You will gain an understanding of the evolution of correctional philosophies and the correctional system in the United States. The corrections process is a result of society responding to deviance. Responding to deviance has evolved in many ways around the globe. The United States has its own evolution of corrections. This LASA will explore the origin and evolution of prisons from the design of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon (all-seeing) Prison to today’s modern prison systems and the prison privatization industry.
Any inquiry into the origin of prisons requires students to include an overview of the correctional eras in the United States, beginning with the origin of the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia in 1790 and through the crime control era of today. It is necessary that you examine the organization of corrections and include the changes in the external society that led to the policy changes in corrections and correctional philosophy. You will assess the purpose, implementation, and effectiveness of corrections, including the major reasons for the movement toward prisonization starting in the 1960s and the evolution to today’s current corrections practices.
You recently completed a summer work-study program at the Centervale Corrections facility. This experience has confirmed your interest in pursuing corrections as a career, and you have started taking classes in corrections at Centervale University. As part of your introductory course you are to evaluate, compare, and contrast the historical origins of the correctional enterprise in the United States and the impact of correctional theories and punishment around the globe in a 1500-word, APA style paper (5–7 pages of content, not including the title page, abstract, references, and table of cases), using a minimum of 10 references and three United States Supreme Court cases dealing with prison conditions, prisoner rights, and access to medical treatment.
Chapter five, “Prison Systems,” of your textbook will give you some rudimentary information on the current types of prisons; you will supplement this with empirical research in order to fully explore modern prison systems and respond to the following:
- Examine the correctional eras in the United States starting with the first era in the 1790s and covering the various eras to include the major reasons for the movement toward prisonization in the 1960s to present practices.
- Examine the historical evolution of the Panopticon (all-seeing prison style) developed by Jeremy Bentham and the impact of this style on modern system architecture and the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras.
- Analyze the political changes in society and the impact of correctional rationales on correctional practice; include how special interest groups and the current intolerance for criminals have forged correctional philosophies.
- Compare and contrast the impact of correctional theories and punishment on the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the correctional enterprise system.
- Examine the use and the constitutionality of the prison privatization industry; include analysis of stockholders’ influence on rehabilitation and what classification of prisoners should be incarcerated in private prisons compared to state prisons (i.e., minimum, medium, maximum, and super-max). Articulate your opinion based on empirical research and citation of court cases and reference materials from academic and scientific journal articles.
- Consider the future of corrections. Compare and contrast the formal and informal social control around the globe and the impact the social control has on the future of corrections policies. Reference a modern prison system, either in your state or in another state, from your research.
Include an APA-formatted reference page that links back to your in-text citations and supports your recommendations. Remember, you cannot have only in-text citations or only references. You must have both because in-text citations and references link to each other.