Please respond to the posts below in 6-7 sentences each
The prostate is a small walnut shaped gland in the pelvis of men. It is located next to the bladder and can be examined by getting a digital rectal exam. Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths for men in the U.S. I would utilize the CDC’s recommendations and guidelines for testing men. The CDC (2019) states that men who are 55 to 69 years old should make individual decisions about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. This decision should be made after discussing benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer. Men who are 70 years and older should not be screened for prostate cancer routinely. These recommendations apply to men who are at average risk for prostate cancer, are at an increased risk for prostate cancer, do not have symptoms of prostate cancer, and those who have never been diagnosed with prostate cancer (CDC, 2019).I would tell my patient who is a healthy 55 year old that it is not necessary to be screened routinely for prostate cancer as he is in otherwise healthy condition and considered low risk, but if he would like to be screened routinely, he is now in the age that the CDC recommends to be tested if at risk, and discuss the risks and harms of the test. I would allow my patient to make his own decision following education on the testing if he would like to be screened for this test.If the patient had a family history of prostate cancer, I would consider this individual at high risk for prostate cancer and I would recommend routine screenings for this that patient at annual physicals.If the patient were an African American male, I would consider them at average risk for prostate cancer and recommend routine screenings. Depending on his other demographics such as age and family history, he may be considered high risk, which would be determined through further assessment. “African American men are at an increased risk for developing cancer over white men and other men or color. One in six African American men will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime” (Zero Cancer, 2020).If the patient were a 76-year-old, I would still recommend them to not be screened routinely, following the CDC guidelines. “However, many health authorities advocate the cessation of routine prostate cancer testing in men older than 75 because of the belief that most patients will have a clinically insignificant cancer and will not benefit from therapy. The true prevalence of clinically significant prostate cancer in elderly men is not known” (Mistry & et al., 2009). 6-7 sentences
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Cancer which originates in the testicles is called testicular cancer. According the American Cancer Society (2017) risk factors for testicular cancer include undescended testicle, family history of testicular cancer such as having a brother or father with testicular cancer though it should be noted that in most cases there is no family history , HIV infection, carcinoma in situ of the testicle, prior history of testicular cancer, certain race/ethnicity with about 50% occurring between age 20 to 34, and rates higher in Caucasian males, and body size with some studies suggesting that tall men may be at a higher risk.
There are no standard or routine tests that are recommended for early detection of testicular cancer. As most often testicular cancer is found by chance or by self exam or during routine physical examination (National Cancer Institute, 2019), and given the fact the incidents are fairly low and outcomes are favorable even in more advanced stages, the US Preventive Service Task Force (2011) does not recommend routine screening for testicular cancer in asymptomatic males. As screening is not recommended for testicular cancer in asymptomatic individuals I would share this information with him and answer further questions if he still needs more information.
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