence. American Journal Of Public Health, 98(1), 39.

Perlin, R. (2015). Two Occupys: Dissent (00123846), 62(3), 92-100.

Option B:Civil Disobedience in Cyberspace

Ludlow, P. (2013). Hacktivist Witch Hunt. Nation, 297(26/27), 23-26.

Iltan, C. (2011). Moving targets. Maclean’s, 124(33/34), 63.

Dunion, K. (2011). Viewpoint: In defense of Freedom of Information. Information Polity: The International Journal Of Government & Democracy In The Information Age, 16(2), 93-96. doi:10.3233/IP-2011-0233

Be sure to address all of the following elements in your initial post:

Step 1: Summarizing and examining different points of view.

Summarize the articles you picked. Write one paragraph. Identify the sources by title and author in your paragraph.

What is the main thesis of each?

How are they are they different and how are they similar?

Step 2: Using sources to support your argument (point of view).

Now, discuss your perspective of the topic. Support your statements by citing supportive evidence from the articles you read. Remember to use appropriate citations when you quote, paraphrase or summarize. Write one paragraph. Here are some questions you can use as a starting point for your one-paragraph discussion.

What is your opinion of the content and the topic? For a researched argument, you would support your opinion by using supporting information from the article. Use in-text citations if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase.

Was the article persuasive? How?

What reaction did you have to the content of the article? Draw upon personal experience or use other sources to support your discussion.

PART 13

This week, we are going to practice making counter-arguments. Once you have selected your topic and devised your thesis, you will need to support your thesis with arguments. In addition, you will need to anticipate alternative viewpoints, and develop counter-arguments that will address those concerns.

Step 1: Finding and Citing Sources

For this discussion forum, select one topic from the list provided below. Use the EBSCO host link to find five sources that relate to this topic. Confine your search to articles from 2010 to present. Copy and paste the APA citations into your post or your document.

Effects of Prison on First-time Offenders

Salaries for Engineers

Cyber terrorism

Effective Managers

Medical Coding Challenges

Step 2: State your position.

Draft one sentence stating your position on your chosen topic.

Step 3: Anticipating Different Points of View

Think through all aspects of the topic.

Develop a list of all various viewpoints, and select those that you will address with counter-arguments.

Step 4: Offering counter-arguments

Find a source that counters your statement (has a different viewpoint).

Draft one sentence that explains the different viewpoint.

Cite the source by copying and pasting the APA citation into the post.

PART 14

This week, you will consider how to improve your paper. First, review the Course Objectives (from the syllabus, and weekly “Getting Started” modules) to remind yourself about the goals of this course. Next, review the tips for revision, editing, and proofreading from the reading this week. Now consider the feedback you received on your rough draft. In your initial post to this discussion forum, discuss your rough draft in terms of the following Course Objectives:

Finding Sources

Analyzing Published Works

Using APA Style

Effective Writing

Presenting an Argument

Identify three ways that you will apply what you have learned from the reading (be specific) to help you create the final draft of your paper (the researched argument, Week 8 assignment). Your discussion should display your knowledge of the reading.

PART 15

In week 1, an article was introduced:

english comp 2 1

PART 1 A TOTAL OF 14 PARTS, PLEASE DO NOT COMMIT IF YOU’RE NOT GOING TO COMPLETE THEM ALL.

Finding Sources

Research papers rely on sources to validate the writer’s argument (viewpoint). It is important to find credible sources and to identify them correctly when writing a research paper. In this assignment, we will build upon what you learned in your assigned readings. There are three parts to this assignment. Please be sure you respond to each part thoroughly.

Section One

Visit the OWL site, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, to answer the following questions:

What are the differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

Are researchers required to provide in-text citations and a References page entry for all three? Why or why not?

What are three ways to avoid plagiarism?

Section Two

After reading Parts 1 and 2 in the Writing Guide, explain what it means to make choices in writing. To provide a framework for your response, imagine you are trying to convince someone to vote for a new school initiative and answer the following questions.

If you know that the other person sees the issue differently than you do, what strategy would you take to draw him/her to your way of thinking?

What choices would you be faced with?

Section Three

Click here to download a copy of the EBSCOhost practice assignment.

Save the document by renaming it with this naming convention: “EN102_yourlastname_yourfirstname_yourGID”

As you complete the assignment, write your answers on the template (it is a Word document).

Attach this document when you are submitting your responses to this assignment.

Note:

This assignment does not require APA citations; however, you should identify any words or ideas you draw from your readings.

Assignment should be formatted in basic APA format: 1-inch margins, page numbers at the top right of the page, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Submitting the assignment: Answer the questions in each section and attach your answers to the drop box in a single file.

PART 2

Your ultimate goal for this class is to write a researched argument paper (also known as an argumentative paper).Each weekly assignment and discussion forum is designed to help you achieve this goal.Your rough draft will be due in week 6, and the final draft will be due in week 8.

What is an argumentative paper?This week, your readings included an excerpt from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL). Here is their explanation of an argumentative paper:

“An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.” (Tardiff & Brizzee, 2014)

Reference Citation

Tardiff, E. & Brizzee, A. (2014). Tips and examples for writing thesis statements. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/1/.

Through this assignment, you will sharpen your skills for writing your researched argument paper:

1.Practice narrowing a topic so that sources can be found and a clear thesis can be developed

2.Practice writing a thesis statement

Part A: Narrowing Topics

To write a short researched argument, a topic must be controversial and the main point of view (argument) must be clear. Listed below are three broad and controversial topics. Under each topic are four narrowing questions. Each of those questions moves the topic toward a more narrow focus.

Example 1: Violence in schools

1.What causes violence in high schools?

2.Is there a developing trend in frequency or type of school violence?

3.How should violent school children be punished?

4.What can be done to prevent school violence?

Example 2: Drug use

1.Which drugs should be illegal?

2.What kinds of drugs are the most dangerous?

3.Is there a correlation between childhood exposure to drugs and use of drugs in adulthood?

4.What kind of penalties should there be for the various kinds of illegal drug offenses?

Example 3: Immigration

1.What are the effects of illegal immigration?

2.What are the effects of legal immigration?

3.How should immigration laws be enforced?

4.What’s the driving force behind illegal immigration?

After reviewing the three examples, write three narrowing questions for each of the four topics listed below.

Education

1.Is it necessary to go to college in order to be successful?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Sports

1.Are professional athletes paid too much?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Health insurance

1.Should health insurance companies be able to charge higher rates depending on a person’s age?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Technology

1.Are people spending too much money in order to keep up with the latest gadgets?

2.(Your turn – narrow this topic)

3.(keep going – narrow this topic further)

4.(one more time – keep narrowing the topic)

Part B:Write a thesis statement

Pick two of the topics above, and write two argumentative thesis statements that introduce your controversial topic and your point of view for each topic. Then write two 3-5 sentence paragraphs that support your argument based on your knowledge of each topic.

PART 3

Analyzing a Published Work

One of the most important skills you will use throughout your career and personal life is analytical thinking. Analytical thinking requires you to identify the purpose or intent of a document, and determine whether the assertions or claims are valid and reasonable.

This assignment will help you to develop the skills necessary to determine the meaning found within a text. You will find an op/ed piece from an online newspaper, then write an essay in which you analyze the article. The intent of this essay is not to argue for or against the content; instead, you are analyzing what the article does in terms of purpose, approach, and effectiveness.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

Step 1:

Go to an online newspaper website such as:

Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/

The Kansas City Star http://www.kansascity.com/

The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/

Find an article in the Op/ED (Opinion/Editorial) section that is argumentative in nature.

Step 2:

Analyze the article using the following questions as a guide.

1.What is the purpose of the text? In other words, what does the author want his or her readers to believe and/or do after reading the article?

2.What strategies does the author use to achieve his/her purpose? Does the author use facts, examples, experiences, logic, assumptions, data, sources, expert opinion, and so on to prove his or her position? Be sure to give examples. You could also try to determine if the position is presented as more of a Classical argument or a Rogerian argument.

3.What are the strengths and weaknesses of the approach the author used? Do you detect bias that is unreasonable? Does the author use unreasonable assertions, stereotypes, or faulty information to make his or her points? Does the author place the opposition in an unfair light? Does the author distort the arguments of those who disagree? Does the author fail to recognize the weaknesses in his or her own position? Does the author leave out important information? Does the author back up his or her assertions with evidence, or does he or she simply make assumptions? What would most improve the argument? Explain your answers.

Remember, you are not arguing for or against the content of the article you choose; you are analyzing how the author supports the claims that are made. Your analysis consists of identifying the author’s purpose, and determining whether the strategies used by the author are reasonable.Be objective.

1.To be clear: Your readers should not know what your position is about the subject.

2.Do not include personal opinion or personal judgments about the subject matter.

3.Do not include personal narrative.

Step 3:

Analysis Checklist – Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements

1.Does the source article discuss a current controversial topic?

2.Does you analysis identify the argument (point of view)?

3.Does your analysis use effective transitions as it progresses from paragraph to paragraph?

4.Does your analysis avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language (I or You)?

5.Is the analysis complete? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

6.Does this analysis meet the assignment criteria?

Use APA Format for this assignment: This analysis should be presented in the form of a single essay, complete with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

Your analysis should meet the following criteria:

1.Is based on a current topic and/or event;

2.Is between 300-500 words in length, not including the title page, abstract (if used), and References page;

3.Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text;

4.Uses attributive tags that not only work to convey the mood of the writer, but establish him or her as an authority in the field of study;

5.Avoids personal opinion;

6.Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

7.Is written solely in third-person;

8.Includes a References page;

9.Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors;

10.Is ordered with a title page, an introduction, three body paragraphs (purpose, approach, and effectiveness), a conclusion, and a full References page.

PART 4

Summarizing

Last week, your written assignment consisted of analyzing a source. This week, you will summarize a source. These two skills are useful in different situations. Both will be necessary as you work on your researched argument paper for this course. You may even discover that you will use these skills in your personal and professional life as well.

Remember that the purpose of this summary is to present the information from the reading in condensed form; your paper should be objective.

Do not include personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative.

Be brief, be as accurate as you can, and try to capture the complete sense of the reading in your summary.

Step 1:

Use the Ebscohost link to search for the following article:

Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). America really was that great (but that doesn’t mean we are now). Foreign Policy, (189), 76-78.

As you read the article, it may be helpful to take notes, or create an outline of the text.

Step 2:

Write a summary of the article. Your summary should meet the following guidelines:

Is between 150 and 250 words(no longer)

Includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from the text which are cited in APA in-text citation style

Uses attributive tags that but establishes him or her as an authority in the field of study

Avoids personal opinion

Is written clearly, concisely, and accurately

Is written solely in third-person

Includes an APA style References page

Has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors

Step 3:

Summary Exercise Checklist

Use these questions to evaluate your essay against the assignment requirements:

Does this summary meet the assignment criteria?

Does your summary present the main ideas in the original article?

Does this summary use effective transitions as it progresses from sentence to sentence?

Does this summary avoid personal opinion, casual language, or first or second person language?

Is there anything in this summary that could have been left out without losing its effect?

Is the summary effective? Does information need to be added or deleted to complete the assignment?

PART 5

Annotated Bibliography

In an annotated bibliography, you follow each of your reference citations with a brief (100 words or less) qualification of the author (including their relevance to the subject); intended audience; how the source compares/contrasts with your other sources; how this source furthers the discussion of the selected topic.

This week’s assignment will be included in your rough draft (due in week 6).

Step 1:

For this exercise, find sources that are relevant to your researched argument paper. You must have five or more annotations in your bibliography. The sources must be scholarly sources. These types of sources (also identified as academic or peer-reviewed sources) are written by recognized experts in a particular field. These sources provide credible information for use in research papers.

Step 2:

Refer to the Writing Guide for information on scholarly sources. EBSCOhost is a source for scholarly sources. Under the “Limit To” heading on the search page, you can narrow your search:

Step 3:

Prepare your annotations as you read your sources. Use these questions as a guide for your notes:

Who is/are the author(s) and their relevance to the subject

Who is the intended audience; who is the author writing to (general public, researchers, academics, scientists?)

How this source relates or contrasts to at least one of our other sources

How this source helps to further your discussion of the topic

Step 4:

Checklist for Annotated Bibliography:

Does this bibliography meet the assignment criteria?

How does the formatting of this assignment look? Does it follow basic APA guidelines for a Reference page? (e.g. Times New Roman font, double-spaced, no extra spacing between paragraphs, first line of the citation flush left with all following lines indented, etc.?)

Are the annotations brief, clear, and informative? Do they avoid personal opinion? Do they act as a reference guide?

If you came upon this in your research, how useful would you find this bibliography to be?

Does this bibliography contain at least five citations?

PART 6

Researched Argument Rough Draft

Throughout this course, we have been focusing our attention on the practice of arguing to find meaning. Because of that, it is important to practice balancing opposing viewpoints of a single issue. This essay allows you the chance to do just that.

Much of the writing you will be doing throughout your academic and professional career will be argumentative; thus, this essay will help you to hone your rhetorical skills in several ways:

First, this essay will help you to establish an environment of civilized discourse within your writing (essential for productive argumentation);

Secondly, this essay will allow you to practice your research skills in both identifying and integrating sound arguments;

And thirdly, this essay gives you a chance to practice your critical thinking skills—skills you will need for success throughout your academic and professional life.

Remember, the purpose of this essay is not to prove whether you are right or wrong, but instead prove that you can fairly present two sides of an argument and logically determine the best solution to the problem you are faced with. With that in mind, we ask that you withhold your personal opinion, personal judgments of the material, or personal narrative until the concluding remarks of your essay.

*Note that no one writes a polished essay in a single sitting. Start early and give yourself time for multiple revisions.

The rough draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 7

Writing About a Controversial Subject

In the discussion forums for this course, you’ve had the opportunity to read and respond to a variety of controversial topics: immigration, stereotyping, and civil disobedience. In this assignment, you will write an argumentative paper based on any of these topics.

Take your own premise–whatever premise you offered in our discussions throughout the course–and expand on that idea throughout this piece of writing. Or, you may develop a new premise, tying all topics together, and using the articles as supporting evidence.

Note: If you used a previous response to inform your Researched Argument Paper, you cannot use the same topic again.

Your essay should contain the following:

a clear thesis and introduction

two or more points supporting your position

at least one point of contention

a refutation of each opposing viewpoint

and a conclusion

You can review the articles from the discussion forums, but no external sources/research should be included.

This essay will be evaluated on the strength and completeness of your argument, not on formatting or your grammar/usage skills (provided they do not affect the clarity of your thoughts).

PART 8

Revised Draft – Researched Argument

After receiving feedback on your rough draft, you should have made significant changes to your rough draft. This week you will submit your final, revised draft of your researched argument paper.

The final draft of your essay should meet the following guidelines:

is between 900 and 1200 words in length;

includes direct quotations and paraphrased passages from four or more scholarly texts representing more than one side of the issue;

qualifies each of the authors (authors representing each side of the debate should have compatible credibility);

withholds personal opinion until the conclusion of the essay;

is written clearly, concisely, and accurately;

is written primarily in third-person;

includes a References page;

has been closely edited so that it contains few or no mechanical errors.

Researched Argument Checklist: Use this to evaluate your rough draft against the assignment requirements:

Does this essay present a clear argument on a topic?

Does this essay treat two sides of the argument equally and fairly?

Does the essay cite, at minimum, four scholarly sources?

Are the authors for the articles qualified? Who are they? Use signal phrases/attributive tags to introduce the authors.

What is the purpose of this essay? What does it do to meet that purpose? How effective is the argument?

Does this essay avoid second person language and limit first person language?

Are there elements of pathos, ethos, and logos in this essay? Do these appeals work together to propose a solution?

Does the essay avoid logical fallacy in the reasoning behind the solution?

Does the essay use APA in-text citation and is there an APA format references page?

PART 9

This discussion begins your preparation for the researched argument paper (Weeks 6 & 8) by focusing on selecting and narrowing a topic. A researched argument paper requires a topic that is controversial