1. Provide an in-depth discussion of the potential shortcomings associated with each level of protection when there is improper monitoring, maintenance, and assessment of risk of systems and countermeasures implemented. Students are expected to brainstorm about potential shortcomings based on the definitions of the levels of protection provided in the textbook as well as information accessed from outside sources (e.g., direct observations, scholarly sources, media outlets).
    This assessment should be a minimum of 300 words.


  1. Discuss the difference between outer and inner controls and why maintaining both types of control are important to an agency’s risk reduction and asset protection. Discuss whether or not there are any instances in which maintaining one type of control is more important than maintaining the other. Be sure to provide support for your arguments.


  1. This assessment should be a minimum of 300 words.

When we think of the word physical we usually think of something tangible, something you can feel, see, and interact with. The concept of physical security is used to describe aspects of security that are a manifestation of policies, procedures, equipment, structural design, and personnel designed to prevent loss and harm to assets such as merchandise, modes of transportation, horticulture, facilities, structures, institutions, etc. Physical security is applied across five levels: minimum, low, medium, high, and maximum. The higher the level of security, with proper monitoring and maintenance, the lower the anticipated loss or harm to assets. There are various physical security tools and strategies that can be implemented to ensure that the basics of defense are covered and the desired level of security is maintained. Working from the outside – in, the following security tools and strategies can be implemented. Outer and inner perimeter controls consider the characteristics of the community and neighborhood, as well as the property owned by the agency. Strategies can be devised to ensure that both perimeters are secure. Once, the perimeter is secured one should move his/her attention to building exteriors and interiors, ensuring that sound architectural plans have resulted in the completion of a solid structure (including doors, hinges, windows, stairwells, insulation, etc.) and areas within the building that allow for activities to be conducted in varying spaces based on their level of risk. Aesthetically there are other aspects of physical security that can also be implemented individually (e.g., lighting, fencing, and locks) or in conjunction with other tools (e.g., closed circuit television and requiring card or electronic entry). Controlling access through the use of additional strategies is also utilized to supplement physical security tools and strategies. Such strategies include traffic control and the use of personal identification systems (e.g., identification cards). Despite the many tools and strategies available to enhance physical security, “people constitute the most significant protection resource” (Ortmeier, 2013, p.103). Human protection systems range from the receptionist that asks you why Reading Assignment Chapter 4: Physical Security: Structural, Electronic, and Human Protection Systems Chapter 5: Personnel Security through Leadership and Ethics Learning Activities See information below.
Workplace Security 2 you’re in an office, to the supervisor that ensures policies and procedures are followed, and beyond. However, human protection systems have limitations in regards to the scope of their surveillance or monitoring abilities. Thus, tools such as visual assessment and surveillance systems, alarm systems, and fire prevention and protection systems are also helpful in assisting humans in monitoring and maintaining physical security. Humans are also an asset that needs protection, which is one of the goals of personnel security. The other goal of personnel security is to protect against people who are threats (physical and information) to an organization. However, the presence of personnel integrity is as integral to protecting an organization’s human assets as personnel security. Both the employees and employer are expected to promote and adhere “to a code of ethics and appropriate standards of professional conduct” even when “law or precedent…does not exist” (Ortmeier, 2013, p.127). Thus, we can see that the role of humans in the field of security is diverse and essential to the maintenance of security at all levels. This is why organizations must be zealous in ensuring the recruitment and selection of employees who are not only qualified but, are also persons of integrity who are committed to sustaining the mission of the organization. When organizations are not careful in their recruitment and selection process they run the risk of negligent hiring and retention in which employees who are not persons of integrity or committed to the mission of the organizations are given employment and are difficult to sever ties with. Since retention of quality employees is also a way to maintain personnel security and integrity, organizations must work hard to ensure that proper hiring procedures are followed. Personnel management is another important aspect of personnel security and integrity. Employees must understand the human resource policies and procedures of the organization as well as the external employee-employer relation laws that apply to the organization. Employees should be provided numerous training opportunities (preservice, in-service, and career enhancement) and schedules that ensure the completion of tasks that are related to their job descriptions. Specific policies regarding performance evaluation, promotion, and discipline related to an employees assigned duties should be reviewed with the employee. Supervision and leadership must also be provided to employees. Defining leadership as a concept that differs from the concept of supervision has been undertaken by numerous theorists. James MacGregor Burns said that leadership is either transactional (one person takes initiative) or transformational (interactions increase leader and non-leaders moral and motivation). Other theorists have followed with leadership competencies that further define leadership. Researchers have found that motivation is closely linked to the culture and circumstances. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs provides five levels of need (self-actualization, esteem, affiliation, security, physiological) to which motivations are associated. He argues that as needs on the lower level are satisfied, motivations to meet the needs on other levels will increase. So management must be aware of such motivations when working with employees. Leaders and managers must also use assumptions about behavior, which are derived from what we know about motivations, to develop and apply various leadership styles (e.g., McGregor: Theory X, Theory Y & Ouchi: Theory Z).